POLITICS and GOVERNANCE with
Article 1, Section 1: National Territory
Archipelago-is defined as a sea or part of a
sea studded with islands, often synonymous
with island groups, or as a large group of
islands in an extensive body of water, such
as sea (De Leon, 1991).
The Archipelagic Principle/Doctrine
Sen. Tolentino pointed out, “the archipelagic principle is
important to the Philippines for two reasons: national
security and exploitation of the living and mineral
resources of the waters, seabed and subsoil thereof, in the
The Philippines bolstered the archipelagic principle in defining its territory when it
included in Article 1 of the 1987 Constitution the following:
"The national territory comprises the Philippine Archipelago, with all
the islands and waters embraced therein xxx"; and
"The waters around, between and connecting the islands of the
archipelago, regardless of their dimensions, form part of the internal
waters of the Philippines."RPC 2014
Boundaries Of The NationalBoundaries Of The National
Territory Of The PhilippinesTerritory Of The Philippines
The process of determining the boundaries of
the Philippines is based on the Archepelagic Doctrine.
The traditional boundary of a 3-nautical-mile (12
nautical mile rule) limitation in the primary directions
–north, south, east, and west-is not an appropriate
basis in determining the boundaries of the
Philippines. Because the Philippines is an
Archipelago, it has a wide maritime territory and long
Article II –
Principles and State
SECTION 1. The Philippines is a democratic
and republican State. Sovereignty resides in
the people and all government authority
emanates from them.
A democratic and republican state.
-States that the Philippines is a democratic
Manifestations of a democratic and republican
The observance of the rule of the majority.
The observance of the principle that ours is a government of laws,
and not of men.
The presence of elections through popular will.
The observance of the principle of separation of powers and the
system of checks and balances.
The observance of the principle that the legislature cannot pass
The observance of the law on public officers .
The observance of the principle that the State cannot be sued
without its consents.
The existence of a bill of rights.
Sovereignty of the People
is the supreme power to govern.
It lies in the hands of the Filipino people who
have the right to choose the type of
government they want and to define the
powers it shall hold and exercise.
It is their right to abolish their government
and form a new one and organize it in such
form as seems to them best for their welfare
• Sovereignty is exercised indirectly
Through public officials elected by the people.
Officials appointed by the elected officials.
• Sovereignty is exercised directly
4.System of Initiative and Referendum
SECTION 2. The Philippines renounces war as
an instrument of national policy, adopts the
generally accepted principles of international law
as part of the law of the land and adheres to the
policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom,
cooperation, and amity with all nations.
Renunciation of war as instrument of national
• Philippines cannot declare war on another
• The country can only declare an existing state
an act of defenseRPC 2014
Adoption of the generally accepted principles
of international law as part of the country’s
• International law-body of rules and principles
which govern s the relations of nations and
their respective peoples in their intercourse
with one another.
• “Doctrine of Incorporation”-the commitment of
the state to international laws
When international usage to be applied
A treaty has force of a statute
Constitution prevails over a treatyRPC 2014
Adherence to the policy of peace, equality,
justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity
with all nations.
• Philippines seek peace and unity with the
neighboring countries all over the world
regardless of race, ideology, and political
system on the basis of mutual trust, respect
and cooperation. It supports the rights of other
countries in terms of equality, freedom and
justice in their relations with one another and
the policies of peaceful negotiations, and
opposes the use of force, threat of force, in the
relations with other countries.RPC 2014
SECTION 3. Civilian authority is at all times,
supreme over the military. The Armed Forces
of the Philippines is the protector of the people
and the State. Its goal is to secure the
sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the
Supremacy of the Civilian Authority
The President is the commander-in-chief of the
armed forces of the Philippines,
The army, the navy, the air force, and the
The appointment of the high ranking officials
is vested in the President.RPC 2014
Armed Forces: Protector of the State
• Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP)
• Its goals is to discharge the function of being
the protector of:
The sovereignty of the State
Integrity of our National Territory
SECTION 4. The prime duty of the Government
is to serve and protect the people. The
Government may call upon the people to defend
the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all
citizens may be required, under conditions
provided by law, to render person military or civil
1. Economic Development
3. Mass Poverty
4. The government exists for the people
5. Defense of the State as the prime duties of the citizen.
SECTION 5. The maintenance of peace and
order, the protection of life, liberty, and property,
and promotion of the general welfare are
essential for the enjoyment by all the people of
the blessings of democracy.
Peace and Order
• Duty of the government to maintain peace and
Through making laws
Promote the general welfare
SECTION 6. The Separation of Church and State
• The government shall not favor any religion,
support them using public funds ,or even
establish or set up a church.
• The Church should not get involved in
political issues or matters.
ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION CLAUSE
• The State shall have no official religion.
• The State cannot set up a church.
• Everyone has the freedom to profess their
belief or disbelief in any religion.
• Every religious minister is free to practice his
• The State cannot punish a person for
entertaining or professing religious beliefs or
• The command that Church and the state be
separate does not mean hostility towards