Philosophy lecture rpc

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Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy Branches

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  • Definition 3 expresses philosophy as we are going to understand it in this class. Philosophy in this sense is (like definition 1, but unlike definition 2) an activity : it is something you do . In particular, doing philosophy is using our rationality in trying to figure out the answers to difficult questions (related to any subject matter).
  • Ethics is a branch of philosophy which assesses explanatory theories concerning the moral rightness or wrongness of different kinds of actions, as well as the moral goodness or badness of different kinds of emotions, intensions, volitions and states of character.
  • Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη - episteme-, "knowledge, science" + λόγος, "logos") or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.[1] Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims. The term was introduced into English by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier (1808–1864).[2] Wiki
  • It addresses the questions: • What is knowledge? • How is knowledge acquired? • What do people know? • How do we know what we know? Wiki
  • Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy which assesses world views. A world view is any more or less complete enumeration of the most general categories of being, coupled with a definition of each of those categories, an account of the way in which things in those categories are related to each other, as well as an account of the ultimate origins of things. Metaphysics (G. meta ta physica – “after the Physics”) ~ a science that studies all beings insofar as they are beings. Ontology (G. ontologia; onto – “being” and logia – “talking”; “talking about being”) ~ a metaphysical study of all realities/beings insofar as they exist. Real ~ extra-mental or that whose existence is independent of the human mind. Logical ~ one which is considered as intra-mental (e.g., numbers, geometrical points, mathematical objects, time); they don’t have “real existence” in the outside world. Ideal ~ one which is purely intra-mental; those whose existence lies only inside the human mind (e.g., flying-horse, golden mountain, square-circle) Approaches to Philosophy Special Metaphysics ~ studies beings specially or specifically, when it studies the world (cosmology), God (theodicy), and man (rational psychology). Cosmology ~ a metaphysical science which studies the general nature of the world or the structure and history of the universe. Theodicy or Natural Theology ~ a metaphysical science which studies the nature, operations, and attributes of God or the study about God in the context of reason, not of faith. Rational Psychology ~ a metaphysical science which treats man’s nature as a being endowed with reason and intellect which studies the rational metaphysics of the human soul
  • A philosophical study on the correct processes of thinking. The systematic study of argument The rule of inference Distinguishing valid from invalid argument Examination fallacies Using correct argument patterns
  • Theocentric: the study of the existence, nature, and essence of God; Moral questions such as the existence of evil and the immortality of the soul; St. Justin Martyr, Hippolytus, Tertullian, Lactantius, Origen, St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Ambrose, St. John Damascene, St. Augustine, Boethius, Alfarabi, Avicenna, Averroes, Avicebron, Moses Maimonides, St. Bonaventure, St. Albert the Great, St. Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham, Johannes Meister Eckhart, Nicholas of Cusa, Francis Bacon, Francis Suarez
  • Eexplosive: it has no center; anything goes; Auguste Comte, Henri Bergson, Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger, Michel Foucault, Merleau-Ponty, Levi Strauss, Albert Camus, Simone de Beauvoir, Karol Wojtyla, Suzanne Langer, John D. Caputo, Gabriel Marcel, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jean François Lyotard, Jacques Derrida, Slavoj Žižek, Jean-Luc Marion
  • Philosophy lecture rpc

    1. 1. PHILOSOPHYPrepared by Raizza Corpuz
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY• MEANING• NATURE• SCOPE• GOALS• IMPORTANCE• BRANCHES• EPOCH
    3. 3. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? WHERE ITBEGINS?
    4. 4. FROM WONDERTO WANDER
    5. 5. Wonder• To be filled with curiosity or doubt• An event inexplicable by the laws of nature; amiracle.• A feeling of puzzlement or doubt.Source: Thesaurus Dictionary
    6. 6. Wander: Verb• Walk or move in a leisurely, casual, or aimlessway.• An act or instance of wandering.verb. roam - ramble - rove -straynoun. wandering - stroll - saunter -rambleSource: Thesaurus Dictionary
    7. 7. • Philosophers’ definition-arises out of wonder, out ofcuriosity, out of desire to learn, and to understandthings.• -According to the Philosopher, Philosophy is a process ofanalysis, criticism, interpretation and speculation• Analysis-if we know how to synthesis and antithesis.• Synthesis- put idea together or event of the samecharacteristic.• Antithesis- remove from or put it out, removing ideas• Criticism- is a process of commenting or giving ajudgment, even if its positive or negative.• Interpretation-demonstration of ideas.• Speculation-being satisfied.
    8. 8. Etymology- or etymological definition of Philosophy-derived for Greek words etimos and logosEtimos-root, origin, cause, basis, historyLogos-studyEtymology-study of the history of the wordPhilosophy comes from the Geek Words Philia and Sofia.Sofia-wisdomPhilia-love, desire for, interest inPhilia and Sofia join by Pythagoras-600 B.C.Episteme-means knowledgeWisdom-defining deeply, wise, according to etymology-is an awareness of something which is basic.-knowledge of the basic principle.Knowledge-is only a million formation-simple data that comes from the outside that pass to oursenses.EtymologyA. Meaning of Philosophy
    9. 9. What is Philosophy?What is Philosophy?The term “philosophy” comes from the Greeklanguage. It consists of two words :• philos, (love, or philia )– friendship, affection• sophos (learned scholar, sage, or• sophia - wisdom, knowledge, talent)
    10. 10. ““philo” - lovephilo” - love““sophia” - wisdomsophia” - wisdomTHUS:THUS:1.1. Philosophy is the love of wisdomPhilosophy is the love of wisdom2.2. Philosophy attempts to answer lifes BigPhilosophy attempts to answer lifes BigQuestionsQuestions3.3. Philosophy is about QuestionsPhilosophy is about Questions4.4. Philosophers ask Questions about what peoplePhilosophers ask Questions about what peopleBelieveBelieve5.5. Philosophy is about Examining Ourselves & OurPhilosophy is about Examining Ourselves & OurBeliefsBeliefs
    11. 11. THERE ARE MANY QUESTIONS butthere are SOME BIG QUESTIONWhatWhat??WhyWhy??HOWHOW
    12. 12. What are theWhat are the REASONSREASONS for afor aparticular belief?particular belief?
    13. 13. Have you ever looked in the mirrorHave you ever looked in the mirrorand asked:and asked:The UnexaminedThe UnexaminedLife is not worthLife is not worthliving.living.”” (Socrates)(Socrates)Who am I?Who am I?Why am I here?Why am I here?What should I do with myWhat should I do with mylife?life?
    14. 14. Have you ever looked in the mirrorHave you ever looked in the mirrorand asked:and asked: OR???
    15. 15. Examining Our BeliefsExamining Our BeliefsBehaviorI talk to my friendBeliefs and ValuesI believe that myfriend is realWorld-ViewI Exist.Other People Exist.
    16. 16. What is ‘Philosophy’?
    17. 17. BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY
    18. 18. Branches of PhilosophyBranches of PhilosophyEthicsPoliticsPoliticsReligionMetaphysicsLogicEpistemologyAestheticsSciencePhilosophy
    19. 19. Branches of Philosophy
    20. 20. EthicsQuestions:How should we live?What is good and evil?What is the best way tolive?What is Justice?Is right and wrong thesame everywhere ordifferent everywhere?
    21. 21. Ethics
    22. 22. EpistemologyKnowledge ScienceExplores the natureand limitations ofknowledgeDefinition of knowledgeInvestigates how knowledgeis obtainedExplores the relationshipbetween belief, truth andknowledge
    23. 23. EpistemologyQuestions:What is knowledge?How is knowledgeacquired?How do we know whatwe know?
    24. 24. What is Epistemology?
    25. 25. Epistemological Questions
    26. 26. MetaphysicsKnowledge ScienceExplores thefundamental nature ofreality and beingOntologyExistenceObjectsPropertiesSpace and TimeCause and Effect
    27. 27. MetaphysicsQuestions:What is real?What is reality?What is reality like?
    28. 28. Metaphysics
    29. 29. PoliticsPolitical PhilosophyExplores the relationshipbetween citizens andgovernmentsLibertyLegal JusticeProperty OwnershipCitizens RightsSystem of Law
    30. 30. PoliticsPoliticsQuestions:Questions:How should government beHow should government beorganized?organized?What makes a governmentWhat makes a governmentlegitimate?legitimate?Who decides who theWho decides who theleaders should be?leaders should be?What laws are good andWhat laws are good andnecessary?necessary?How should law beHow should law beenforced?enforced?
    31. 31. AestheticsSensori-EmotionalValuesExplores the nature ofbeauty, art, and tastewith the creation andappreciation of beauty
    32. 32. AestheticsQuestionsWhat is beauty?What is art?What is the value of beauty andart?Who should judge what isbeautiful or artistic?How should art and beauty bejudged?
    33. 33. AestheticsDiscussion:On the left is MarcelDuchamps ready-made“sculpture” called“Fountain”. Its a factory-made urinal on a stand.Is this “Art”?Why / Why not?Is it beautiful? Offensive?Why?
    34. 34. LogicRules for ThinkingThe systematicprinciples (or rules) forthinking rationally.Inferences are made byconstruction of ArgumentsRules of Logic determinewhich arguments are VALID andwhich are FALACIES
    35. 35. Logic
    36. 36. ReligionPhilosophy of ReligionBranch of philosophyconcerned with questionsregarding religionNature & Existence of GodTheologyExamination of ReligiousExperienceAnalysis of Religious languageand textsRelationship between Religionand Science
    37. 37. ReligionQuestionsDoes God exist?What is God?What is the nature of therelationship between God andhumans?Is God active in the world?How?Is there life after death?What is the relationshipbetween Religion andEthics? ...Religion and Science?
    38. 38. ReligionPantheismWhat is God?God is the Universe and theUniverse is God.There is no distinctionbetween God and the universe(nature).Some forms of Buddhism areexamples of pantheism.
    39. 39. ReligionPanentheismWhat is God?God is in the Universe and theUniverse is in GodGod is more than theUniverse.God and the Universe areconnected but not identical.
    40. 40. Philosophy of ScienceScienceConcerned with theassumptions,foundations, methodsand implications ofscience.Empirical VerificationInductive LogicObjectivity of the Observer
    41. 41. Philosophy of ScienceQuestionsWhat is the natural world?How should we study nature?What methods are useful in thestudy of nature?Can science establish NaturalLaws which are absolute (trueeverywhere and for everyone)?What are the limits of scientificknowledge?
    42. 42. HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY
    43. 43. What are the origins of philosophy?The Ancient Greek World
    44. 44. Socrates (c.469-399BCE)called philosophy downfrom the skies.’ (Cicero)Teacher of Plato
    45. 45. The Death of Socrates(Jacques-Louis David, 1787)• Socrates most important contribution to Western thought is his dialogical methodof enquiry, known as the Socratic method where one finds truth by eliminatingwhat one knows to be false by following a line of enquiry to a contridiction.• Socrates believed that his wisdom sprung from an awareness of his ownignorance. He knew that he knew nothing, and that all error came out ofignorance.• Socrates believed that the best way for people to live was to focus not onaccumulating possessions, but on self-development. Socrates believed that “idealsbelong in a world that only the wise man can understand” making the philosopherthe only type of person suitable to govern others.• Socrates views angered the leaders of Athens and he was accused of being anti-democratic and corrupting the youth of the country. Though neither chargedemanded the death sentence the number of jurors who voted to condemn himto death was actually larger than the number who voted to convict him in the firstplace. In other words even jurors who believed he was innocent condemned himto death. If he was not anti-democratic before, this most certainly convinced him,and others of the flaws in a democratic system.• Though Socrates left no writings of his own his exploits have been chronicled by anumber of ancient writers, formost among them Plato whose works are based onthe teachings of Socrates.
    46. 46. The Death of Socrates
    47. 47. Methods of Philosophy06/25/1349PhilosophyanIntroduction
    48. 48. Hi(s)tory of Philosophy06/25/1350PhilosophyanIntroduction
    49. 49. Medieval Philosophy – 600 ~ 160006/25/1351PhilosophyanIntroduction
    50. 50. Contemporary – 1900 ~ present
    51. 51. Ancient Greek PhilosophersSchool of Athens - Raphael Sanzio
    52. 52. “The unexamined life is not worth living. ...Wisdom begins in wonder. ... There is onlyone good, knowledge, and one evil,ignorance.”(Socrates, 469 - 399 B.C.)
    53. 53. “The philosopher is in love with truth, that is, notwith the changing world of sensation, which isthe object of opinion, but with the unchangingreality which is the object of knowledge.”(Plato, 429 - 347 B.C.)
    54. 54. “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is notan act, but a habit. ... At his best, man is the noblestof all animals; separated from law and justice he isthe worst.”(Aristotle, 384 - 322 B.C.)
    55. 55. • Philosophy- love of wisdom• Greek Philosophers– Pythagoras- universe followed the same laws thatgovern music & numbers• Pythagorean Theorem- determine the length of thesides of a triangle• Sophists- professional teachers– Taught students how to winarguments– Rejected the idea of an Absolute Right& Wrong
    56. 56. • Socrates- criticizedSophists– left no writings behind– Believed in absolutetruth– Socratic Method- askedpointed questions toforce pupils to discovertheir own knowledge– Sentenced to death forhis teachings• Plato- Socrates student– Republic book thatexplained ideas aboutgov’t– Philosopher King –ruledusing logic & wisdom, 2ndgroup-warriors, 3rdrestof ppl– Women’s rights-believed men & womenshould have access at aneducation– Academy- Plato’s school
    57. 57. • Aristotle- student of Plato– Lyceum- Plato’s school– “golden mean”- do nothing in excess– Politics- in book he compares governments– Mixture of oligarchy & democracy – he felt wouldbe the best gov’texcavation of the Lyceum
    58. 58. • Greek Historians– History is the study of human past– Herodotus wrote the history of the Persian Wars• Tried to separate fact from fiction but still usedmythology to explained some events• “father of history”– Thucydides wrote History of the PeloponnesianWar• Stressed the importance of having accurate facts• Primary Source- fought in the war
    59. 59. THREE TRIUMVIRATE IN ANCIENTPHILOSOPHY
    60. 60. Ancient Greek Philosophy
    61. 61. Philosophers• Socrates, 469-399– Believed that one arrives at the truth by questioningthe assumptions on which all things are based• Plato, 428-347– Student of Socrates• Aristotle, 384-322– Student of Plato– “THE” philosopher by Medievalists
    62. 62. Greek Philosophy & Its Origins• Philosophy = love of wisdom• Mesopotamians and Egyptianscontemplated how the naturalworld around them worked• Early Greeks (time of Homer,c.800 BCE) used mythologicalstories to explain the naturalworld• 7thCentury BCE – Greekslooked for new, more practicalexplanations
    63. 63. Socratic Philosophers
    64. 64. So Many Questions…• What should we do? (i.e. how should webehave)• What is the meaning of life?• What is the meaning of happiness?• Is perfection possible?• What constitutes the good or just life?• What is virtue?• How should a man best conduct his life?
    65. 65. Socrates (469-399 BCE)• What little we know comes from his students, Platoand Xenophon, and his enemy, Aristophanes• Humble birth• Wrote nothing down• Founded no formal school – taught in the agora• Believed material things would not bring happiness• Died for his principles
    66. 66. Exercise• For each statement ask as many follow upquestions as you can with a partner. Recordquestions that were brainstormed• Statement #1 – Only people over the age of 19should be allowed to drink• Statement #2 – Canada should abolish the saleof firearms to the public
    67. 67. Socratic Method• Method of elenchus (i.e. rigorous questioningtechnique)• Designed to “sting” people into realizing their ownignorance– Provoke genuine intellectual curiosity• True knowledge gained only by constantly questioningassumptions that underly all we do– To achieve truth is to engage in a permanent state of criticalthinking
    68. 68. Socrates’ End• Alcibiades, Socrates’ pupil, betrayed fellowAthenians by defecting to Sparta inPeloponnesian War• Socrates scapegoated by Alcibiades’ actions,accused of “not believing in the gods” and“corrupting the youth”• Tried and sentenced to death• Refused to plead for lesser punishment• Drank poison hemlock
    69. 69. Legacy• Socrates used the claim of wisdom as his moralbasis• Chief goodness consists in the caring of the soulconcerned with moral truth and understanding• “Wealth does not bring goodness, but goodnessbrings wealth and every other blessing, both tothe individual and to the state”• “Life without examination (dialogue) is not worthliving”• He would want you to evaluate society and yourown life regularly!
    70. 70. Plato (429-347 BCE)• The “idealist” or “utopian” or “dreamer”• Born into a wealthy family in the second year of thePeloponnesian War• Name means “high forehead”• Student of Socrates• Left Athens when Socrates died butreturned to open a school called the Academyin 385 BCE• Wrote 20 books, many in the dialectic style(a story which attempts to teach a specificconcept) with Socrates as the main character
    71. 71. Plato’s Ideas• Idealist, believes in order and harmony,morality and self-denial• Immortality of the soul• Virtue as knowledge• Theory of Forms – the highest function of thehuman soul is to achieve the vision of theform of the good
    72. 72. Plato’s Cave Exercise1. Read through the allegory of the cave as a class1. When reading, highlight any parts of the story that isdetailed and offers you a clear mental picture2. Now, instead of writing about the cave, draw apicture of the cave using your highlightedmaterial3. Share your drawing with some classmatesaround you. What differences do you have?4. What do you think about the allegories made?
    73. 73. Anti-Democratic Plato• Most perfect form of government: “PhilosopherKings” (i.e. very smartest) rule over an essentiallycommunistic society• Why Philosopher Kings?– Plato believed they alone possess the intellectualcapacity to achieve the highest form of humancontemplation• Such penetrating powers of insight necessary to distinguishbetween truth (i.e. that which is eternal and unchanging andtherefore is “really real”) from that which is untrue(changeable stimuli received by our faulty instruments ofperception that serve to trick us into thinking thatsomething is in fact “real”)
    74. 74. Plato’s Impact• Plato’s thinking on the immortality of the soul,Plato’s conception of a world beyond thesensory and his god-like form of good havevery much shaped Christian thinking on God,the soul, and an afterlife• Nietsche called Christianity “Plato for thepeople”
    75. 75. Aristotle (384-322 BCE)• The “real” or “encyclopedist” or “inspiredcommon sense” or “the prince of those whoknow”• Studied under Plato at the Academy• Son of a Macedonian doctor, returned home tobecome the teacher of Alexander of Macedon forthree years, beginning in 343 BCE• Later returned to Athens to openschool called the Lyceum in 335 BCE
    76. 76. Mark Steel Lectures: Aristotle1. Why were there so many philosophers duringAristotle’s time?2. What does Plato mean by the perfect form?3. What are some examples of what Aristotleresearched?4. What is his ‘4 Essence’ theory?5. What did Politics address concerning nature?6. Why did he feel the rich AND poor were unfit torule?7. How was he before his time?
    77. 77. Aristotle, continued• Believed in the Golden Mean– i.e. all things follow the middle course; by avoidingextremes, one will enjoy a maximum of happiness anda minimum of pain• Called the “encycolpedist” as he had a profoundlove of order• Numerous fields of scientific study he eitherinvented or contributed to:– Logic, biology, zoology, botany, psychology,chemistry, astronomy, cosmology, metaphysics,ethics, political theory, constitutional history, historyof sport
    78. 78. Aristotle, continued• Founder of scientific method– A valid and reliable process by which all scientificanalyses of a given phenomenon could take place• Led to explosive advances in the Greekscientists’ capacity to conduct scientificresearch• Middle Ages’ scholars felt Aristotle knewalmost as much as God, therefore called him“The Philosopher”
    79. 79. Elements of the Art of Rhetoric• Ethos = Ethics– Appeal based on the trustworthiness/character of the speaker– Relies on the reputation of the author• Logos = Logic– Appeal based on logic or reason– Found primarily in scholarly articles and corporate financial reports• Pathos = Pathetic, sympathy, empathy– Appeal based on emotion– Found in advertisements– The more people react without full consideration for the “why,” themore effective an argument can be– Although it can be manipulative, it is the cornerstone of movingpeople to action
    80. 80. Legacy of Greek Philosophers• Taught us how to think• Provided a great deal of insight into the naturalworld• Provided many of the most profound andmeaningful answers to the great philosophicalquestions that have befuddled humans since thedawn of civilization• Provided a comprehensive, valid, and reliablemethod by which we could test whether or not agiven idea is true
    81. 81. Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
    82. 82. ARISTOTLE• Aristotle is a toweringfigure in ancientGreek philosopher,making contributionto logic, metaphysics,mathematics, biology,botany, ethics,politics, agriculture,medicine, dance andtheater.
    83. 83. • He was a student of Plato who in turn studiedunder Socrates. He was more empirically-minded than Plato or Socrates and is famousfor rejecting Plato’s theory of forms.
    84. 84. • As a prolific writerand polymath,Aristotle radicallytransformed most, ifnot all, areas ofknowledge hetouched. It is nowonder that Aquinasreferred to him simplyas “The Philosopher.”In his lifetime,Aristotle wrote asmany as 200 treatises,of which only 31survive.Saint Thomas AquinasSaint Thomas Aquinas“TheSocrates
    85. 85. • Aristotle was the first to classify areas of human knowledgeinto distinct disciplines such as mathematics, biology, andethics. Some of these classifications are still used today.• As the father of the field of logic, he was the first todevelop a formalized system for reasoning. Aristotleobserved that the validity of any argument can bedetermined by its structure rather than its content. Aclassic example of a valid argument is his syllogism: All menare mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates ismortal.MathematicsBiology Ethics
    86. 86. Aristotle’s
    87. 87. ARISTOTLE’S LIFE• Aristotle was born in 384BCE at Stagirus, a nowextinct Greek colony andseaport on the coast ofThrace. His fatherNichomachus was courtphysician to King Amyntasof Macedonia, and fromthis began Aristotle’s longassociation with theMacedonian Court, whichconsiderably influenced hislife.
    88. 88. • While he was still a boy his father died. At age 17 his guardian,Proxenus, sent him to Athens, the intellectual center of the world,to complete his education. He joined the Academy and studiedunder Plato, attending his lectures for a period of twenty years.ARISTOTLE’S LIFE
    89. 89. Aristotle’s
    90. 90. • It is reported that Aristotle’s writings wereheld by his student Theophrastus, whohad succeeded Aristotle in leadership ofthe Peripatetic School.ARISTOTLE’S WRITINGSThe works of Aristotlefall under threeheadings:• Among his writings of a popular nature the onlyone which we possess of any consequence is theinteresting tract On the Polity of the Athenians.
    91. 91. Aristotle’s
    92. 92. ARISTOTLE’S LOGIC• Aristotle’s writings on the general subject of logic weregrouped by the later Peripatetics under the name Organon,or instrument. From their perspective, logic and reasoningwas the chief preparatory instrument of scientificinvestigation. Aristotle himself, however, uses the term“logic” as equivalent to verbal reasoning.“Organon”Peripatetics
    93. 93. Aristotle’s
    94. 94. ARISTOTLE’S METAPHYSICS• Aristotle’s editors gave the name“Metaphysics” to his works on firstphilosophy, either because theywent beyond or followed after hisphysical investigations. Aristotlebegins by sketching the history ofphilosophy. For Aristotle,philosophy arose historically afterbasic necessities were secured. Itgrew out of a feeling of curiosityand wonder, to which religiousmyth gave only provisionalsatisfaction.
    95. 95. Aristotle’s
    96. 96. • Aristotle sees the universe as a scale lying between the twoextremes: form without matter is on one end, and matterwithout form is on the other end. The passage of matter intoform must be shown in its various stages in the world ofnature. To do this is the object of Aristotle’s physics, orphilosophy of nature. It is important to keep in mind that thepassage from form to matterwithin nature is a movementtowards ends or purposes.Everything in nature has itsend and function, and nothingis without its purpose. Everywherewe find evidences of design and rational plan.ARISTOTLE’S PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE
    97. 97. Aristotle’s
    98. 98. ARISTOTLE’S THE SOUL ANDPSYCHOLOGY• Soul is defined by Aristotle asthe perfect expression orrealization of a natural body.From this definition it followsthat there is a closeconnection betweenpsychological states, andphysiological processes. Bodyand soul are unified in thesame way that wax and animpression stamped on it areunified.
    99. 99. Aristotle’s
    100. 100. ARISTOTLE’S ETHICS• Ethics, as viewed by Aristotle, is anattempt to find out our chief endor highest good: an end which hemaintains is really final. Thoughmany ends of life are only means tofurther ends, our aspirations anddesires must have some final objector pursuit. Such a chief end isuniversally called happiness. Butpeople mean such different thingsby the expression that he finds itnecessary to discuss the nature of itfor himself.
    101. 101. Aristotle’s
    102. 102. • Aristotle does not regard politicsas a separate science fromethics, but as the completion,and almost a verification of it.The moral ideal in politicaladministration is only a differentaspect of that which also appliesto individual happiness. Humansare by nature social beings, andthe possession of rationalspeech (logos) in itself leads usto social union.ARISTOTLE’S POLITICS
    103. 103. Aristotle’s
    104. 104. ARISTOTLE’S ART AND POETICS• Art is defined by Aristotle as therealization in external form of atrue idea, and is traced back tothat natural love of imitationwhich characterizes humans, andto the pleasure which we feel inrecognizing likenesses. Arthowever is not limited to merecopying. It idealizes nature andcompletes its deficiencies: itseeks to grasp the universal typein the individual phenomenon.

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