Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Bio technology-Lecture 14
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Bio technology-Lecture 14

225

Published on

Pharmatech

Pharmatech

Published in: Healthcare, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
225
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. BIOTECHNOLOGY DEFINITIONS: It is derived from two words `BIO`-The use of biological process `TECHNOLOGY`-To solve problems or make useful products. `The applications of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide goods and services`
  • 2. PROCESS BIOTECHNOLOGY: `It is concerned with what is happening in the industry. It is a discipline which enables its exponents to convert raw materials to final products when either the raw material or a stage in a production process involves biological entities.` • Biotechnology in broader sense involves: • CLONERS • HYBRIDISERS • MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGISTS
  • 3. `It is defined as any technique that uses living organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.` PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: This science is based on the production of therapeutic proteins and hormones, fermentation products like antibiotics, vaccines or drugs, gene correction, drug delivery to specific tissue, standardization of therapeutic agents and the diagnostic aid using the gene cloning technology recombinant DNA technology.`
  • 4.  Pre- 1800: Early applications and speculation  1800-1900: Significant advances in basic understanding  1900-1953: Genetics
  • 5.  1953- 1976: DNA research, science explodes  1977- present: Modern biotechnology
  • 6.  Ancient biotechnology: Early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication  Classical biotechnology: Built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine  Modern biotechnology: Manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering
  • 7.  Traditional/old biotechnology: The conventional techniques that have been used to produce beer, wine, cheese, many other food  New/modern biotechnology: All methods of genetic modification by recombinant DNA and cell fusion techniques, together with the modern development of traditional biotechnological process
  • 8.  Organismic biotechnology: uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material  Molecular biotechnology: alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals  Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material
  • 9. 1660-1675 AD: Marcello Malpighi in this period used a microscope to study blood circulation in capillaries, described the nervous system as bundles of fibers connected to the brain by the spinal.
  • 10. Joseph Lister began using disinfectants such as phenol (=carbolic acid) in wound care and Surgery. 1868: Fredrich Miescher, a Swiss biologist, successfully isolated nuclein, a compound that includes nucleic acid, from pus cells obtained from discarded bandages.
  • 11. 1902 HUMAN GENETICS BORN: o Walter Stanborough Sutton stated that chromosomes are paired and may be the carriers of heredity. He suggested that Mendel's "factors" are located on chromosomes. 1905 X AND Y CHROMOSOMES RELATED TO GENDER: o Edmund Wilson and Nellie Stevens proposed the idea that separate X and Y chromosomes determine sex. They showed that a single Y chromosome determines maleness, and two copies of the X chromosome determine femaleness.
  • 12. 1941 ONE GENE ONE ENZYME: George Beadle and Edward Tatum experimented with Neurospora, a mold that grows on bread in the tropics, developing the "one-gene-one-enzyme" hypothesis: each gene is translated into an enzyme to perform tasks within an organism. 1943-1953:  Cortisone was first manufactured in large amounts.KIND OF A FIRST BIOTECH PRODUCT
  • 13. 1950: Erwin Chargaff found that in DNA the amounts of adenine and thymine are about the same, as are the amounts of guanine and cytosine. These relationships are later known as "Chargaff's Rules" and serve as a key principle for Watson and Crick in assessing various models for the structure of DNA.
  • 14. 1957 : CENTRAL DOGMA OF DNA- HOW DNA MAKES A PROTEIN: Francis Crick and George Gamov worked out the"central dogma," explaining how DNA functions to make protein.
  • 15. 1973 AMES TEST:  Bruce Ames, a biochemist , developed a test to identify chemicals that damage DNA. The Ames Test becomes a widely used method to identify carcinogenic substances.
  • 16. 1977 - Present: • The Dawn of Biotech: Genetic engineering became a reality when a man made gene was used to manufacture a human protein in a bacteria for the first time. • Biotech companies and universities were off to the races,and the world would never be the same again.
  • 17. 1978: a synthetic version of the human insulin gene was constructed and inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli. Since that key moment, the trickle of biotechnological developments has become a torrent of diagnostic and therapeutic tools, accompanied by ever faster and more powerful DNA sequencing and cloning techniques.
  • 18. 1977: Genentech, reports the production of the first human protein manufactured in a bacteria: somatostatin, a human growth hormone-releasing inhibitory factor. For the first time, a synthetic, recombinant gene was used to clone a protein. Many consider this to be the advent of the Age of Biotechnology
  • 19. 1978:  RECOMBINANT INSULIN Genentech and The City of Hope National Medical Center announced the successful laboratory production of human insulin using recombinant DNA technology.
  • 20. 1980: Kary Mullis invented a technique for multiplying DNA sequences in vitro by, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
  • 21. 1990: The first gene therapy takes place, on a four-year-old girl with an immune-system disorder called ADA deficiency. The therapy appeared to work, but set off a fury of discussion of ethics both in academia and in the media.
  • 22. 1994: first genetically engineered food the Flavr Savr tomato is approved.
  • 23.  For producing transgenic mice  Gene Manipulation and Introduction in Plant Biotechnology  Genetic modification  Animal biotechnology  Plant biotechnology
  • 24. Genetic modification is a new technology. It changes the genes found in living things. The penicillin gene can be taken from the fungus and put into bacteria. These ‘genetically modified’ bacteria can then produce very large quantities of penicillin. New, more effective antibiotics can also be produced to help fight disease
  • 25. o Cheese making uses the enzyme rennet which makes the milk proteins clot to form curd. o The liquid left is called whey. o Whey contains sugar. What would happen if whey was released into rivers? 1. Bacteria would use the whey sugars as food and reproduce. 2. As the number of bacteria increased it would use up the oxygen so oxygen levels would decrease in the water.
  • 26. 3. Fish and other living organisms would start to die as the oxygen level decreased POLLUTION PREVENTION: To prevent pollution whey can be:- a. treated before release b. upgraded (used for something else) UPGRADING WHEY: • Waste whey used as food for growing some types of yeast.
  • 27. • In the right conditions these yeast strains produce alcohol from the sugars in the whey. • Alcohol produced is creamy (found in Baileys Irish Cream)
  • 28. POLLUTION PREVENTION Monitoring waste Treat with bacteria bacteria feed on whey carbon dioxide and water produced bacteria removed/clean water released Upgrade whey used as food for yeast yeast produces creamy alcohol used in production of Baileys Irish Cream Waste whey
  • 29. AFP gene & promoter can survive in waters as cold as –1.2 C AFPs lower the freezing temperature of blood & fluids Trout normally do not survive in water below –0.6 C Transgenic trout containing an antifreeze protein.
  • 30. 1997, Tracy the sheep, the first transgenic animal to produce a recombinant protein drug in her milk alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) treatment for emphysema & cystic fibrosis Created by PPL Therapeutics & The Roslin Institute
  • 31.  EXTRACTION OF SILK FROM GOAT MILK:  Nexia Biotechnologies transferred the silk gene from spiders into goats  Each goat produces several grams of silk protein in her milk  The silk is extracted, dried to a white powder, and spun into fibers  The fibers are stronger and more flexible than steel.
  • 32. • GloFish, originally developed in Singapore as a way to monitor water pollution. • The normally black-and-silver zebra fish was turned green or red by inserting various versions of the GFP gene. • GloFish are on sale throughout the US except in California. • GloFish retail for about $5 per fish. Normal zebra fish cost around one tenth of the price.
  • 33. Biological washing powders contain enzymes. Enzymes are chemicals that improve the way in which the powder cleans. Biological washing powder is made up of:  1% enzymes  99% water softeners bleach other chemicals (to help water get into the clothes)
  • 34. • Where do the enzymes in washing powder come from? • Bacteria are tiny organisms found almost everywhere on Earth. • Scientists found bacteria that were harmless and produced enzymes that could be used in washing powders. • Large numbers of these bacteria grow (cultured) very quickly in huge industrial fermenters that give the best conditions for growth. • Enzymes produced are then separated from the bacteria and used to make biological washing powder.
  • 35. Enzymes in washing powders digest the stains on clothes like enzymes in the gut digest food. Different enzymes digest different stains. –Fat digesting enzymes digest fatty stains. –Starch digesting enzymes digest fatty stains. Enzymes make up a small part of powder but a large part of the cleaning power!

×