Microsoft basic computer training by PYC,ICT,UOL

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  • A firewall is a dedicated appliance, or software running on another computer, which inspects network traffic passing through it, and denies or permits passage based on a set of rules.A firewall's basic task is to regulate some of the flow of traffic between computer networks of different trust levels. Typical examples are the Internet which is a zone with no trust and an internal network which is a zone of higher trust. A zone with an intermediate trust level, situated between the Internet and a trusted internal network, is often referred to as a "perimeter network" or Demilitarized zone (DMZ).A firewall's function within a network is similar to firewalls with fire doors in building construction. In the former case, it is used to prevent network intrusion to the private network. In the latter case, it is intended to contain and delay structural fire from spreading to adjacent structures.Without proper configuration, a firewall can often become worthless. Standard security practices dictate a "default-deny" firewall ruleset, in which the only network connections which are allowed are the ones that have been explicitly allowed. Unfortunately, such a configuration requires detailed understanding of the network applications and endpoints required for the organization's day-to-day operation. Many businesses lack such understanding, and therefore implement a "default-allow" ruleset, in which all traffic is allowed unless it has been specifically blocked. This configuration makes inadvertent network connections and system compromise much more likely.
  • Spyware is computer software that is installed surreptitiously on a personal computer to intercept or take partial control over the user's interaction with the computer, without the user's informed consent.While the term spyware suggests software that secretly monitors the user's behavior, the functions of spyware extend well beyond simple monitoring. Spyware programs can collect various types of personal information, such as Internet surfing habit, sites that have been visited, but can also interfere with user control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software, redirecting Web browser activity, accessing websites blindly that will cause more harmful viruses, or diverting advertising revenue to a third party. Spyware can even change computer settings, resulting in slow connection speeds, different home pages, and loss of Internet or other programs. In an attempt to increase the understanding of spyware, a more formal classification of its included software types is captured under the term privacy-invasive software.In response to the emergence of spyware, a small industry has sprung up dealing in anti-spyware software. Running anti-spyware software has become a widely recognized element of computer security best practices for Microsoft Windowsdesktop computers. A number of jurisdictions have passed anti-spyware laws, which usually target any software that is surreptitiously installed to control a user's computer

Transcript

  • 1. Motherboard isMulti-layered printed circuit boardCopper circuit paths called traces or buses carry signals and voltages across the motherboardSome layers carry data for input/output while other layers carry voltage
  • 2. MotherboardHolds The ProcessorMemoryExpansion SlotsConnects Directly or Indirectly to Every Part of The PC
  • 3. Basic Motherboard
  • 4. Types of ports Serial ports Parallel ports Firewire Ports USB PortsIT Fundamentals 4
  • 5. Expansion Cards Peripheral Component Interconnect Accelerated Graphics Port (PCI) (AGP)
  • 6. Basic Input/Output SystemAll motherboards include a small block ofRead Only Memory (ROM) which is separatefrom the main system memory used forloading and running software. The ROMcontains the PC’s BIOS.
  • 7. CMOS RAMComplementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)Motherboards include a separate block ofmemory made for low powerconsumption CMOS RAM chips, which iskept alive by a battery even when thePC’s power is off.
  • 8. Input DevicesInput hardware: Those that deal with original data. Keyboard Mouse Voice recognition hardware Scanner Digital camera The Computer Continuum 3-8
  • 9. Input DevicesType of Access Sequential - Obtained by proceeding through the storage medium from the beginning until the designated area is reached (as in magnetic tape). Random Access - Direct access (as in floppy and hard disks). The Computer Continuum 3-9
  • 10. Primary Memory Primary storage or memory: Is where the data and program that are currently in operation or being accessed are stored during use. Consists of electronic circuits: Extremely fast and expensive. Two types: RAM (non-permanent) • Programs and data can be stored here for the computer’s use. • Volatile: All information will be lost once the computer shuts down. ROM (permanent) • Contents do The Computer Continuum not change. 3-10
  • 11. Secondary StorageDevices Two major types of secondary storage devices:1. Direct Access Storage Devices (DASDs)  Magnetic Discs Hard disks (high capacity, low cost, fast) Floppy disks (low capacity, lower cost, slow)  Optical Disks CD-ROM = (Compact disc, read-only memory2. Serial Devices  Magnetic tapes (very fast sequential access) CENG 351 11
  • 12. The Central Processing Unit (CPU)The Central Processing Unit is a silicon chipthat is the ‘brain’ of of a computer system.It executes program instructions and data andcontrols all the devices within the machineIt’s internal organisation (architecture)consists of 3 main parts:Control unit (CU)Arithmetic and Logic unit (ALU)Registers Lesson 3 The CPU 12
  • 13. Inside the CPU Address bus Memory Address Other Registerregisters Data bus Memory Main Data Memory Register Control Bus (Read / Write)Arithmeticand Logic Control UnitUnit (ALU) Clock pulses Electronic clock Lesson 3 The CPU 13
  • 14. Plug and Play DevicesInstalled devices detected automaticallyDetected devices configured automatically May need to locate or update device driver 14
  • 15. Installing Ethernet Adapter 70-290: MCSE Guide to Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment 15
  • 16. Basics of NetworkingNETWORKS ARE BROKEN INTO 3 TOPOLOGIES.THEY ARE: BUS TOPOLOGY STAR TOPOLOGY RING TOPOLOGY
  • 17. Basics of Networking BUS TOPOLOGY ALLOWS INFORMATION TO BE DIRECTED FROM ONE COMPUTER TO THE OTHER. LOTS OF BINARY COLLISION THOUGH.
  • 18. Basics of NetworkingSTAR TOPOLOGY IS THE MOST COMMON TYPEUSED. ALL COMPUTERS ARE ATTACHED TO A HUB.LESS COLLISIONS AND MOST EFFICIENT.
  • 19. Basics of NetworkingRING TOPOLOGY- USES A TOKEN TO PASSINFORMATION FROM 1 COMPUTER TO THE OTHER.A TOKEN IS ATTACHED TO THE MESSAGE BY THESENDER TO IDENTIFY WHICH COMPUTER SHOULDRECEIVE THE MESSAGE. AS THE MESSAGE MOVESAROUND THE RING, EACH COMPUTER EXAMINESTHE TOKEN. IF THE COMPUTER IDENTIFIES THE TOKENAS ITS OWN, THEN IT WILL PROCESS THEINFORMATION.
  • 20. Basics of Networking A DISADVANTAGE OF A TOKEN RING IS IF ONE COMPUTER IS BROKEN OR DOWN, THE MESSAGE CANNOT BE PASSED TO THE OTHER COMPUTERS.
  • 21. Basics of Networking Typical Crossover Cable Wiring: 1-3 White/Orange 2-6 Orange 3-1 White/Green 6-2 Green 4-4 Blue 5-5 White/Blue 7-7 White/Brown 8-8 Brown
  • 22. Basics of NetworkingCOMMUNICATION CHANNELSTWISTED SHIELDED PAIR – USED IN PHONE LINES, NETWORKSUNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR “ “ “ “COAXIAL CABLE – USED IN CABLEVISION GREAT FOR VIDEOFIBRE OPTIC CABLES - USES LIGHT TO CARRY SIGNAL BUTHARD TO WORK WITH AND LOOSES SIGNAL OVER LONGERDISTANCES
  • 23. Basics of Networking Crimping Tool Hub
  • 24. LAN (Local Area Network) A network of computers that are in the same physical location, such as home or building Usually connected using Ethernet A standard on how computers communicate over a shared media (cable)Old: BNC connector for coaxial cable New: RJ45 for twisted pair cable http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:BNC_connector.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ethernet_RJ45_connector_p1160054.jpg
  • 25. WLAN (Wireless LAN) Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) A wireless technology that connects computers without cables Access Point (AP) A device (base station) that connects wireless devices together Usually connected to a wired-network ESSID (Extended Service Set ID) A “name” for the AP, eg. mobilenet Hotspot The area covered by wireless access points
  • 26. Dial-up ServicesISDN Integrated Services Digital Network 2 data channel (56K each) 1 voice channel
  • 27. Broadband Services xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) A technology that provides digital data transmission over unused frequencies on traditional telephone lines For example, ADSL (Asymmetric DSL): DL > UL Speed Downlink • 128Kbps - 4Mbps Uplink • 64Kbps - 800Kbps Splitters are needed to separate the voice and data signal
  • 28. Broadband Services Cable A technology that provides digital data transmission over cable TV infrastructure Speed Downlink • 128Kbps - 3~5Mbps Uplink • 64Kbps - 128Kbps~1Mbps Need a cable modem
  • 29. Broadband Services Satellite A technology that provide digital data transmission over satellites Speed Downlink • 500Kbps - 1Mbps Uplink • 50Kbps - 100Kbps Need a satellite dish
  • 30. WAN (Wide Area Network)A LAN spans a large geographic area, such as connections between citiesUsually connected using leased line T1 (1.5Mbps) Telecommunication lines T3 (45Mbps) OC3 (155Mbps) Fiber optic lines OC12 (622Mbps) OC48 (2.4Gbps)
  • 31. Hub/Switch/RouterTo connect multiple segments of networks into a larger oneHub A multiport repeater to enhance signal within the same LANSwitch Like hub but with intelligent Better performanceRouter Forward packets from one LAN to another
  • 32. Intranet vs. InternetIntranet A private network that is contained within an enterprise Could be LANs and WANsInternet A public network of networksBoth are using TCP/IP
  • 33. Host & IP AddressCorrection from the book: “A host is a computer connected directly to the Internet” “You home computer is not a host”Each host needs an IP addressIP address A 32-bit number, arranged in 4 numbers seperated by “.” Eg. 74.125.19.147
  • 34. IP structure5 Classes of IP address A B C D and EClass A reserved for governmentsClass B reserved for medium companiesClass C reserved for small companies
  • 35. IP structureClass D are reserved for multicastingClass E are reserved for future use
  • 36. IP structure  Class A begins 1 to 126  Class B begins 128 to 191  Class C begins 192 to 223
  • 37. Subnetting - Why? Division of local networks Greater number of networks Simplifies addressing
  • 38. DNS (Domain NameSystem)Domain name to IP address conversion Eg. www.google.com → ??.???.??.??Domain name or IP address lookup http://cqcounter.com/whois/
  • 39. v6 AddressesIPv4 - 32 bits arranged in four octectsIPv6 - 128 bits arranged in 32 nibbles 10.0.0.1 00001010.00000000.00000000.0 0000013ffe:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 (0011-1111-1111-1110:0000-0000-0000- 0000: ug … Too many bits!)
  • 40. v6 AddressesIPv4 - 32 bits arranged in four octectsIPv6 - 128 bits arranged in 32 nibbles 10.0.0.1 00001010.00000000.00000000.0 0000013ffe:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 (0011-1111-1111-1110:0000-0000-0000- 0000: ug … Too many bits!)
  • 41. v6 AddressesIPv4 - 32 bits arranged in four octectsIPv6 - 128 bits arranged in 32 nibbles 10.0.0.1 00001010.00000000.00000000.0 0000013ffe:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 (0011-1111-1111-1110:0000-0000-0000- 0000: ug … Too many bits!)
  • 42. Firewalls Firewalls provide protection against outside attackers by shielding your computer or network from malicious or unnecessary Internet Firewalls can be configured to block data from certain locations while allowing the relevant and necessary data through Firewalls can either be hardware and/or software based.
  • 43. FirewallsWindows XP/Vista /7 have a built in firewallSome anti-virus software provide firewallBlocks traffic based on... Content User Patterns Ports
  • 44. The Big Picture Network Internet Switch FirewallDSL Modem ))) DSL Modem
  • 45. What is Spyware?Spyware is software that is installed on a user’s computer, many times without their knowledge, that sends out private information about you and your computer usage.
  • 46. Spy-Ware Degrades PC/internet performance Browser Hijacking Anti-Spyware software: Ad-Aware by Lavasoft Grisofts AVG Anti-Spyware 7.5, Microsofts Windows Defender 1.1 (free) Safer Networkings Spybot Search & Destroy Webroots Spy Sweeper 5.5-Vista
  • 47. What is DHCP Addressing“Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol” (RFC 2131)Automatically assigns IP addresses to devices (I.e. hosts) on your network Prevents having to manually enter data Prevents typos that can cause connectivity problems or disrupt the network (e.g., exchanging IP address and gateway address)
  • 48. Voice over the IP A recent application of Internet technology – Voice over IP (VoIP): Transmission of voice over Internet How VoIP works Continuously sample audio Convert each sample to digital form Send digitized stream across Internet in packets Convert the stream back to analog for playback Why VoIP IP telephony is economic; High costs for traditional telephone switching equipments. 48
  • 49. Voip Cont…Challenge Voice transmission delay Call setup: call establishment, call termination, etc. Backward compatibility with existing PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)IP Telephony Standards: ITU (International Telecommunication Union) controls telephony standards. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) controls TCP/IP standards. 49
  • 50. Interconnection with OthersMedia gateway: translates audio between IP network and PSTN.Signaling Gateway: translates signaling operations. 50
  • 51. Signaling ProtocolsTwo major protocols: H.323, SIPH.323, invented by ITU, defines four elements that comprising a signaling system: Terminal: IP phone Gatekeeper: provides location and signaling functions; coordinates operation of Gateway. Gateway: used to interconnect IP telephone system with PSTN, handling both signaling and media translation. Multipoint Control Unit: provides services such as multipoint conferencing. 51