Philosophy lecture rpc


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  • Definition 3 expresses philosophy as we are going to understand it in this class. Philosophy in this sense is (like definition 1, but unlike definition 2) an activity: it is something you do. In particular, doing philosophy is using our rationality in trying to figure out the answers to difficult questions (related to any subject matter).
  • Ethics is a branch of philosophy which assesses explanatory theories concerning the moral rightness or wrongness of different kinds of actions, as well as the moral goodness or badness of different kinds of emotions, intensions, volitions and states of character.
  • Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη - episteme-, "knowledge, science" + λόγος, "logos") or theory of knowledge
    is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.[1]
    Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims.
    The term was introduced into English by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier (1808–1864).[2]
  • It addresses the
    • What is knowledge?
    • How is knowledge acquired?
    • What do people know?
    • How do we know what we know?
  • Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy which assesses world views.
    A world view is any more or less complete enumeration of the most general categories of being, coupled with a definition of each of those categories, an account of the way in which things in those categories are related to each other, as well as an account of the ultimate origins of things.
    Metaphysics (G. meta ta physica – “after the Physics”) ~ a science that studies all beings insofar as they are beings.
    Ontology (G. ontologia; onto – “being” and logia – “talking”; “talking about being”) ~ a metaphysical study of all realities/beings insofar as they exist.
    Real ~ extra-mental or that whose existence is independent of the human mind.
    Logical ~ one which is considered as intra-mental (e.g., numbers, geometrical points, mathematical objects, time); they don’t have “real existence” in the outside world.
    Ideal ~ one which is purely intra-mental; those whose existence lies only inside the human mind (e.g., flying-horse, golden mountain, square-circle) Approaches to Philosophy
    Special Metaphysics ~ studies beings specially or specifically, when it studies the world (cosmology), God (theodicy), and man (rational psychology).
    Cosmology ~ a metaphysical science which studies the general nature of the world or the structure and history of the universe.
    Theodicy or Natural Theology ~ a metaphysical science which studies the nature, operations, and attributes of God or the study about God in the context of reason, not of faith.
    Rational Psychology ~ a metaphysical science which treats man’s nature as a being endowed with reason and intellect which studies the rational metaphysics of the human soul
  • A philosophical study on the correct processes of thinking.
    The systematic study of argument
    The rule of inference
    Distinguishing valid from invalid argument
    Examination fallacies
    Using correct argument patterns
  • Theocentric: the study of the existence, nature, and essence of God;
    Moral questions such as the existence of evil and the immortality of the soul;
    St. Justin Martyr, Hippolytus, Tertullian, Lactantius, Origen, St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Ambrose, St. John Damascene, St. Augustine, Boethius, Alfarabi, Avicenna, Averroes, Avicebron, Moses Maimonides, St. Bonaventure, St. Albert the Great, St. Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham, Johannes Meister Eckhart, Nicholas of Cusa, Francis Bacon, Francis Suarez
  • Eexplosive: it has no center; anything goes;
    Auguste Comte, Henri Bergson, Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger, Michel Foucault, Merleau-Ponty, Levi Strauss, Albert Camus, Simone de Beauvoir, Karol Wojtyla, Suzanne Langer, John D. Caputo, Gabriel Marcel, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jean François Lyotard, Jacques Derrida, Slavoj Žižek, Jean-Luc Marion
  • Philosophy lecture rpc

    1. 1. PHILOSOPHY Prepared by Raizza Corpuz
    4. 4. REMEMBER • In studying PHILOSOPHY one should KNOW the : 1.Contextualize/ation 2.Basis In this way one can distinguish both VALIDITY and TRUTH, GENUINE and ESSENTIAL ideals.
    6. 6. “Wasn’t it extraordinary to be in the world right now, wandering around in a wonderful adventure!” ― Jostein Gaarder, Sophie's World
    7. 7. Wonder • To be filled with curiosity or doubt • An event inexplicable by the laws of nature; a miracle. • A feeling of puzzlement or doubt. Source: Thesaurus Dictionary
    8. 8. Wander: Verb • Walk or move in a leisurely, casual, or aimless way. • An act or instance of wandering. verb. roam - ramble - rove straynoun. wandering - stroll - saunter ramble Source: Thesaurus Dictionary
    9. 9. • Philosophers’ definition-arises out of wonder, out of curiosity, out of desire to learn, and to understand things. • According to the Philosopher, Philosophy is a process of analysis, criticism, interpretation and speculation • Analysis-if we know how to synthesis and antithesis. • Synthesis- put idea together or event of the same characteristic. • Antithesis- remove from or put it out, removing ideas • Criticism- is a process of commenting or giving a judgment, even if its positive or negative. • Interpretation-demonstration of ideas. • Speculation-being satisfied.
    10. 10. A. Meaning of Philosophy Etymology Etymology- or etymological definition of Philosophy -derived for Greek words etimos and logos Etimos-root, origin, cause, basis, history Logos-study Etymology-study of the history of the word Philosophy comes from the Geek Words Philia and Sofia. Sofia-wisdom Philia-love, desire for, interest in Philia and Sofia join by Pythagoras-600 B.C. Episteme-means knowledge Wisdom-defining deeply, wise, according to etymology -is an awareness of something which is basic. -knowledge of the basic principle. Knowledge-is only a million formation -simple data that comes from the outside that pass to our senses.
    11. 11. What is Philosophy as a TERM/WORD? The term “philosophy” comes from the Greek language. It consists of two words : • philos, (love, or philia )– friendship, affection • sophos (learned scholar, sage, or • sophia - wisdom, knowledge, talent)
    12. 12. “philo” - love “sophia” - wisdom THUS: 1. Philosophy is the love of wisdom 2. Philosophy attempts to answer life's Big Questions 3. Philosophy is about Questions 4. Philosophers ask Questions about what people Believe 5. Philosophy is about Examining Ourselves & Our Beliefs
    13. 13. THERE ARE MANY QUESTIONS but there are SOME BIG QUESTION What? Why? HOW
    14. 14. What are the REASONS for a particular belief?
    15. 15. Have you ever looked in the mirror and asked: The Unexamined Life is not worth living.” (Socrates) Who am I? Why am I here? What should I do with my life?
    16. 16. Have you ever looked in the mirror and asked: OR???
    17. 17. Examining Our Beliefs Behavior Beliefs and Values World-View I Exist. Other People Exist. I believe that my friend is real I talk to my friend
    18. 18. What is ‘Philosophy’?
    20. 20. Ethics Religion Epistemology Politics Aesthetics Philosophy Science Logic Metaphysics Branches of Philosophy
    21. 21. Branches of Philosophy
    22. 22. Ethics Questions: How should we live? What is good and evil? What is the best way to live? What is Justice? Is right and wrong the same everywhere or different everywhere?
    23. 23. Ethics
    24. 24. Epistemology Knowledge Science Explores the nature and limitations of knowledge Definition of knowledge Investigates how knowledge is obtained Explores the relationship between belief, truth and knowledge
    25. 25. Epistemology Questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? How do we know what we know?
    26. 26. What is Epistemology?
    27. 27. Epistemological Questions
    28. 28. Metaphysics Knowledge Science Explores the fundamental nature of reality and being Ontology Existence Objects Properties Space and Time Cause and Effect
    29. 29. Metaphysics Questions: What is real? What is reality? What is reality like?
    30. 30. Metaphysics
    31. 31. Politics Political Philosophy Explores the relationship between citizens and governments Liberty Legal Justice Property Ownership Citizen's Rights System of Law
    32. 32. Politics Questions: How should government be organized? What makes a government legitimate? Who decides who the leaders should be? What laws are good and necessary? How should law be enforced?
    33. 33. Aesthetics Sensori-Emotional Values Explores the nature of beauty, art, and taste with the creation and appreciation of beauty
    34. 34. Aesthetics Questions What is beauty? What is art? What is the value of beauty and art? Who should judge what is beautiful or artistic? How should art and beauty be judged?
    35. 35. Aesthetics Discussion: On the left is Marcel Duchamp's ready-made “sculpture” called “Fountain”. It's a factorymade urinal on a stand. Is this “Art”? Why / Why not? Is it beautiful? Offensive? Why?
    36. 36. Logic Rules for Thinking The systematic principles (or rules) for thinking rationally. Inferences are made by construction of Arguments Rules of Logic determine which arguments are VALID and which are FALACIES
    37. 37. Logic
    38. 38. Religion Philosophy of Religion Branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion Nature & Existence of God Theology Examination of Religious Experience Analysis of Religious language and texts Relationship between Religion and Science
    39. 39. Religion Questions Does God exist? What is God? What is the nature of the relationship between God and humans? Is God active in the world? How? Is there life after death? What is the relationship between Religion and Ethics? ...Religion and Science?
    40. 40. Religion Pantheism What is God? God is the Universe and the Universe is God. There is no distinction between God and the universe (nature). Some forms of Buddhism are examples of pantheism.
    41. 41. Religion Panentheism What is God? God is in the Universe and the Universe is in God God is more than the Universe. God and the Universe are connected but not identical.
    42. 42. Philosophy of Science Science Concerned with the assumptions, foundations, methods and implications of science. Empirical Verification Inductive Logic Objectivity of the Observer
    43. 43. Philosophy of Science Questions What is the natural world? How should we study nature? What methods are useful in the study of nature? Can science establish Natural Laws which are absolute (true everywhere and for everyone)? What are the limits of scientific knowledge?
    45. 45. What are the origins of philosophy? The Ancient Greek World
    46. 46. Socrates (c.469-399BCE) called philosophy down from the skies.’ (Cicero) Teacher of Plato
    47. 47. • • • • • The Death of Socrates (Jacques-LouisWestern thought1787) method David, is his dialogical Socrates most important contribution to of enquiry, known as the Socratic method where one finds truth by eliminating what one knows to be false by following a line of enquiry to a contridiction. Socrates believed that his wisdom sprung from an awareness of his own ignorance. He knew that he knew nothing, and that all error came out of ignorance. Socrates believed that the best way for people to live was to focus not on accumulating possessions, but on self-development. Socrates believed that “ideals belong in a world that only the wise man can understand” making the philosopher the only type of person suitable to govern others. Socrates views angered the leaders of Athens and he was accused of being antidemocratic and corrupting the youth of the country. Though neither charge demanded the death sentence the number of jurors who voted to condemn him to death was actually larger than the number who voted to convict him in the first place. In other words even jurors who believed he was innocent condemned him to death. If he was not anti-democratic before, this most certainly convinced him, and others of the flaws in a democratic system. Though Socrates left no writings of his own his exploits have been chronicled by a number of ancient writers, formost among them Plato whose works are based on the teachings of Socrates.
    48. 48. The Death of Socrates
    49. 49. 11/27/13 Methods of Philosophy Philosophy an Introduction 50
    50. 50. 11/27/13 Hi(s)tory of Philosophy Philosophy an Introduction 51
    51. 51. 11/27/13 Medieval Philosophy – 600 ~ 1600 Philosophy an Introduction 52
    52. 52. Contemporary – 1900 ~ present
    53. 53. Ancient Greek Philosophers School of Athens - Raphael Sanzio
    54. 54. “The unexamined life is not worth living. ... Wisdom begins in wonder. ... There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.” (Socrates, 469 - 399 B.C.)
    55. 55. “The philosopher is in love with truth, that is, not with the changing world of sensation, which is the object of opinion, but with the unchanging reality which is the object of knowledge.” (Plato, 429 - 347 B.C.)
    56. 56. “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. ... At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice he is the worst.” (Aristotle, 384 - 322 B.C.)
    57. 57. • Philosophy- love of wisdom • Greek Philosophers – Pythagoras- universe followed the same laws that govern music & numbers • Pythagorean Theorem- determine the length of the sides of a triangle • Sophists- professional teachers – Taught students how to win arguments – Rejected the idea of an Absolute Right & Wrong
    58. 58. • Socrates- criticized Sophists – left no writings behind – Believed in absolute truth – Socratic Method- asked pointed questions to force pupils to discover their own knowledge – Sentenced to death for his teachings • Plato- Socrates student – Republic book that explained ideas about gov’t – Philosopher King –ruled using logic & wisdom, 2nd group-warriors, 3rd rest of ppl – Women’s rightsbelieved men & women should have access at an education – Academy- Plato’s school
    59. 59. • Aristotle- student of Plato – Lyceum- Plato’s school – “golden mean”- do nothing in excess – Politics- in book he compares governments – Mixture of oligarchy & democracy – he felt would be the best gov’t excavation of the Lyceum
    60. 60. • Greek Historians – History is the study of human past – Herodotus wrote the history of the Persian Wars • Tried to separate fact from fiction but still used mythology to explained some events • “father of history” – Thucydides wrote History of the Peloponnesian War • Stressed the importance of having accurate facts • Primary Source- fought in the war
    62. 62. Ancient Greek Philosophy
    63. 63. Philosophers • Socrates, 469-399 – Believed that one arrives at the truth by questioning the assumptions on which all things are based • Plato, 428-347 – Student of Socrates • Aristotle, 384-322 – Student of Plato – “THE” philosopher by Medievalists
    64. 64. Greek Philosophy & Its Origins • Philosophy = love of wisdom • Mesopotamians and Egyptians contemplated how the natural world around them worked • Early Greeks (time of Homer, c.800 BCE) used mythological stories to explain the natural world • 7th Century BCE – Greeks looked for new, more practical explanations
    65. 65. Socratic Philosophers
    66. 66. So Many Questions… • What should we do? (i.e. how should we behave) • What is the meaning of life? • What is the meaning of happiness? • Is perfection possible? • What constitutes the good or just life? • What is virtue? • How should a man best conduct his life?
    67. 67. Socrates (469-399 BCE) • What little we know comes from his students, Plato and Xenophon, and his enemy, Aristophanes • Humble birth • Wrote nothing down • Founded no formal school – taught in the agora • Believed material things would not bring happiness • Died for his principles
    68. 68. Exercise • For each statement ask as many follow up questions as you can with a partner. Record questions that were brainstormed • Statement #1 – Only people over the age of 19 should be allowed to drink • Statement #2 – Canada should abolish the sale of firearms to the public
    69. 69. Socratic Method • Method of elenchus (i.e. rigorous questioning technique) • Designed to “sting” people into realizing their own ignorance – Provoke genuine intellectual curiosity • True knowledge gained only by constantly questioning assumptions that underly all we do – To achieve truth is to engage in a permanent state of critical thinking
    70. 70. Socrates’ End • Alcibiades, Socrates’ pupil, betrayed fellow Athenians by defecting to Sparta in Peloponnesian War • Socrates scapegoated by Alcibiades’ actions, accused of “not believing in the gods” and “corrupting the youth” • Tried and sentenced to death • Refused to plead for lesser punishment • Drank poison hemlock
    71. 71. Legacy • Socrates used the claim of wisdom as his moral basis • Chief goodness consists in the caring of the soul concerned with moral truth and understanding • “Wealth does not bring goodness, but goodness brings wealth and every other blessing, both to the individual and to the state” • “Life without examination (dialogue) is not worth living” • He would want you to evaluate society and your own life regularly!
    72. 72. Plato (429-347 BCE) • The “idealist” or “utopian” or “dreamer” • Born into a wealthy family in the second year of the Peloponnesian War • Name means “high forehead” • Student of Socrates • Left Athens when Socrates died but returned to open a school called the Academy in 385 BCE • Wrote 20 books, many in the dialectic style (a story which attempts to teach a specific concept) with Socrates as the main character
    73. 73. Plato’s Ideas • Idealist, believes in order and harmony, morality and self-denial • Immortality of the soul • Virtue as knowledge • Theory of Forms – the highest function of the human soul is to achieve the vision of the form of the good
    74. 74. Anti-Democratic Plato • Most perfect form of government: “Philosopher Kings” (i.e. very smartest) rule over an essentially communistic society • Why Philosopher Kings? – Plato believed they alone possess the intellectual capacity to achieve the highest form of human contemplation • Such penetrating powers of insight necessary to distinguish between truth (i.e. that which is eternal and unchanging and therefore is “really real”) from that which is untrue (changeable stimuli received by our faulty instruments of perception that serve to trick us into thinking that something is in fact “real”)
    75. 75. Plato’s Impact • Plato’s thinking on the immortality of the soul, Plato’s conception of a world beyond the sensory and his god-like form of good have very much shaped Christian thinking on God, the soul, and an afterlife • Nietsche called Christianity “Plato for the people”
    76. 76. Aristotle (384-322 BCE) • The “real” or “encyclopedist” or “inspired common sense” or “the prince of those who know” • Studied under Plato at the Academy • Son of a Macedonian doctor, returned home to become the teacher of Alexander of Macedon for three years, beginning in 343 BCE • Later returned to Athens to open school called the Lyceum in 335 BCE
    77. 77. Mark Steel Lectures: Aristotle 1. Why were there so many philosophers during Aristotle’s time? 2. What does Plato mean by the perfect form? 3. What are some examples of what Aristotle researched? 4. What is his ‘4 Essence’ theory? 5. What did Politics address concerning nature? 6. Why did he feel the rich AND poor were unfit to rule? 7. How was he before his time?
    78. 78. Aristotle, continued • Believed in the Golden Mean – i.e. all things follow the middle course; by avoiding extremes, one will enjoy a maximum of happiness and a minimum of pain • Called the “encycolpedist” as he had a profound love of order • Numerous fields of scientific study he either invented or contributed to: – Logic, biology, zoology, botany, psychology, chemistry, astronomy, cosmology, metaphysics, ethics, political theory, constitutional history, history of sport
    79. 79. Aristotle, continued • Founder of scientific method – A valid and reliable process by which all scientific analyses of a given phenomenon could take place • Led to explosive advances in the Greek scientists’ capacity to conduct scientific research • Middle Ages’ scholars felt Aristotle knew almost as much as God, therefore called him “The Philosopher”
    80. 80. Elements of the Art of Rhetoric • Ethos = Ethics – Appeal based on the trustworthiness/character of the speaker – Relies on the reputation of the author • Logos = Logic – Appeal based on logic or reason – Found primarily in scholarly articles and corporate financial reports • Pathos = Pathetic, sympathy, empathy – Appeal based on emotion – Found in advertisements – The more people react without full consideration for the “why,” the more effective an argument can be – Although it can be manipulative, it is the cornerstone of moving people to action
    81. 81. Legacy of Greek Philosophers • Taught us how to think • Provided a great deal of insight into the natural world • Provided many of the most profound and meaningful answers to the great philosophical questions that have befuddled humans since the dawn of civilization • Provided a comprehensive, valid, and reliable method by which we could test whether or not a given idea is true
    82. 82. Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
    83. 83. ARISTOTLE • Aristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosopher, making contribution to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theater.
    84. 84. • He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. He was more empiricallyminded than Plato or Socrates and is famous for rejecting Plato’s theory of forms.
    85. 85. • As a prolific writer and polymath, Aristotle radically transformed most, if not all, areas of knowledge he touched. It is no wonder that Aquinas referred to him simply as “The Philosopher.” In his lifetime, Aristotle wrote as many as 200 treatises, of which only 31 survive. Saint Thomas Aquinas Saint Thomas Aquinas Socrates “The
    86. 86. cs mati he Mat Biolog y s Ethic • Aristotle was the first to classify areas of human knowledge into distinct disciplines such as mathematics, biology, and ethics. Some of these classifications are still used today. • As the father of the field of logic, he was the first to develop a formalized system for reasoning. Aristotle observed that the validity of any argument can be determined by its structure rather than its content. A classic example of a valid argument is his syllogism: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.
    87. 87. Aristotle’s
    88. 88. ARISTOTLE’S LIFE • Aristotle was born in 384 BCE at Stagirus, a now extinct Greek colony and seaport on the coast of Thrace. His father Nichomachus was court physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia, and from this began Aristotle’s long association with the Macedonian Court, which considerably influenced his life.
    89. 89. ARISTOTLE’S LIFE • While he was still a boy his father died. At age 17 his guardian, Proxenus, sent him to Athens, the intellectual center of the world, to complete his education. He joined the Academy and studied under Plato, attending his lectures for a period of twenty years.
    90. 90. Aristotle’s
    91. 91. ARISTOTLE’S WRITINGS • It is reported that Aristotle’s writings were held by his student Theophrastus, who had succeeded Aristotle in leadership of the Peripatetic School. The works of Aristotle fall under three headings: • Among his writings of a popular nature the only one which we possess of any consequence is the interesting tract On the Polity of the Athenians.
    92. 92. Aristotle’s
    93. 93. ARISTOTLE’S LOGIC “Organon Peripatetic ” •sAristotle’s writings on the general subject of logic were grouped by the later Peripatetics under the name Organon, or instrument. From their perspective, logic and reasoning was the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. Aristotle himself, however, uses the term “logic” as equivalent to verbal reasoning.
    94. 94. Aristotle’s
    95. 95. ARISTOTLE’S METAPHYSICS • Aristotle’s editors gave the name “Metaphysics” to his works on first philosophy, either because they went beyond or followed after his physical investigations. Aristotle begins by sketching the history of philosophy. For Aristotle, philosophy arose historically after basic necessities were secured. It grew out of a feeling of curiosity and wonder, to which religious myth gave only provisional satisfaction.
    96. 96. Aristotle’s
    97. 97. ARISTOTLE’S PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE • Aristotle sees the universe as a scale lying between the two extremes: form without matter is on one end, and matter without form is on the other end. The passage of matter into form must be shown in its various stages in the world of nature. To do this is the object of Aristotle’s physics, or philosophy of nature. It is important to keep in mind that the passage from form to matter within nature is a movement towards ends or purposes. Everything in nature has its end and function, and nothing is without its purpose. Everywhere we find evidences of design and rational plan.
    98. 98. Aristotle’s
    99. 99. ARISTOTLE’S THE SOUL AND PSYCHOLOGY • Soul is defined by Aristotle as the perfect expression or realization of a natural body. From this definition it follows that there is a close connection between psychological states, and physiological processes. Body and soul are unified in the same way that wax and an impression stamped on it are unified.
    100. 100. Aristotle’s
    101. 101. ARISTOTLE’S ETHICS • Ethics, as viewed by Aristotle, is an attempt to find out our chief end or highest good: an end which he maintains is really final. Though many ends of life are only means to further ends, our aspirations and desires must have some final object or pursuit. Such a chief end is universally called happiness. But people mean such different things by the expression that he finds it necessary to discuss the nature of it for himself.
    102. 102. Aristotle’s
    103. 103. ARISTOTLE’S POLITICS • Aristotle does not regard politics as a separate science from ethics, but as the completion, and almost a verification of it. The moral ideal in political administration is only a different aspect of that which also applies to individual happiness. Humans are by nature social beings, and the possession of rational speech (logos) in itself leads us to social union.
    104. 104. Aristotle’s
    105. 105. ARISTOTLE’S ART AND POETICS • Art is defined by Aristotle as the realization in external form of a true idea, and is traced back to that natural love of imitation which characterizes humans, and to the pleasure which we feel in recognizing likenesses. Art however is not limited to mere copying. It idealizes nature and completes its deficiencies: it seeks to grasp the universal type in the individual phenomenon.