MIDTERM PERIOD: PHILIPPINE
Prepared by Raizza P. Corpuz
1st ACTIVITY WORK in Midterm
Group Dynamic: 5 Groups
Draw the TIMELINE of the SPANISH EPOCH IN THE
PHILIPPINES individually then connect each to the
GROUP every GROUP member will present it to
the CLASS (50pts)
Group 1: In search of New Lands
Group 2: Magellan’s New Route to the East
Group 3:The Spanish Concept of the Islands
Group 4: Towards the Hispanization of the Natives
Group 5: Chinese in the Philippines & More
European in the Islands
e.g 1505: Magellan sailed with a fleet (draw)RPCORPUZ 2013
Why Spanish came to the orient?
=> They admired the wonders of the orient.
=> They traded with the Asian country.
=> In this trade the venetians enjoyed the
=>Christians crusaders went to the orient because
of the desire to know more about the countries of
* The trade routes *
~>developing their trade with orient to Europe.
1. NORTHERN ROUTE
*Cities of Samark and and Bokhara,the
around the Caspian sea and the black sea
and finally to Constantinople in the
2. CENTRAL ROUTE
*started in Malacca in Malay peninsula , then to
the Indian ocean and the Indians ports, then to
the Persian gulp to Bagdad and Constantinople
and finally to Cairo in the Mediterranean .
3. SOUTHERN ROUTE
* started to Malacca, then in the Indian ocean
and to the ports of India, then to the red sea
and finally to Cairo in the Mediterranean .
EARLY VOYAGE THE ORIENT
first to sent expedition to the orient.
one of the most famous PORTUGESE NAVIGATOR
was PRINCE HENRY who was called “the navigator”.
AZORES= near the coast of Africa about 1421.
this expedition discovered the island of
MADEIRA & AZORES .
They also developed the Spanish colonies.
They also use instrument
•navigate of Genoa , went to Spain and offered his
service to the king and queen.
•he also discovered NORTH AMARICA in1492.
•explore to what Columbus had found.
• the name America is named after him.
NUNEZ DE BALBOA
• discovered the pacific ocean.
THE DIVISION OF THE WORLD
1. the Portugal first sail to the orient and to establish
2. the rivalry resulted from the discoveries made by
the Spain and Portugal
3. there is a possibility that the two GREAT CHRISTIAN
nations might go to war because of there rivalry.
POPE ALEXANDER VI
= he divides the world into two
=he said that the east is belonged to Portugal
The important of the treaty
1. An imaginary line was drawn from north to south
at the distance of 370leagues west of the cape
Verde islands . Lands to be discovered east of this
line would belong to Portugal and those went
would belong to Spain.
2. If Spanish ships discovered lands east of the
demarcation line said lands should be turned over
to Portugal and lands discovered by Portuguese
ships west of the line should tuned over to Spain.
3. No Portuguese ship shall be sent to lands belongs
to Spain & vice versa for the purpose of trading
Ferdinand Magellan- a Portuguese who went
to Spain to offer his service to the king. He had
been seen the battle in Malacca &Africa. The
king ignore him.
With the help of his ‘father in law & don Juan de
Aranda’ a man occupying a very high position in
the Spain the king was amazed he sent an
expedition in spice islands under the command
Magellan is known as a great Spanish explorer, but he was born Portuguese,
Fernão de Magalhães, into a family of minor nobility. He had a keen interest
in sailing and marine navigation. He worked for years for the Portuguese government
in an office that received and archived reports from Portuguese ships.
He went on several major voyages himself eventually becoming a captain.
He enjoyed some favor with the Portuguese monarch, Dom Manuel.
But, Magellan fell out of favor with Manuel primarily because of his own arrogance.
When King Manuel denied his repeated demands for an unprecedented increase
in his salary and, instead, fired him, Magellan defected to Portugal's arch-rival, Spain.
At the time, Spain and Portugal were the world's two competing super-powers.
In 1493, Pope Alexander VI decided to settle the arguments between them by
once-and-for-all dividing the world in half. By Papal authority, the eastern half went to Portugal,
and the western half to Spain. It seems like an equitable -- if arrogant -- solution.
But the Pope's decree didn't exactly specify where the line between the two was to be.
Magellan proposed to the Spanish king that he, Magellan, would be able to find the line the Pope
had described... and find it in such a way as to prove that the "Moluccas," the coveted Spice Islands
-- pretty much what we, today, call Indonesia – were within Spanish territory. The king agreed to
support Magellan's voyage.With five ships, San Antonio, Santiago, Trinidad, Victoria,
and Concepcion, and 280 men, Magellan's Armada de Moluccas departed in September 1519.
1. Trinidad ( flag ship)
5. San Antonio
•After they reached Brazil they continue to voyage
to Rio de Janeiro and reach the Rio Deplanta in
•Magellan crossed the pacific ocean to reach the
Ladrones island ( Samar ) in 1521 .
•On march 1521 this is the date when the first
Spaniards came to the phil.
•Magellan also reach Limasawa
•March 31 has mass celebrated .
•Father PEDRO DE VALDERRAMA.
BATTLE OF MACTAN
•April 8 1521 the ships harbor of Cebu .
•The Cebu chieftain (RAJA HUMABON) welcome
Spaniards and soon a blood compact.
•Across was erected and Magellan persuaded the
Cebuano's to become Christians.
• Magellan presented JUANA an image of infant Jesus
in the patron of Cebu.
•In the battle of Magellan he wounded in the leg and
somewhere in the body .
•When Magellan died the other Spaniards came back
Before the expedition of Villalobos start there
3 failure expeditions:
As we know earlier the Spanish and Portugal fast
quarreled about the lands.
THE EXPEDITION OF VILLALOBOS
•The two countries decided to have treaty and it is
called TREATY OF ZARAGOZA under which Portugal
won possession of the Mollucas.
•For many years after the conclusion of the Treaty of
Zaragoza, Spain respected its provision.
•The Viceroy of Mexico chose his brother in law Ruy
Lopez de Villa-Lobos to command the expedition .
TREATY OF ZARAGOZA
• also referred to as the Capitulation of
Zaragoza was a peace treaty between Spain
and Portugal signed on April 22, 1529 by King
John III and the Emperor Charles V, in the
Spanish city of Zaragoza.
Treaty of Tordesillas
• The Treaty of Tordesillas was intended to solve
the dispute that had been created following
the return of Christopher Columbus and his
• Signed at Tordesillas on 7 June 1494 and
authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided
the newly discovered lands
outside Europe between Portugal and Spain
along a meridian 370 leagues.
The six ships
1. The Santiago
3. San Antonio
4. San Cristobal
5. San Martin
6. San Juan
•November 1,1542-he left the Mexico
•February,1543-he crossed the vast Pacific and
•He died in Amboina in 1546
The Legazpi Expedition
Since none of the expedition after Magellan from Loaisa
to Villalobos had succeeded in taking over the
Philippines, King Charles I stopped sending colonizers to
However, when Philip II succeeded his father to the
throne in 1556, he instructed Luis de Velasco, the
viceroy of Mexico, to prepare a new expedition – to be
headed by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, who would be
accompanied by Andres de Urdaneta, a priest who had
survived the Loaisa mission.RPCORPUZ 2013
•On February 13, 1565, Legaspi's expedition landed in
• After a short struggle with the natives, he proceeded
to Leyte, then to Camiguin and to Bohol.
• There Legaspi made a blood compact with the
chieftain, Datu Sikatuna as a sign of friendship.
• Legaspi was able to obtain spices and gold in Bohol
due to his friendship with Sikatuna.
•On April 27, 1565, Legaspi returned to Cebu;
destroyed the town of Raja Tupas and establish a
•On orders of the King Philip II, 2,100 men arrived from
•They built the port of Fuerza de San Pedro which
became the Spanish trading outpost and stronghold for
4. The Spanish
Conquest of the
• The Philippines was
organized as a
Spanish colony until
1565 when Philip II
Lopez de Legazpi
the first Governor-
Statue of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.
• Legazpi tried every effort to win the trust of the
• Polytheism was still practiced by Filipinos although
some had converted to Islam.RPCORPUZ 2013
• Legaspi sends an expedition under the
leadership of Martin de Goiti to Manila.
Manila is ruled by Rajah Suliman, whose
friendship is won by de Goiti.
• Rajah Suliman wages war against the
Spaniards due to a move by de Goiti which he
mistakes for an assault. De Goiti's army
defeats Suliman's troops and occupies the
Pande Pira acknowledged
as the first Filipino
metallurgist. He had
devised the cannons using
a mold of clay and wax
which Muslim leader Rajah
Suliman used to protect
Manila against the
invading Spanish troops.
Establishment of Manila as Capital
• Legaspi establishes his government in
Manila and proclaims it the capital of the
Philippines, calling it the Insigne y
Siempre Leal Ciudad which means
"distinguished and ever loyal city".
• From the beginning of Spanish rule in 1565 to
1821, the Philippines was a dependency of
• The Mexican viceroy, in the name of King of
Spain administered the country.
• After 1821, the Philippines was directly
governed from Madrid.
The Sword and the Cross
• These two symbols are what
constituted the strategies or
tactics used by the Spaniards in
invading the Philippines. It made
the pacification of the natives
easier. The cross symbolizes
religion while the sword
The Blood Compact
• Through the blood compact of Magallanes
and Kulambo, Magallanes and Humabon, and
even Legazpi, Sikatuna and Gala, the natives
were enticed. This ritual symbolizes unity and
is done by the slashing of the wrist of both
parties and drinking the blood of the other
fused with wine. The giving of gifts of
Spaniards to the datus and their families were
also strategies to occupy the Philippines.
• Reduccion is the centralization of the Filipino
community where churches, convents, casa
real and plaza complexes can be found. Plazas
are where people gather when there are
events or celebrations like festivals. By using
this system, the Spaniards can easily monitor
the movements of Filipinos to prevent
protests and to collect the taxes easier. There
are also changes in the architectural designs
of infrastructures. RPCORPUZ 2013
Divide et Impera (Divide and Rule)
• In line with reduccion, the people were
categorized based on race and religion. For
the still rebellious places, entrada was
enforced. For those which are not, Spain
turned the citizens to soldiers and were made
to fight with their fellow Filipinos.
• The word “encomienda” comes from the
Spanish “encomendar” which means “to
• Ecomienda is a grant of inhabitants living
in particular conquered territory which
Spain gave to Spanish colonizer as a
reward for his services (Zaide)
The encomienda was
not a land grant, it
was more of an
to extract tribute
• In July 26, 1523, King Charles V decreed that
Indians who had been pacified should
contribute a “moderate amount” in
recognition of their vassalage (Cushner 1979).
In theory the tribute or tax was collected from
the natives in order to defray the costs of
colonization and to recognize their vassalage
to the king of Spain.
The Political Structure
• Spain established a centralized colonial
government in the Philippines that was
composed of a national government and
the local governments that administered
provinces, cities, towns and
Political Structure in the Philippines during Spanish ColonizationRPCORPUZ 2013
The Royal Audiencia
Apart from its judicial functions, the Royal
Audiencia served as an advisory body to
the Governor General and had the power
to check and a report on his abuses. The
Audiencia also audited the expenditures
of the colonial government and sent a
yearly report to Spain.
The Polo or forced labor is another Spanish that
had created discontent among the Indios
during the Spanish times.
All men between sixteen and sixty years of
age, except chieftains and their elder
sons, were required to render labor of various
forms for 40 days in the colony. This was
instituted in 1580 and reduced to 15 days per
year in 1884 (Constantino).
In the first half of the 17th
century, Governor Sebastian Hurtado de
Corcuera begins collecting the
bandala from the natives. Bandala is an
annual quota of products assigned to the
natives for compulsory sale to the
5. Towards the
Hispanization of the
The Spaniards integrated into the Philippine
o Arts and
Union of Church and state
The Colonial Administration shared the power of
governance with the Church.
The church meddled with governmental functions
and this led to the supremacy of the Church over
The Spanish authorities clustered the Filipino
population into village settlements where they
could more easily be instructed.
Spanish urbanization was centered in the city of
Manila, within a walled city called Intramuros.
• Peninsulares = Spaniards who grew up in Spain
• Insulares = Spaniards who grew up in the
• Spanish Mestizos = half-Spaniards
• Principalia = former Filipino tribe leaders before
the invasion of Spain
(datus, rajahs, maharlikas and others)
• Chinese Mestizos = half-Chinese
• Chinese = Chinese living in the Philippines
• ‘Indios’ = what the Spaniards derogatorily call
Education in the prehispanic period is informal.
The children are only taught by their parents
in vocations that can be used in their everyday
But with the coming of the Spaniards, education
was formalized and it focused on the doctrines
The subjects taught were catechism, reading
and writing in the
dialect, music, arithmetic, and trades and
The Spanish aristocracy tried to distinguish
themselves from indios through the use of
language and level of education.
Higher education was established exclusively for
Spaniards and Filipinos, referring to those
born in the colony to Spanish parents.
Colleges and universities were closed to indios.
Colleges, which later, became universities, were
also established. Examples of these are:
University of Sto.Tomas, Ateneo de
Manila, San Juan de Letran, etc. Schools and
nunnery for women were also introduced.
School for boys were separated from that of the
girls. Courses such as
Law, Medicine, Engineering were limited only
to males. Females were given special
education in the colegio (regular schools for
girls) and in the beaterio (combined school
Printed books and published materials
• Doctrina Christiana (1593)
• Doce Pares de Francia, Bernardo Carpio, Adela
at Florante written by Jose de la Cruz
• Lam-Ang by Pedro Bukaneg
• Florante at Laura by Francisco Baltazar
Development of infrastructure and public utilities
Ferrocaril de Manila: the only railway line in the
archipelago, which was constructed using
mainly Filipino labor. By 1892, five street car
service lines connected the primate city with
the suburbs with horse-drawn cars.
Development of infrastructure and public utilities
Puente Colgante (Quezon bridge): the first
suspension bridge in the Far East.
Public Lighting System: used with coconut oil as
fuel (1814). By 1893, the walled city
(Intramuros) and suburbs were already
powered by electricity, with the founding of
the La Electricista de Manila.
Through the galleon trade (derived from the
name of the ships used to transport goods
from one country to another), American-Asian
commerce flourished, but only a very few
privileged Spaniards were benefited.
Christianity is considered as Spain’s greatest and
lasting legacy in the country.
The Christianization (Roman Catholic) of the
Filipinos was really the most outstanding
achievement of the Spanish missionaries. And as
a result of the missionaries’ apostolic labors, the
Filipino people have become uniquely the only
Christian nation in the entire Asian world.
The Spaniards converted much of the
Philippines to Christianity except for
Mindanao and Sulu.
The striking resemblances between the pre-
colonial religion and Catholicism have made
the latter acceptable to the local inhabitants.
Images of Catholicism
Dancing in Obando
Images of Catholicism
Peñafrancia FestivalRPCORPUZ 2013
• The said expedition is considered historic
because it marked the first
CIRCUMNAVIGATION of the globe and proved
that the world is round.
• The Philippines was easily conquered because
the native lacked unity and a centralized form
Per GROUP: Summarized and Create a 4pics one
word STORY for Struggle for Rights and Freedom
Chapter 5 1-32
1. I: 1-5
3. III: 11-16
4. VI: 17-21
6. VI: 27-28