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The 3 great greek triumvirates new lecture- MIDTERM

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  • What is this?
    Did this bridge appear by chance?
    Could this bridge come into existence given billions of years?
    Is this evidence of a designer?
    Why?
  • What is this?
    Did this bridge appear by chance?
    Could this bridge come into existence given billions of years?
    Is this evidence of a designer?
    Why?
  • Transcript

    • 1. THE 3 GREAT GREEK TRIUMVIRATES • Click to add text Introduction to Philosophy Prepared by: IS-VNU Mr. Mike Lecture 3 PRESENTED and EDITED BY: RAIZZA P. CORPUZ
    • 2. Socrates No Writings What we know of Socrates comes from the writings of others such as Plato and Xenophon. A Native of Athens, Greece
    • 3. Socrates Oracle of Delphi Priestess of Apollo gifted in prophecy She was asked, “Is there anyone wiser than Socrates?” She answered no. Socrates felt this we wrong because he knew that he didn't know anything. Socrates tried to refute the Oracle by questioning the Wise Men of Athens.
    • 4. Socrates Oracle of Delphi Socrates learned that the men who “claimed” to be wise really knew very little but were ignorant about their lack of knowledge. Though Socrates knew very little he was aware of his ignorance and was therefore wiser. Socrates' paradoxical wisdom comes from realizing his own lack of knowledge.
    • 5. Socrates Trial and Death Socrates public questioning of Athen's elite caused those in power to look foolish. Social and Moral critic of Athens. Criticized the common notion that “might is right” in Athens. Accused of corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the state. Sentenced to drink poison hemlock.
    • 6. Socrates The Socratic Method What is Justice?
    • 7. Socrates The Socratic Method What is Love?
    • 8. Socrates The Socratic Method DIALECTIC: A method of seeking truth through a series of questions and answers. The Socratic method is a “dialectic” method teaching. To solve a problem, it is broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek.
    • 9. Socrates Ethics Socrates' primary concern in philosophy was, “How should we live?” 3 Questions What is good? What is right? What is just (justice)?
    • 10. Socrates Ethics Socrates' ethics assumes that Education is the key to living an ethical life. No one desires evil. No one errs or does wrong willingly or knowingly. Virtue—all virtue—is knowledge. Virtue = positive moral behavior
    • 11. Socrates Ethics The worst thing for a person is the corruption of his/her soul. It is better to suffer injustice than to commit injustice.
    • 12. Socrates “Justice” Metaphysics Common Properties universal characteristics of words (meanings) Example: Behind the word “justice” is a common property about justice that has an existence apart from our understanding.
    • 13. Socrates “Justice” Metaphysics Common Properties Universal characteristics of words (meanings) An aspect of reality Non-physical (abstract)
    • 14. Plato Socrates' Student Founded the Academy – First institution for higher education First Western philosopher whose writings have survived Most of what we know about Socrates comes from Plato's writings Agreed with Pythagoras that Mathematics were essential in understanding the world
    • 15. Plato Ethics Agreed with Socrates that the only real harm to a human is corruption of the soul – it is better to suffer wrong than to commit wrong Disagreed with Socrates that virtue is simply a matter of knowing what is right
    • 16. Plato Ethics INTELLECT PASSIONS Humans are made of 3 conflicting elements: Passions Intellect Will WILL Most people live life allowing the PASSIONS, INTELLECT and WILL to be in conflict with one another.
    • 17. Plato INTELLECT WILL PASSIONS Ethics Ideal living is when the INTELLECT controls the PASSIONS through the WILL
    • 18. Plato Metaphysics Reality can be divided into two realms: The Visible World Forms - Ideas
    • 19. Plato Metaphysics The Visible World Lower - Imperfect World experienced by our senses Physical Bound by Space and Time Always changing Always “becoming”
    • 20. Plato Metaphysics HORSE Ream of Forms-Ideas Higher - Perfect ULTIMATE REALITY Not accessible to our senses Non-Physical Not Bound by Space and Time Never Changing Always “is”
    • 21. Plato's Cave
    • 22. Plato Bod y S oul Metaphysics Body Physical Mortal Changes (Birth, Growth, Death) Imperfect Non-material Soul Our permanent FORM Timeless – Spaceless Perfect Immortal The REAL You
    • 23. Plato Bod y S oul Metaphysics Physical Life is Rehearal for Death The purpose of this life is to achieve enlightenment – Penetrate the Ultimate Reality Death releases the Soul from bondage to the physical body
    • 24. Plato Aesthetics Opposed the Arts The Arts attempt to represent Physical Reality The Physical Reality is an imperfect representation of Ultimate Reality (Forms) Therefore, the Arts are twice as deceptive at Physical Reality The Arts only further confuse people about Ultimate Reality
    • 25. Plato Politics: The Ideal Republic Philosophically Aware Rulers (Governing Class) Police Class (Protective Class) General Population (Worker Class)
    • 26. Aristotle Area of Studies Biology Metaphysics Logic Politics Ethics Aesthetics Psychology
    • 27. Aristotle Logic 3 Areas of Learning Theoretical Practical Productive Logic is a Tool underlying all learning
    • 28. Logic Aristotle Categories Sets the boundary of terms Essential in forming an argument Animals Dogs Pugs
    • 29. Aristotle Logic Aristotle mapped out and developed the system of Western Logic Propositions Syllogism Basic Fallacies
    • 30. Aristotle The 4 Causes To really “know” something you need to know the causes of it. Example: What is a house?
    • 31. Aristotle Material Cause The “materials” that make up the thing. Bricks are the material cause of a Brick House
    • 32. Aristotle Material Cause Insufficiency of the Material Cause The materials that make up a thing are not the same as the thing itself. A pile of Bricks is not a House Some things can be made of different materials. Houses can be made of Bricks or Wood or Metal.
    • 33. Formal Cause Aristotle The FORM of the thing. The pattern, shape, characteristics of a thing. Not the same as Plato's idea of Forms, i.e. no realm of forms. The Form does not have an existence apart from the thing as in Plato's concept of Forms
    • 34. Aristotle Efficient Cause The cause that changes the materials into the thing. The Tools/Instruments used to create the thing.
    • 35. Final Cause Aristotle The reason, purpose or goal of a thing. Ex. The purpose of a house is to shelter a people. Final Cause is evidence of an Intelligent Designer who provides things with purpose Teleology – Nature Intelligent Design
    • 36. Friendships Aristotle Close Friends Must be Equals Of Good Virtue Selfless in the friendship Wants what's best and good for the other Mutual respect for each others strengths
    • 37. Aristotle Ethics: Virtues Acquired by Habit Not innate Habit develops a disposition to act virtuously The Golden Mean: Mid-point between 2 extremes Courage Cowardice RECKLESNESS
    • 38. Aristotle Ethics: Virtuous Life Know what is Right Do what is Right Practical Wisdom - Make Right Decisions based on Good Reasons Contemplation of the Best things NOT just Good things – Good is the enemy of the Best Motivation for Doing Anything is Flourishing (Full Meaningful)
    • 39. ARISTOTLE • Eudaimonia or Happiness “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. ... At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice he is the worst.” (Aristotle, 384 - 322 B.C.) A key theme in Aristotle's thought is that happiness is the goal of life.