OBJECTIVES To understand the basic concept of politicalscience To develop a critical way of thinking ininterpreting Politics and Government To evaluate how they know and understand thetopic
POLITICAL SCIENCE(DE LEON, 1999) Systematic study of state and government POLITICAL- derived from the Greek word “POLIS” –meaning a cityor the sovereign state SCIENCE- comes from the Latin “SCIRE”-means “to know”
SCIENCE OF POLITICS1. It is the basic knowledge and understanding of thestate and the principles and ideals which underlieits organization and activities2. It is primarily concerned with the association ofhuman beings into ‘body politic’ or in a politicalcommunity3. It deals with those relations among men and groupswhich are subject to control by the state with therelations of men and groups to the state itself andthe relations of the state to other state
INTERPRETATION OF THEDIAGRAMPEOPLE as the FOCAL of all areas of POLITICS,GOVERNMENT and CONSTITUTION because it isthe human individual who is the revolving actorof the state, it is to people why there is anexistent laws. The right is vested to and it simplydenotes that the he/she is the MAIN ACTOR.
SCOPE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE1. Political Theory-the entire body of the doctrines relating to theform, behavior and purposes of the state are dealt with in thisstudy2. Public Law- thea. Organization of governmentsb. Limitations upon government authorityc. Powers and Duty of government offices and officers
STAGES IN THE STUDY OFPOLITICAL SCIENCE Religious Stage – the government, it’s leadersand laws was considered as divine or divinelyinspired. Metaphysical Stage – the state was consideredas a human institution and it is thereforeabsolute (cannot be changed). Modern Stage – the state was deemed capableof being improved by rulers and subjectsaccording to certain principles and laws.
DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICALSCIENCE Aristotle wrote “Politics”, the first systematic work on politicalaffairs. Father of Political Science Niccolo Machiavelli wrote “The Prince”, a handbook for rulers in the art ofgovernment. Father of Modern Political Science Prof. Francis Lieber wrote “Manual of Political Ethics”; the first systematictreatise in political science
WHAT IS A STATE? A group of persons, more or less numerous, permanentlyoccupying a definite portion of territory, independent ofexternal control, and possessing a government to which agreat body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.
ELEMENTS OF A STATE People Territory Government Sovereignty
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCEBETWEEN NATION AND STATE? State is a legal or juristic concept, while Nation is an ethnic orracial concept. Nasci = to be born indicates a relation of birth or origin andimplies a common race. Thus, a nation may comprise several states Example: Egypt,Iraq, Saudi, Lebanon, Jordan, etc. belong to Arab nation.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCEBETWEEN NATION AND STATE? It is also possible for a single state to be made up of morethan one nation, e.g. US which was the “melting pot” of manynations that were eventually combined into the “Americannation”
A. PEOPLE Different meanings as used in the 1987 Constitution:– Inhabitants (sec. 2, Art III; sec. 1, Art. XIII);– Citizens (secs. 1 & 4, Art II; sec 7, art. III);– Electors (sec. 4, Art. VII) As a requisite for Statehood, there should be an adequatenumber for self-sufficiency and defense; of both sexes forperpetuity.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCEBETWEEN CITIZENSHIP ANDNATIONALITY?Citizenship• Legal or juristic• Can bechanged ortaken-backNationality• Ethnic or racial• Absolute,Innate
B. TERRITORYThe National TerritorySec. 1, Art. I: The national territory comprises thePhilippine archipelago, with all the islands andwaters embraced therein, and all otherterritories over which the Philippines hassovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of itsterrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, includingits territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, theinsular shelves, and other submarine areas.”
C. GOVERNMENT The agency or instrumentality through which the will of theState is formulated, expressed and realized. Our Constitution, however, requires our government to bedemocratic and republican.
C. GOVERNMENTSection 1, Art II. The Philippines is a democratic andrepublican State. Sovereignty resides in thepeople and all government authority emanatesfrom them.REPUBLICAN It is one wherein all government authorityemanates from the people and is exercised byrepresentatives chosen by the people.
C. GOVERNMENTDEMOCRATIC This emphasizes that the Philippines has some aspects ofdirect democracy such as initiative and referendum.
D. SOVEREIGNTY The supreme and uncontrollable power innate in a State bywhich that State is governed. Sovereignty resides in the people and all governmentauthority emanates from them. (Sec. 1 Art.II)
DUTIES OF THE STATE Peace and Order Political Harmony (GoodLaws) Social Justice Economic Development
THEORIES OF STATEORIGIN Divine Theory – the state is of divine origin, allpolitical authority emanates from God. Social Contract Theory - this theory states thatmen agreed among themselves to live under onecivil society or body politic. A person surrenderedhis natural liberty but gained in return theprotection and civil rights guaranteed by thegovernments. Force Theory – the state has arisen throughsheer force; a tribe conquering other tribes toform a kingdom.