Seminar 4   unit 7 n 8 (3)
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Seminar 4   unit 7 n 8 (3) Seminar 4 unit 7 n 8 (3) Document Transcript

  • EDU 454: PRIMARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION UNIT 7: CLASSROOM ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT Learning Outcomes At the end of this unit, students should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Explain the importance of classroom organization and management Identify the types of classroom settings Elaborate on effective strategies for classroom management State ways to develop positive teacher-student relationships Identify guidelines for designing and implementing effective class rules and procedures Ask Yourself • Are you satisfied with the learning environment in your classroom? • What kind of relationship do you have with your students? • Do you struggle to deliver your lesson because of your students’ behavior? • How do you keep the classroom under control? • Have you set any classroom rules? Visualizing the Unit Definition Approaches to classroom management Goals Good classroom managers Classroom environment Physical Strategies Psychosocial Definition of Classroom Management Generally, classroom management encompasses the methods or ways in which a teacher is able to create a favorable environment for learning. Ideally, this would be a classroom where students are mostly engaged in on-task behaviours instead of off-task behaviours. In other words, a well-managed classroom is one that encourages learning among its students. Evertson, Emmer & Worsham (2003) note that part of any teacher’s duties is to create a classroom in which students are engaged in worthwhile activities that support their learning. Lemlech (1979 as cited in Robiah, 1994) defines classroom management as the ‘orchestration of classroom life: planning curriculum, organizing procedures and resources, arranging the environment to maximize efficiency,
  • monitoring student progress and anticipating potential problems’. Thus, being a good classroom manager is by no means an easy task yet it is an essential skill that needs to be honed in every teacher. Views on Learning How we approach classroom management may vary depending upon the views or beliefs that we hold about the nature of learning. Indeed, as observed by Evertson, Emmer & Worsham (2003), teachers are able to manage a classroom well when they have a clear idea of what classroom conditions and behaviours are necessary to create a conducive learning environment. In the past, when learning was largely viewed as being teacher-centred, discipline was often enforced as a means of controlling the class to ensure that students were “well-behaved” and thus, able to pay attention to the teachers’ delivery of the lesson. Thus teachers were constantly preoccupied with exerting their authority in class. This is perhaps not surprising because the traditional approach meant that little student participation was required in class since teachers were the main focus. In recent times, more people have adopted a student-centred view towards learning. This view emphasizes the teacher’s role as a facilitator in the classroom. The focus in learning has shifted from the teacher to the learners and as such, they must be given some freedom to take charge of their own learning. As a result, approaches to classroom management are less punitive and teachers encourage students to be more interactive and participative in class. Proactive and Reactive Approaches In addition, Cruickshank et al. (2006) discusses the reactive and proactive approach to managing classrooms. The reactive approach is ineffective. Reactive teachers do not anticipate what will happen in class and therefore do not plan ahead. They are ineffective classroom managers because they wait until problems occur and then decide how to react or cope with the situation. This can cause anger and frustration among teachers when they are not prepared to deal with a certain situation. On the other hand, the proactive approach makes for a more effective classroom manager as it entails teachers anticipating any problems that may occur during a lesson. By being proactive, teachers plan ahead and take necessary measures to avoid unwanted situations from happening in class. Also, by thinking ahead, proactive teachers are able to plan effective solutions should something unwanted happens during their lesson. Thus, by managing expectations and planning their lessons proactively, these teachers will be more ready and capable of handling their students in class besides helping to avoid unnecessary emotional stress among teachers. Goals of Classroom Management Below are some main goals of classroom management (Santrock, 2011): 1. Help students spend more time on goal-directed behaviour (learning) and less time on non-goaldirected activity Since class time is limited, teachers should ensure that students are engaged in learning as much of the time as possible. Some learning time is already taken up with things like taking attendance, informing the students to take out their textbooks, paper or pencils etc. 2. Prevent students from developing problems This includes prevention of academic as well as emotional problems. 3. Managing Instruction
  • Teachers not only manage student behaviours but also instruction. A well-behaved class eases instruction and also vice versa. If instruction is well-planned, students will be more engaged in the material and this would lead to a better organized classroom. The Nature of Classrooms The classroom may be viewed as mini societies with their own culture, climate, values and social dynamics. Teachers need to be ‘clued-in’ about the realities of the classroom so that they are able to manage their expectations and are able to decide what methods work best for managing a particular class. Several characteristics of classrooms are as follows (Doyle, 1986, 2006 as cited in Santrock, 2011): 1. Classrooms are multidimensional Many activities take place in a classroom such as students doing academic-related work and communicating or even getting into arguments with their classmates. Teachers could better facilitate and monitor these events by keeping records and ensuring students stick to a schedule. 2. Activities occur simultaneously Many things happen at the same time in a classroom that includes on-task behaviours and off-task behaviours. There are bound to be things that teachers will miss and many more that teachers will notice! 3. Things happen quickly Teachers should be ready to think on their feet because events can happen rapidly and often require an immediate response such as if someone were bullying a classmate or a student suddenly cries. These are situations that require a teacher’s immediate attention and action. 4. Events are often unpredictable For all that one has planned, there is still a possibility that events you never would have expected to happen suddenly occurs. 5. There is little privacy The classroom is a public space and the actions of the teacher and behaviour of students are observable among members of the classroom. 6. Classrooms have histories Some of the things that happened earlier in the classroom may have a lasting impact on students’ memories. For example, they could remember how the teacher did something or how the teacher reacted to certain situations. Therefore, setting the right example and laying a good foundation early on is important for effective classroom management. Characteristics of a Good Classroom Manager Effective classroom managers do the following (Santrock, 2011; Charles & Senter, 2008; Robiah, 1994): 1. Practice good communication skills How teachers communicate to students will leave an impression about the personality of the teacher and influence students’ interaction with the teacher. A teacher who is firm but warm and approachable will naturally invite more open communication and interaction with students compared to a harsh and rigid teacher.
  • Try using “I” messages instead of “you” messages when communicating to students. For example, if you are displeased with a student for coming late to class, tell him or her “I was worried about you….what happened?”, instead of “Why are you late?”. Students tend to become defensive if they feel they are being attacked (i.e. if teachers constantly use ‘you” messages). Also, pay attention to non-verbal communication. Teachers should observe personal and public space boundaries, be aware of their facial expressions, be cautious about touching students (particularly students from the opposite sex) and use silence when necessary. Being an active listener is also part of being a good communicator. It involves paying attention to both the intellectual and emotional content of the message. 2. Show how they are “with it” The “withitness” concept was termed by Kounin (1970). It refers to the idea of knowing or being aware of what is going on in class and in a way that is evident to students. These teachers monitor students’ behaviour closely and regularly and reacts appropriately thus sending the message to students that they should behave themselves. 3. Cope effectively with overlapping situations Also an idea from Kounin (1970), it refers to the ability to deal with at least two issues at the same time. For example, a teacher is successful at overlapping if he or she is able to address a problem at one end of the class but still manages to maintain order amongst the unaffected students (i.e. the rest of the class). 4. Maintain smoothness and continuity in lessons This implies that teachers should keep their students focused on the lesson as much of the time as possible, so that they become less easily distracted. 5. Encourage students in a variety of challenging activities Teachers should also encourage students to engage in a number of challenging but not overly difficult activities. Starting Off Right Being prepared for class, especially the first meeting, is important as it sets the tone for the rest of the semester. Teachers will need to spend some amount of time beforehand planning and preparing materials and lesson plans so that the first day of school goes on as smoothly as possible. Some students, too, get jittery, nervous or over-excited on the first day and a well-prepared teacher can help to put students at ease. Here is a list of things teachers may want to consider (Evertson, Emmer & Worsham, 2003): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Being a good role model by demonstrating desired behaviours Greeting students and getting acquainted Discussing with them the classroom rules and procedures Getting on with administrative tasks such as collecting personal information or distributing materials Being prepared for special problems such as late addition of students to your class, extra paperwork, students crying or accommodating a student with disabilities
  • Teachers’ Routines Robiah (1994) listed 5 main duties that teachers are expected to perform regularly: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Recording students’ attendance Maintain record of students’ personal information Keep record of students’ academic progress Complete students’ report card Keep record of students’ non-academic performance (co-curricular activities) The Classroom The classroom can be thought of not only as a physical space where learning happens but also as a place where students’ psychosocial development takes place. Physical Environment The physical outlook and setting of a classroom sets the tone for learning. It has the potential to either facilitate learning or disrupt the flow of learning and learning activities taking place in the classroom. The following are several aspects of the physical environment that teachers should consider (Charles & Senter, 2008; Evertson, Emmer & Worsham, 2003): 1. Wall space The wall space in a classroom is a canvas for creating a cheerful, warm and inviting learning environment. In fact, when students are involved in the decorating of their classroom or when they have their names up on the bulletin board, this helps to create a sense of ownership and belonging to the class. Some possible uses of wall space are as bulletin boards, a place to display class rules, class duty roster, calendar, names of class members, maps, content-related material such as vocabulary words and even motivational quotes. 2. Floor space There are various seating arrangements, each serving a different purpose or facilitating a specific activity. In primary school, especially for lower primary students, the emphasis should be less on the teacher and more on facilitating their socio-emotional development and facilitating their learning. On this note, the classroom seating arrangement will impact the type of interaction that is expected and allowed among students. For example, sitting in twos while facing the teacher promotes pair work but is still teacher-centred whereas tables grouped in 6 or 8 promote group interaction and learning. An example of elementary classroom seating:
  • WHITEBOARD BULLETIN BOARD Principles of Classroom Arrangement Some general principles for classroom arrangement are as follows (Evertson, Emmer & Worsham, 2003): 1. Reduce congestion in high-traffic areas Busy areas in the class are usually those commonly shared by students such as group work areas, students’ desks, the teachers’ desk and storage areas. Try arranging these areas far apart from each other to avoid distraction and disruption in the class. 2. Ensure students can be easily seen by the teacher This should be observed so that teachers are able to closely monitor student activity. 3. Keep often-used teaching materials and student supplies readily accessible This is to minimize the disruption of lesson flow. 4. Ensure students can easily see whole-class presentations This is to ensure students get a good view of any presentation from where they are seating without having to move their chairs about or strain their necks. Psychosocial Environment Santrock (2011) lists three guidelines that could help to maintain a positive psychosocial environment in class: 1. Develop positive relationship with students 2. Get students to share and assume responsibility 3. Reward appropriate behaviour
  • Classroom Rules: Some Guidelines Rules and procedures are necessary for any classroom. They serve as a clear guide for teachers and students on how to conduct themselves in class so that learning can take place. Classroom rules and procedures should outline what is expected of its members, what is acceptable or not acceptable and the reasons for it. The following are several guidelines on writing class rules and procedures (Weinstein, 2007 as cited in Santrock, 2011), whereby rules and procedures should: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Be reasonable and necessary Be clear and comprehensible Be consistent with instructional and learning goals Be consistent with school rules Be based upon the input of students, where necessary When discussing classroom rules with students, teachers should keep in mind the following (Evertson, Emmer & Worsham, 2003): 1. 2. 3. 4. Emphasize the positive parts of the rules rather than the negative parts. Be explicit about what behaviours are not allowed Give concrete examples when necessary (through role-play etc.) Explain any terms that students do not understand Strategies for Managing Problem Behaviour Teachers encounter a myriad of behaviour problems in class, some more severe than others. From minor disruptions in class such as talking while the teacher is teaching, daydreaming to bullying and even fighting, teachers need to know how to address each situation. Evertson, Emmer & Worsham (2003) classify types of misbehaviors into three categories and suggest interventions for each: Non-problems such as students daydreaming, chatting or short periods of inattention do not cause much disruption to the class and therefore usually does not require intervention. Minor problems such as passing around notes, calling out friends’ names, leaving seats without permission or doing unrelated work during class time are relatively minor problems but can undermine the management of the class if they are left unattended and it persist for an extended period of time. Some minor interventions recommended: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Use nonverbal cues Keep activity moving Provide needed instruction Move closer to students Redirect the behavior Be direct and assertive Give student a choice
  • Moderate to major interventions may be required for dealing with students who constantly avoid doing work, students who engage in disruptive behaviours or those who frequently break class rules and refuse s to cooperate with the teacher. 1. 2. 3. 4. Withhold privileges or desired activities Isolate or remove students Impose a penalty or detention Use Reality Therapy Model The following strategies are influenced by behaviorist theory: 1. 2. 3. 4. Behaviour modification Prompts Response cost Token economy TAKE UP THE CHALLENGE! Create your own set of rules for your classroom, keeping in mind the guidelines you have learned. Put it up in your classroom as a visible reminder for you and your students. To do this, begin by listing the classroom rules you think are important and necessary. Not sure where to start? There are plenty of examples of typical classroom rules available on the web and also ready-made templates that you could use. You can be as creative and original as you like or you could even get your students involved in the design! Here are a few examples: Hormati orang lain Saya AKAN... Beri perhatian kepada guru Dilarang makan di dalam kelas Hormati orang lain Beri perhatian kepada guru Saya TIDAK AKAN... Makan di dalam kelas
  • REFLECTION TAKE UP THE CHALLENGE! Identifying specific problems that you would like to rectify in the classroom can facilitate in finding suitable solutions. Try making a list of problems related to classroom management in your classroom. Next, try to identify strategies which you have learned that could be used to reduce these problems and achieve an ideal learning environment. Strategies to improve/maintain this are... Things I like about the class... Things I don’t like about the class... REFERENCES 1. Charles, C.M. & Senter, G.W. 2002. Elementary Classroom Management, 6th ed., Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 2. Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T., & Worsham, M. E. (2003) Classroom management for elementary teachers, 6th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 3. Santrock, J.W. (2011). Educational Psychology, 5th ed., NY: McGraw-Hill International. 4. Robiah Sidin (1993). Classroom management. Kuala Lumpur: Fajar Bakti 5. http://www.theteachersguide.com/ClassManagement.htm 6. http://www.sbac.edu/~tpl/posters/posters.htm 7. http://www.imaginativeteacher.com/Free_Downloads.html
  • EDU 454: PRIMARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION UNIT 8: ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Learning Outcomes At the end of this unit, students should be able to: 1. State what is meant by curriculum evaluation 2. Identify the reasons for curriculum evaluation 3. Briefly describe the types of curriculum evaluation 4. Explain the CIPP Model of curriculum evaluation Ask Yourself • Do you think the current curriculum is effective in achieving its intended aims and goals? • What do you think are the strengths and weaknesses in the current curriculum? • Are you aware of the methods or models used to evaluate a curriculum? Visualizing the Unit Unit 8 Definition Reasons for curriculum evaluation Types of evaluation CIPP as a curriculum evaluation model Definition Curriculum evaluation is the process of gathering relevant data on a programme to determine whether the intended goals and aims of the programme have been achieved or to what extent have they been achieved. Generally, curriculum evaluation involves the following: • Making judgments about the desirability of certain changes in students, and • Using information gathered to change the method of teaching and the curriculum Several other definitions are as follows: • Tyler (1950): The process of determining to what extent educational objectives are being attained • Borg & Gall (1983): The process of making judgments about the merit, value or worth of educational programme, projects, materials and techniques
  • • Smith & Glass (1987): The process of establishing value judgments based on evidence about a program or product • Stufflebeam et al. (1971): The process of delineating, obtaining and providing useful info for judging decision alternatives • Provus (1971): The comparison of performance to some standards to determine whether discrepancies exist Reasons for Curriculum Evaluation Evaluation is a part of the curriculum development process. It enables curriculum makers to review and modifying existing curriculum so that it caters the current and future needs. Therefore, the curriculum should be continuously reviewed to maintain: • quality • relevance • adequacy • quantity Several questions should be asked: • Is the program (curriculum) meeting existing or expected needs? • Does the program contain extraneous and outdated materials? • Are the students able to perform adequately once they complete the program? According to Wentling (1980), evaluation must do more than just analyse the extent to which a program had adhered to an original plan or attained its primary goals and objectives. Besides that, it should: • go beyond the assessment of student behavior • include the overall effect on students, teachers and society The task of evaluating the curriculum involves a complex process, hence a comprehensive evaluation framework or model is necessary to achieve a systematic, effective and efficient evaluation. Types of Evaluation There are two types of evaluation as described by Scriven (1967 as cited in Clark, 2010), which are formative and summative evaluation: Formative When one makes a judgement about the value or effectiveness of a program while the program is still running or on-going, it is referred to as formative evaluation. It focuses on process rather than product. This is because improvements to rectify any deficiencies can be made to the program while it is still running. This allows instructors and students to monitor how well the instructional goals and aims are being met. In other words, one does not have to wait until the end of the program to benefit from or act upon any feedback received at any point throughout the duration of the program. Formative evaluation is also referred to as internal evaluation as it mostly involves (done by) teachers and internal staff. Summative In contrast, summative evaluation is when one formulates a judgement of a program in terms of its value or effectiveness, after a program has ended (i.e. at the end of the program). Therefore, it focuses on the product (outcome) rather than the process. For this reason too, summative evaluation is also referred to
  • as external evaluation because it is concerned with the issue of accountability and typically involves parties outside of the institution which includes stakeholders and policy makers. CIPP as a Model for Curriculum Evaluation Stufflebeam (1983) proposed the CIPP model of curriculum evaluation, as illustrated below: According to McLemore (2009), the CIPP Model is a comprehensive framework for guiding formative and summative evaluations of projects, programs, personnel, products, institutions, and systems. This model attempts to make evaluation directly relevant to the needs of decision-making during the different phases and activities of a program. Thus, this model is centred on making a decision about a programme. The following should be observed by evaluators in order to make an accurate evaluation (The Learning Domain, 2012): • clearly describe what is supposed to be evaluated and determine what information that has to be collected • collect the necessary information using appropriate techniques and methods (such as interview teachers, collect test scores of students) • provide or make available the information (in the form of tables, graphs) to interested parties Hence, in order to decide whether to maintain, modify or eliminate the new curriculum or programme, information is obtained by conducting the following 4 types of evaluation: context, input, process and product as follows: Context evaluation • Involves studying the environment of the program • Conduct “situational analysis” – an assessment of reality regarding what participants would like to do or know • Should be a process that serves to provide information regarding how the system operates and its achievements
  • Input evaluation • Designed to provide information and determine how to utilize resources to meet program goals • Input evaluators assess school’s capabilities to carry out the task of evaluation • Also evaluates specific aspect of curriculum plan or specific components of the curriculum plan • What are the questions that input evaluators tend to ask? Process evaluation • Address curriculum implementation decisions that control and manage the program • To determine congruency between what is planned and what (activities) were carried out • Include three strategies: o Detect or predict defects in procedural design/its implementation stage o Provide information for decisions o Maintain a record of procedures as they occur Product evaluation • Gather data to determine whether final curriculum product now in use is accomplishing what they had hoped • Provide info that will determine whether to continue, terminate or modify the new curriculum REFLECTION TAKE UP THE CHALLENGE! Try evaluating a program or subject in your school by completing the CIPP Evaluation Model Checklist (Stufflebeam, 2007) at http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/archive_checklists/cippchecklist_mar07.pdf REFERENCES 1. Clark, D. R. (2010). Types of Evaluations in Instructional Design. From: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/isd/types_of_evaluations.html 2. The Learning Domain (2012). Module 8: Curriculum evaluation. From: peoplelearn.homestead.com/ASSESS/Module_8.Evaluation.doc