2014 Revised Modern philosophy
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2014 Revised Modern philosophy

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2014 Revised Modern philosophy 2014 Revised Modern philosophy Presentation Transcript

  • MODERN PHILOSOPHY REVISED: January, 2014 Jan.11, 2013 Ms. Raizza Corpuz
  • OBJECTIVES: • To enhance critical analysis of how Modern period plays a vital stance in the transition of Man • To develop one’s own understanding in the realm of the world towards achieving the end( means) of Man
  • History of Modern Western Philosophy
  • Renaissance and Humanism • Epochal turning point: HUMANISM the man realized he had a dignity, he found he had a thought and a ratiocination (methodological and logical reasoning) • 16th century: led MAN to the intellectual affirmation and emancipation(liberate) • man "born again" who appeared on the Earth, just the man of the Renaissance
  • • RENAISSANCE the man really renewed himself, he saw himself, he felt himself “reborn” in all his potentialities because the renaissance was a general historical moment, which determined a new vision of the all human life, in its cultural, religious, artistic, political aspects.
  • Scientific Revolution, Existentialist Philosophy and Enlightenment • the word "revolution" to describe an event or set of events which mark a total and durable change and a decisive break with the past. • term refers to historian events which are the cause of radical political and social changes
  • • the term "scientific revolution" a series of discoveries, but also a different attitude towards the studies and the researches. • 17th century the work of many scholars including the Italian Galileo Galilee and the English Isaac Newton.
  • • Enlightenment 1.illuminating capacity of reason 2.Intended to bring light of reason in every field of human activity 3.Less radical, balance towards empiricism and subjective idealism
  • Periods of Western Philosophy • Ancient Philosophy [Greek, Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy] • Medieval Philosophy [Patristic and Scholastic Philosophy] • Modern Philosophy • Contemporary Philosophy [20th Century – Postmodernism]
  • The Mainstreams of Modern Philosophy • Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Malebranche, Pascal) • Empiricism (Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume) • Criticism (Kant) • Idealism (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Schopenhauer)
  • • Materialism (Feuerbach, Marx) • Positivism (Comte, Machiavelli) • Existentialism (Kierkegaard and Nietzsche)
  • The Meaning of Modernity • Moderna” means “new” and “now”. Modern is a temporal orientation to ‘here and now’ [not ‘there and past” of the medieval mentality] • The term relates to the concept of time: linear progress [contrary to cyclical concept of time] • Key concepts of the modernity: “technological progress”, “revolution”, “economic growth”
  • Modern Philosophy is a philosophy of the subject • As a whole we can view the modern western philosophy as a research program on the epistemological and metaphysical problems of consciousness.
  • • The origin of consciousness (e.g. Descartes and Locke) • The Development of consciousness (e.g. Hegel, Kierkegaard, Comte) • The Collapse of consciousness (e.g. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche)
  • The Humanists • The spirit of modern philosophy was built in the age of Renaissance. • The rebirth of the Greek and Roman civilization in Italy during 16th Century reflected in many cultural aspects such as literature, architecture, philosophy, art etc. • The humanists taught eloquence, history, poetry, moral (comparable to the sophists in ancient Greece)
  • Three Characteristics of Modern Philosophy 1.Centers on the problem of consciousness or subjectivity [contrary to theocentrism] 2. Radicalization of the epistemological concept of critique [contrary to dogmatism] 3. Teleological Concept of historical progress of mankind [contrary to status quo]
  • Man as Natural Being • Renaissance culture viewed man as natural being. • He doesn’t come from heaven, but grows from earth and is provided with natural talents and vitality. • So, the naked figures in the renaissance’s gallery glorified the natural beauty of man.
  • Man as Individual • The individual (not the collective) was a central theme of art and literature in the culture of renaissance. • In the western philosophy the paradigmshift occurred during the renaissance, i.e. from theocentrism of medieval thought to anthropocentrism of modern thought.
  • MODERN PHILOSOPHER
  • ENGLISH THINKERS VS. THOMAS HOBBES
  • Leviathian vs. Two Treatise on Gov’t VS.
  • • • • • • • • English Philosopher Inspired by the Glorious Revolution 1690 – published Two Treatises on Government People shaped by their experiences not natural violent All people had 3 natural rights – life, liberty, & property People are born with a “tabula rasa” or clean slate. Purpose of gov’t = serve the people – people have the right to overthrow the gov’t if it is not serving its purpose • Social Contract – agreement b/w ruler & people
  • • English Philosopher • Influenced by the English Civil War & Charles I Execution • 1651 – Published Leviathan (Sea Monster) • Argued that natural law made absolute monarchy the best form of gov’t • Humans were natural selfish and violent • People couldn’t make their own decisions • If they did life would be “nasty, brutish, and short” • Only a strong ruler (Leviathan) could give people direction
  • • Inspired by the Glorious Revolution & John Locke, Greek Philosophers • French Philosopher • 1748 – published – Spirit of Laws • Separation of Power – equal divide power among the 3 Branches of gov’t • Executive (Monarch) enforce laws, Legislative (Parliament) makes laws, Judicial (Courts) interpret laws • By separating these powers, gov’t could not become too powerful – checks and balances
  • Montesquieu’s 3 branches in Action
  • • • • • French Philosopher 1762 – published Social Contract Gov’t should be based on a Social Contract Everyone must agree to be governed by the general will – whats good for the people (foundation for totalitarian gov’t) • Humans being were naturally good but corrupted by society • Importance on Education and Civic Virtue – train people how to be good citizens. • People should pay more attention to emotions & feelings instead of new ideas –seek a balance –
  • • Francois-Marie Arouet – known as Voltaire • French Philosopher • Wrote many novels, plays, letters, & essays that brought him fame • Strong dislike of Catholic Church • Blame the church for keeping knowledge from people to keep its power • Freedom of Religion • Natural Law runs the world
  • References • F. Budi Hardiman, Sejarah Filsafat Barat Modern dari Machiavelli sampai Nietzsche, Gramedia, Jakarta, 2004
  • THOUGHT TO PONDER Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all ~Aristotle ♥ THANK YOU! Have a