Data processing


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Data processing

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  2. 2. DataData is a collection of facts & figures, such as values or measurements.It can be a) numbers, b) words, c) measurements, d) observations or even just descriptions of things. 2
  3. 3. InformationA collection of data which conveys some meaningful idea is called information. orWhen data is collated or organized into meaningful form, it gains significance. This meaningful data is called information.e.g. Aslam is a student of Phram-D class. 3
  4. 4. DataThe word data is derived from Latin language. Data is anycollection of raw facts & figures. The data is the raw materialto be processed by a computer. or anything that is input to thecomputer is called data.Example NAMES of students, Marks obtained in the examination, Designation of employees, addresses, Quantity, rate, sales figures Pictures, photographs, drawings, charts and maps can be treated as data.Computer processes the data and produces the output. 4
  5. 5. Types of DataHave two types: - Numeric Data, - Character Data1. Numeric Data: The data which is represented in the form of numbers is known as Numeric Data. Includes 0-9 digits, a decimal point (.), +, /, – sign and the letters2. Character Data: Character data falls into two groups. i. String Data, ii. Graphical Data 5
  6. 6. String Data: String data consists of the sequence of characters.• Characters may be alphabets, numbers or space.• The space, which separates two words, is also a character.• The string data is further divided into two types. a. Alphabetic Data: a to z b. Alphanumeric Data: a to z & decimal numbersGraphical Data: It is possible that pictures, charts and maps can be treated as data. The scanner is normally used to enter this type of data. 6
  7. 7. Data ProcessingData processing: Any operation or set of operations performed upon data,Such as• collection,• recording,• organization,• Storage or alteration to convert it into useful information. 7
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  9. 9. Data Processing CycleOnce data is collected, it is processed to convert it into useful information. The data is processed again and again until the accurate result is achieved. This is called data processing cycle. The data processing is very important activity and involves very careful planning. Usually, data processing activity involves three basic activities.1. Input2. Processing3. Output 9
  10. 10. Data Processing Cycle… Step-11. Input: It is the process through which collected data is transformed into a form that computer can understand. It is very important step because correct output result totally depends on the input data. In input step, following activities can be performed.i) Coding The verified data is coded or converted into machine readable form so that it can be processed through computer.ii) Verification The collected data is verified to determine whether it is correct as required.e.g. The collected data of all B.Sc. students that appeared in final examination of the university is verified. If errors occur in collected data, data is corrected or it is collected again.iii) Storing The data is stored on the secondary storage into a file. The stored data on the storage media will be given to the program as input for processing. 10
  11. 11. Data Processing Cycle…Step-2 ProcessingThe term processing denotes the actualdata manipulation techniquessuch as•classifying,•sorting,•calculating,•summarizing,•comparing, etc. 11
  12. 12. Data Processing CycleStep-3 Output•After completing the processing step, output is generated.•The main purpose of data processing is to get the required result.•The output is stored on the storage media for later use. 12
  13. 13. Computer Processing OperationsA process is an instance of a computer programThat is being executed. It contains the programcode and its current activity.A computer can perform four operations whichenable computers to carry out the various dataprocessing activities.• Input / Output operations• Calculation/ text manipulation Operations• Logic / Comparison Operations• Storage and Retrieval Operations 13
  14. 14. (A) Input/Output operationsA computer can accept data (input) from and processed data.Input devices like keyboards, display screens,Printers is just like output device. 14
  15. 15. (B) Calculation and Text manipulation OperationsALU( arithmetic and logical unit) performs calculation .They are also capable of manipulating numeric and other symbols used in text. 15
  16. 16. (C) Logic/Comparison Operations A computer also possesses the ability to perform logical operations. For example, Compare two items represented by the symbols A and B, there are only three possible outcomes e.g. grad etc. A is less than B (A<B) A is equal to B (A=B) A is greater than B (A>B) 16
  17. 17. (D) Storage and Retrieval Operations Both data and program instructions are stored internally in a computer. Once they are stored in the internal memory, they can be called up quickly or retrieved for further use. 17
  18. 18. Types of Data Processing1. Manual Data Processing2. EDP3. Real time processing4. Batch processing 18
  19. 19. 1- Manual Data Processing:Definition: Manual data processing its done with pen & paperWith traditional data processing methods.orThe manual process of data entry implies many opportunitiesfor errors, such as Delays in data capture, A high amount of operator misprints, High labor costs from the amount of manual labor required etc. 19
  20. 20. EDP: (electronic data processing),Definition: Use of computers for recording, manipulating, and summarizing data.EDP can refer to the use of automated process commercial data. Thisuses relatively simple, repetitive activities to process large volumes ofsimilar information.e.g. Stock updates applied to an inventory, Banking transactions applied to account and customer master files, Booking and ticketing transactions to an airlines reservation system, Billing for utility services. 20
  21. 21. 3.Real time processing Real time processing, there is a continual input, process and output of data. Data has to be processed in a small time period (real time).e.g. A bank customer withdraws a sum of money from his or her account it is vital that the transaction be processed and the account balance updated as soon as possible, allowing both the bank and customer to keep track of funds. 21
  22. 22. 4.Batch processingDefinition: In Batch processing group of transactions collectedover a period of time is collected, entered, processed and thenthe batch results are produced. orBatch processing requires separate programs forinput, process and output. It is an efficient way ofprocessing high volume of data.For example: Payroll system, Examination system. Etc. 22
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