It is derived from two words
`BIO`-The use of biological process
`TECHNOLOGY`-To solve problems or make
`The applications of scientific and engineering
principles to the processing of material by
biological agents to provide goods and
`It is concerned with what is happening in
the industry. It is a discipline which enables
its exponents to convert raw materials to
final products when either the raw material
or a stage in a production process involves
• Biotechnology in broader sense involves:
• MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGISTS
`It is defined as any technique that uses
living organisms to make or modify a
product, to improve plants or animals or to
develop microorganisms for specific uses.`
This science is based on the production of
therapeutic proteins and hormones,
fermentation products like antibiotics,
vaccines or drugs, gene correction, drug
delivery to specific tissue, standardization
of therapeutic agents and the diagnostic
aid using the gene cloning technology
recombinant DNA technology.`
Early applications and speculation
Significant advances in basic
DNA research, science explodes
Early history as related to food and
shelter; Includes domestication
Built on ancient biotechnology;
Fermentation promoted food production,
Manipulates genetic information in
organism; Genetic engineering
The conventional techniques that have
been used to produce beer, wine, cheese,
many other food
All methods of genetic modification by
recombinant DNA and cell fusion techniques,
together with the modern development of
traditional biotechnological process
uses intact organisms; Does not alter
alters genetic makeup to achieve specific
Transgenic organism- an organism with
artificially altered genetic material
in this period used
a microscope to study
blood circulation in
the nervous system as
bundles of fibers connected
to the brain by the spinal.
Joseph Lister began using disinfectants
such as phenol (=carbolic acid) in wound
care and Surgery.
Fredrich Miescher, a Swiss biologist,
successfully isolated nuclein, a compound
that includes nucleic acid, from pus cells
obtained from discarded bandages.
1902 HUMAN GENETICS BORN:
o Walter Stanborough Sutton stated that
chromosomes are paired and may be the
carriers of heredity. He suggested that
Mendel's "factors" are located on
1905 X AND Y CHROMOSOMES
RELATED TO GENDER:
o Edmund Wilson and Nellie Stevens proposed
the idea that separate X and Y chromosomes
determine sex. They showed that a single Y
chromosome determines maleness, and two
copies of the X chromosome determine
1941 ONE GENE ONE ENZYME:
George Beadle and Edward Tatum
experimented with Neurospora, a mold
that grows on bread in the tropics,
developing the "one-gene-one-enzyme"
hypothesis: each gene is translated into an
enzyme to perform tasks within an
Cortisone was first manufactured in large
amounts.KIND OF A FIRST BIOTECH
Erwin Chargaff found that in DNA the
amounts of adenine and thymine are
about the same, as are the amounts of
guanine and cytosine.
These relationships are later known as
"Chargaff's Rules" and serve as a key
principle for Watson and Crick in
assessing various models for the structure
CENTRAL DOGMA OF DNA- HOW DNA
MAKES A PROTEIN:
Francis Crick and George Gamov worked
out the"central dogma," explaining how
DNA functions to make protein.
1973 AMES TEST:
Bruce Ames, a biochemist , developed a
test to identify chemicals that damage
DNA. The Ames Test becomes a widely
used method to identify carcinogenic
1977 - Present:
• The Dawn of Biotech: Genetic
engineering became a reality when a
man made gene was used to
manufacture a human protein in a bacteria
for the first time.
• Biotech companies and universities were
off to the races,and the world would never
be the same again.
a synthetic version of the human insulin
gene was constructed and inserted into
the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Since that key moment, the trickle of
biotechnological developments has
become a torrent of diagnostic and
therapeutic tools, accompanied by ever
faster and more powerful DNA sequencing
and cloning techniques.
Genentech, reports the production of the
first human protein manufactured in a
bacteria: somatostatin, a human growth
hormone-releasing inhibitory factor. For the
first time, a synthetic, recombinant gene
was used to clone a protein. Many consider
this to be the advent of the Age of
RECOMBINANT INSULIN Genentech
and The City of Hope National Medical
Center announced the successful
laboratory production of human insulin
using recombinant DNA technology.
Kary Mullis invented a technique for
multiplying DNA sequences in vitro by, the
polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
The first gene therapy takes place, on a
four-year-old girl with an immune-system
disorder called ADA deficiency. The
therapy appeared to work, but set off a
fury of discussion of ethics both in
academia and in the media.
first genetically engineered food the Flavr
Savr tomato is approved.
For producing transgenic mice
Gene Manipulation and Introduction
in Plant Biotechnology
Genetic modification is a new technology.
It changes the genes found in living things.
The penicillin gene can be taken from the
fungus and put into bacteria.
These ‘genetically modified’ bacteria can
then produce very large quantities of
New, more effective antibiotics can also be
produced to help fight disease
o Cheese making uses the enzyme rennet
which makes the milk proteins clot to form
o The liquid left is called whey.
o Whey contains sugar. What would happen if
whey was released into rivers?
1. Bacteria would use the whey sugars as
food and reproduce.
2. As the number of bacteria increased it
would use up the oxygen so oxygen levels
would decrease in the water.
3. Fish and other living organisms would
start to die as the oxygen level decreased
To prevent pollution whey can be:-
a. treated before release
b. upgraded (used for something else)
• Waste whey used as food for growing
some types of yeast.
• In the right conditions these yeast strains
produce alcohol from the sugars in the
• Alcohol produced is creamy (found in
Baileys Irish Cream)
Treat with bacteria
bacteria feed on whey
carbon dioxide and water produced
bacteria removed/clean water released
whey used as food for yeast
yeast produces creamy alcohol
used in production of Baileys Irish Cream
AFP gene & promoter can survive in
waters as cold as –1.2 C AFPs lower
the freezing temperature of blood &
Trout normally do not survive in water
below –0.6 C
Transgenic trout containing an
1997, Tracy the sheep, the first transgenic
animal to produce a recombinant protein
drug in her milk alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT)
treatment for emphysema & cystic fibrosis
Created by PPL Therapeutics & The
EXTRACTION OF SILK FROM GOAT
Nexia Biotechnologies transferred the silk
gene from spiders into goats
Each goat produces several grams of silk
protein in her milk
The silk is extracted, dried to a white
powder, and spun into fibers
The fibers are stronger and more flexible
• GloFish, originally developed in Singapore as
a way to monitor water pollution.
• The normally black-and-silver zebra fish was
turned green or red by inserting various
versions of the GFP gene.
• GloFish are on sale throughout the US
except in California.
• GloFish retail for about $5 per fish. Normal
zebra fish cost around one tenth of the price.
Biological washing powders contain
Enzymes are chemicals that improve the
way in which the powder cleans.
Biological washing powder is made up of:
99% water softeners
other chemicals (to help water get
into the clothes)
• Where do the enzymes in washing
powder come from?
• Bacteria are tiny organisms found almost
everywhere on Earth.
• Scientists found bacteria that were harmless and
produced enzymes that could be used in
• Large numbers of these bacteria grow (cultured)
very quickly in huge industrial fermenters that
give the best conditions for growth.
• Enzymes produced are then separated from the
bacteria and used to make biological washing
Enzymes in washing powders digest the
stains on clothes like enzymes in the gut
Different enzymes digest different stains.
–Fat digesting enzymes digest fatty
–Starch digesting enzymes digest fatty
Enzymes make up a small part of
powder but a large part of the cleaning