History of computers 1


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History of computers 1

  1. 1. IntroductionIntroduction COMP1 ACOMP1 A Mrs. Annalie P. GoloMrs. Annalie P. Golo
  2. 2. TopicsTopics  Four basic periodsFour basic periods  The Computer Age Generation  The Computer TodayThe Computer Today
  3. 3. A History of InformationA History of Information Technology and SystemsTechnology and Systems  Four basic periodsFour basic periods Characterized by a principal technologyCharacterized by a principal technology used to solve theused to solve the input, processing,input, processing, output and communication problemsoutput and communication problems of the time:of the time: – Premechanical,Premechanical, – Mechanical,Mechanical, – Electromechanical, andElectromechanical, and – ElectronicElectronic
  4. 4. A. The Premechanical Age:A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D.3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D. 1. Writing and Alphabets--1. Writing and Alphabets-- communication.communication. – speaking and picture drawings.speaking and picture drawings. – 3000 B.C., the Sumerians in Mesopotamia3000 B.C., the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (what is today southern Iraq) devised(what is today southern Iraq) devised cuneiformcuneiform ---- the first true writtenthe first true written language and the first reallanguage and the first real informationinformation systemsystem
  5. 5. CuneiformCuneiform
  6. 6. - Around 2000 B.C., Phoenicians created symbols- Around 2000 B.C., Phoenicians created symbols - The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and- The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels; the Romans gave the letters Latin names toadded vowels; the Romans gave the letters Latin names to create the alphabet we use today.create the alphabet we use today.
  7. 7. A. The Premechanical Age:A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D.3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D. 2.2. Paper and Pens--inputPaper and Pens--input technologies.technologies. – Sumerians' inputSumerians' input technology was a stylustechnology was a stylus that could scratch marksthat could scratch marks in wet clay.in wet clay. – About 2600 B.C., theAbout 2600 B.C., the Egyptians write on theEgyptians write on the papyrus plantpapyrus plant  around 100 A.D., thearound 100 A.D., the Chinese made paper fromChinese made paper from rags, on which modern-dayrags, on which modern-day papermaking is based.papermaking is based.
  8. 8. A. The Premechanical Age:A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D.3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D. 3.3. Books and Libraries: PermanentBooks and Libraries: Permanent Storage Devices.Storage Devices. – Religious leaders in Mesopotamia kept theReligious leaders in Mesopotamia kept the earliest "books"earliest "books" – The Egyptians kept scrollsThe Egyptians kept scrolls – Around 600 B.C., the Greeks began to foldAround 600 B.C., the Greeks began to fold sheets of papyrus vertically into leaves andsheets of papyrus vertically into leaves and bind them together.bind them together.
  9. 9. A. The Premechanical Age:A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D.3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D. 4.4. The First Numbering Systems.The First Numbering Systems. – Egyptian system:Egyptian system:  The numbers 1-9 as vertical lines, the number 10The numbers 1-9 as vertical lines, the number 10 as a U or circle, the number 100 as a coiled rope,as a U or circle, the number 100 as a coiled rope, and the number 1,000 as a lotus blossom.and the number 1,000 as a lotus blossom. – The first numbering systems were inventedThe first numbering systems were invented between 100 and 200 A.D. by Hindus inbetween 100 and 200 A.D. by Hindus in IndiaIndia – Around 875 A.D., the concept of zero wasAround 875 A.D., the concept of zero was developed.developed.
  10. 10. 5.5. The First Calculators: TheThe First Calculators: The Abacus.Abacus. “abax” or “abakos = board
  11. 11. B. The Mechanical Age:B. The Mechanical Age: 1400’s – 1800’s1400’s – 1800’s The Pascaline The first mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician, in 1642.
  12. 12. The Stepped Reckoner was invented by Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz in 1674. An Ambitious calculator that performed multiplication and division which uses a stepped Cylindrical gear.
  13. 13. Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine and Punch Cards an electromechanical punched-card tabulating machine for use in the 1890 census; this was invented by Herman Hollerith in 1889
  14. 14. The Dawn of the Computer Age The ElectromechanicalThe Electromechanical Age: 1840 - 1940Age: 1840 - 1940
  15. 15. The Harvard Mark I Howard Aiken in 1973 submitted a proposal to IBM for a digital calculating machine capable of performing the four fundamental operations of arithmetic and operating in a predetermined sequence. -First fully automatic computer to be completed. - It was 51 feet long and 8 ft. high.
  16. 16. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was built starting 1943 by John Presper Echert and John W. Mauchly which was built with vacuum tubes that were purely electronic switches that replaced relays and is regarded as the first successful general digital
  17. 17. The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) this machine was planned by John von Neuman with Eckert and Mauchly in 1945 and their aim was to store programs as well as data and numbers in memory.
  18. 18. IBM 701 this was IBM’s first entry into the commercial computer market. This marked the beginning of the computer age.
  19. 19. The Computer Age Generation The Electronic Age: 1940 -The Electronic Age: 1940 - Present.Present.
  20. 20. The Age of Vacuum Tube: First Generation Computer (1951-1958) Were used as the internal components of the First generation computer which begun with the introduction of the first commercially viable electronic computer: the UNIVAC , was designed and patterned after the ENIAC.
  21. 21. Second Generation Computer 1959-1964 • The transistor were used as the internal components of the second generation computer. • Were much smaller, faster, and reliable than vacuum tubes. • They consumed less electrical energy and needed no warm-up time. • Languages moved from machine language to assembly languages then high-level languages
  22. 22. Third Generation Computer 1965-1970 The Age of Integrated Circuit IC in 1965, began to replace transistors as the internal components used to construct the computer. Even the entire circuit board of transistors Can be replaced completely with one chip. are made of silicon (is a semiconductor crystalline substance that can conduct electric current) chip.
  23. 23. Third Generation ComputerThird Generation Computer Offered many advantagesOffered many advantages – ReliabilityReliability – CompactnessCompactness – Low costLow cost  Can be manufactured inexpensivelyCan be manufactured inexpensively
  24. 24. Fourth Generation Computer 1971 - present The Age of Microprocessor is just an extension of the third generation technology which is to put more power and capabilities in one chip called microprocessor which is considered as the brain of the computer and almost all computations and operations of the computer circuitry are being done and coordinated. It can be used and applied for digital watches, pocket calculators etc.
  25. 25. Fifth Generation (Onward): Information Superhighway The fifth generation’s focus is more on connectivity. This is to permit computer users to connect their computers To other computers. The Japanese coined the term fifth generation computer to describe their plan to build a powerful Computer by mid-1990s. Later the term evolved to encompass computer intelligence: artificial intelligence, natural language, and expert system.
  26. 26. The Computer Today
  27. 27. Mainframes are housed inside an air-conditioned room in big companies to keep them in good working condition.
  28. 28. Mainframes • a single mainframe can replace dozens or even hundreds of smaller servers. • critical applications typically bulk datatypically bulk data processing such as census, industry andprocessing such as census, industry and consumer statistics.consumer statistics.
  29. 29. also mainframes, though they are smaller and less expensive compared to mainframes. Minicomputers
  30. 30. Minicomputers  Minicomputers are computers that areMinicomputers are computers that are somewhere in between a microcomputersomewhere in between a microcomputer and a mainframe computer.and a mainframe computer.
  31. 31. .when the computer is connected to a main computer called “server” (to form a network). Workstations
  32. 32. Personal Computer is for single or personal use by a certain individual
  33. 33. Laptop Computers they are so light and handy enough to rest in our lap while we are Working with our daily activity. In our present, the typical laptop is called NOTEBOOK COMPUTER that weighs much less and can be carried like a book.
  34. 34. Pocket PCs are the fast emerging type of portable computers now. They are small enough to be put into a jacket’s pocket. They are more expensive.
  35. 35. Supercomputers used for scientific research that involves with the manipulation of highly complex mathematical data and equations. These data requires trillions of operations to solve.
  36. 36. Embedded and Special Purpose computers They perform specific tasks such as controlling the temperature and humidity in a big building offices, and to monitor the heart rate of patients in the hospital. Usually built-in to a chip (integrated circuit) with a special- purpose program inside.
  37. 37. Just a thought…Just a thought… A value has aA value has a value only if itsvalue only if its value is valued.value is valued.