Midterm period


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Midterm period

  1. 1. MIDTERM PERIOD: PHILIPPINE HISTORY Prepared by Raizza P. Corpuz RPCORPUZ 2013
  2. 2. 1st ACTIVITY WORK in Midterm Group Dynamic: 5 Groups Draw the TIMELINE of the SPANISH EPOCH IN THE PHILIPPINES individually then connect each to the GROUP every GROUP member will present it to the CLASS (50pts) Group 1: In search of New Lands Group 2: Magellan’s New Route to the East Group 3:The Spanish Concept of the Islands Group 4: Towards the Hispanization of the Natives Group 5: Chinese in the Philippines & More European in the Islands e.g 1505: Magellan sailed with a fleet (draw)RPCORPUZ 2013
  4. 4. CHAPTER 4 IN SEARCH FOR NEW LANDS 15th and 16th centuries World wide exploration and expansion RPCORPUZ 2013
  5. 5. Villalobos Magellan LegaspiRPCORPUZ 2013
  6. 6. Why Spanish came to the orient? => They admired the wonders of the orient. => They traded with the Asian country. => In this trade the venetians enjoyed the monopoly. RPCORPUZ 2013
  7. 7. =>Christians crusaders went to the orient because of the desire to know more about the countries of the orient. * The trade routes * ~>developing their trade with orient to Europe. 1. NORTHERN ROUTE *Cities of Samark and and Bokhara,the around the Caspian sea and the black sea and finally to Constantinople in the Mediterranean. RPCORPUZ 2013
  8. 8. 2. CENTRAL ROUTE *started in Malacca in Malay peninsula , then to the Indian ocean and the Indians ports, then to the Persian gulp to Bagdad and Constantinople and finally to Cairo in the Mediterranean . 3. SOUTHERN ROUTE * started to Malacca, then in the Indian ocean and to the ports of India, then to the red sea and finally to Cairo in the Mediterranean . RPCORPUZ 2013
  9. 9. EARLY VOYAGE THE ORIENT first to sent expedition to the orient. one of the most famous PORTUGESE NAVIGATOR was PRINCE HENRY who was called “the navigator”. AZORES= near the coast of Africa about 1421. this expedition discovered the island of MADEIRA & AZORES . They also developed the Spanish colonies. They also use instrument RPCORPUZ 2013
  10. 10. Christopher Columbus •navigate of Genoa , went to Spain and offered his service to the king and queen. •he also discovered NORTH AMARICA in1492. AMERIGO VISPUCCI •explore to what Columbus had found. • the name America is named after him. VICENTE PINZON •discovered Brazil NUNEZ DE BALBOA • discovered the pacific ocean. RPCORPUZ 2013
  11. 11. THE DIVISION OF THE WORLD 1. the Portugal first sail to the orient and to establish the colonies. 2. the rivalry resulted from the discoveries made by the Spain and Portugal 3. there is a possibility that the two GREAT CHRISTIAN nations might go to war because of there rivalry. POPE ALEXANDER VI = he divides the world into two =he said that the east is belonged to Portugal RPCORPUZ 2013
  12. 12. The important of the treaty 1. An imaginary line was drawn from north to south at the distance of 370leagues west of the cape Verde islands . Lands to be discovered east of this line would belong to Portugal and those went would belong to Spain. 2. If Spanish ships discovered lands east of the demarcation line said lands should be turned over to Portugal and lands discovered by Portuguese ships west of the line should tuned over to Spain. 3. No Portuguese ship shall be sent to lands belongs to Spain & vice versa for the purpose of trading with them. RPCORPUZ 2013
  13. 13. MAGELLAN EXPEDITION Ferdinand Magellan- a Portuguese who went to Spain to offer his service to the king. He had been seen the battle in Malacca &Africa. The king ignore him. With the help of his ‘father in law & don Juan de Aranda’ a man occupying a very high position in the Spain the king was amazed he sent an expedition in spice islands under the command of Magellan. RPCORPUZ 2013
  14. 14. Magellan is known as a great Spanish explorer, but he was born Portuguese, Fernão de Magalhães, into a family of minor nobility. He had a keen interest in sailing and marine navigation. He worked for years for the Portuguese government in an office that received and archived reports from Portuguese ships. RPCORPUZ 2013
  15. 15. He went on several major voyages himself eventually becoming a captain. He enjoyed some favor with the Portuguese monarch, Dom Manuel. But, Magellan fell out of favor with Manuel primarily because of his own arrogance. When King Manuel denied his repeated demands for an unprecedented increase in his salary and, instead, fired him, Magellan defected to Portugal's arch-rival, Spain. RPCORPUZ 2013
  16. 16. At the time, Spain and Portugal were the world's two competing super-powers. In 1493, Pope Alexander VI decided to settle the arguments between them by once-and-for-all dividing the world in half. By Papal authority, the eastern half went to Portugal, and the western half to Spain. It seems like an equitable -- if arrogant -- solution. But the Pope's decree didn't exactly specify where the line between the two was to be. RPCORPUZ 2013
  17. 17. Magellan proposed to the Spanish king that he, Magellan, would be able to find the line the Pope had described... and find it in such a way as to prove that the "Moluccas," the coveted Spice Islands -- pretty much what we, today, call Indonesia – were within Spanish territory. The king agreed to support Magellan's voyage.With five ships, San Antonio, Santiago, Trinidad, Victoria, and Concepcion, and 280 men, Magellan's Armada de Moluccas departed in September 1519. RPCORPUZ 2013
  18. 18. RPCORPUZ 2013 FIVE SHIPS 1. Trinidad ( flag ship) 2. Concepcion 3. Victoria 4. Santiago 5. San Antonio
  19. 19. •After they reached Brazil they continue to voyage to Rio de Janeiro and reach the Rio Deplanta in feb.1520. •Magellan crossed the pacific ocean to reach the Ladrones island ( Samar ) in 1521 . •On march 1521 this is the date when the first Spaniards came to the phil. •Magellan also reach Limasawa •March 31 has mass celebrated . •Father PEDRO DE VALDERRAMA. RPCORPUZ 2013
  20. 20. BATTLE OF MACTAN •April 8 1521 the ships harbor of Cebu . •The Cebu chieftain (RAJA HUMABON) welcome Spaniards and soon a blood compact. •Across was erected and Magellan persuaded the Cebuano's to become Christians. • Magellan presented JUANA an image of infant Jesus in the patron of Cebu. •In the battle of Magellan he wounded in the leg and somewhere in the body . •When Magellan died the other Spaniards came back to Spain. RPCORPUZ 2013
  21. 21. RPCORPUZ 2013 Before the expedition of Villalobos start there are: 3 failure expeditions: 1. Loaysa, 2. Labot 3. Sayavedra As we know earlier the Spanish and Portugal fast quarreled about the lands.
  22. 22. THE EXPEDITION OF VILLALOBOS •The two countries decided to have treaty and it is called TREATY OF ZARAGOZA under which Portugal won possession of the Mollucas. •For many years after the conclusion of the Treaty of Zaragoza, Spain respected its provision. •The Viceroy of Mexico chose his brother in law Ruy Lopez de Villa-Lobos to command the expedition . RPCORPUZ 2013
  23. 23. TREATY OF ZARAGOZA • also referred to as the Capitulation of Zaragoza was a peace treaty between Spain and Portugal signed on April 22, 1529 by King John III and the Emperor Charles V, in the Spanish city of Zaragoza. RPCORPUZ 2013
  24. 24. Treaty of Tordesillas • The Treaty of Tordesillas was intended to solve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus and his crew. • Signed at Tordesillas on 7 June 1494 and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain along a meridian 370 leagues. RPCORPUZ 2013
  25. 25. The six ships 1. The Santiago 2. Jorge 3. San Antonio 4. San Cristobal 5. San Martin 6. San Juan •November 1,1542-he left the Mexico •February,1543-he crossed the vast Pacific and reached Mindanao •He died in Amboina in 1546 RPCORPUZ 2013
  26. 26. The Legazpi Expedition Since none of the expedition after Magellan from Loaisa to Villalobos had succeeded in taking over the Philippines, King Charles I stopped sending colonizers to the Islands. However, when Philip II succeeded his father to the throne in 1556, he instructed Luis de Velasco, the viceroy of Mexico, to prepare a new expedition – to be headed by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, who would be accompanied by Andres de Urdaneta, a priest who had survived the Loaisa mission.RPCORPUZ 2013
  27. 27. •On February 13, 1565, Legaspi's expedition landed in Cebu island. • After a short struggle with the natives, he proceeded to Leyte, then to Camiguin and to Bohol. • There Legaspi made a blood compact with the chieftain, Datu Sikatuna as a sign of friendship. • Legaspi was able to obtain spices and gold in Bohol due to his friendship with Sikatuna. •On April 27, 1565, Legaspi returned to Cebu; destroyed the town of Raja Tupas and establish a settlement. •On orders of the King Philip II, 2,100 men arrived from Mexico. •They built the port of Fuerza de San Pedro which became the Spanish trading outpost and stronghold for the region. RPCORPUZ 2013
  28. 28. 4. The Spanish Conquest of the Islands RPCORPUZ 2013
  29. 29. • The Philippines was not formally organized as a Spanish colony until 1565 when Philip II appointed Miguel Lopez de Legazpi the first Governor- General. Statue of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. RPCORPUZ 2013
  30. 30. • Legazpi tried every effort to win the trust of the natives. • Polytheism was still practiced by Filipinos although some had converted to Islam.RPCORPUZ 2013
  31. 31. • Legaspi sends an expedition under the leadership of Martin de Goiti to Manila. Manila is ruled by Rajah Suliman, whose friendship is won by de Goiti. • Rajah Suliman wages war against the Spaniards due to a move by de Goiti which he mistakes for an assault. De Goiti's army defeats Suliman's troops and occupies the town. RPCORPUZ 2013
  32. 32. Panday Pira Pande Pira acknowledged as the first Filipino metallurgist. He had devised the cannons using a mold of clay and wax which Muslim leader Rajah Suliman used to protect Manila against the invading Spanish troops. RPCORPUZ 2013
  33. 33. Establishment of Manila as Capital • Legaspi establishes his government in Manila and proclaims it the capital of the Philippines, calling it the Insigne y Siempre Leal Ciudad which means "distinguished and ever loyal city". RPCORPUZ 2013
  34. 34. Manila in 1700’s Coat of Arms RPCORPUZ 2013
  35. 35. • From the beginning of Spanish rule in 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was a dependency of Mexico. • The Mexican viceroy, in the name of King of Spain administered the country. • After 1821, the Philippines was directly governed from Madrid. RPCORPUZ 2013
  36. 36. Strategies Implemented by Spain RPCORPUZ 2013
  37. 37. The Sword and the Cross • These two symbols are what constituted the strategies or tactics used by the Spaniards in invading the Philippines. It made the pacification of the natives easier. The cross symbolizes religion while the sword symbolizes force. RPCORPUZ 2013
  38. 38. The Blood Compact RPCORPUZ 2013
  39. 39. The Blood Compact • Through the blood compact of Magallanes and Kulambo, Magallanes and Humabon, and even Legazpi, Sikatuna and Gala, the natives were enticed. This ritual symbolizes unity and is done by the slashing of the wrist of both parties and drinking the blood of the other fused with wine. The giving of gifts of Spaniards to the datus and their families were also strategies to occupy the Philippines. RPCORPUZ 2013
  40. 40. Reduccion • Reduccion is the centralization of the Filipino community where churches, convents, casa real and plaza complexes can be found. Plazas are where people gather when there are events or celebrations like festivals. By using this system, the Spaniards can easily monitor the movements of Filipinos to prevent protests and to collect the taxes easier. There are also changes in the architectural designs of infrastructures. RPCORPUZ 2013
  41. 41. Plaza Complex RPCORPUZ 2013
  42. 42. Divide et Impera (Divide and Rule) • In line with reduccion, the people were categorized based on race and religion. For the still rebellious places, entrada was enforced. For those which are not, Spain turned the citizens to soldiers and were made to fight with their fellow Filipinos. RPCORPUZ 2013
  43. 43. The Encomienda • The word “encomienda” comes from the Spanish “encomendar” which means “to entrust.” • Ecomienda is a grant of inhabitants living in particular conquered territory which Spain gave to Spanish colonizer as a reward for his services (Zaide) RPCORPUZ 2013
  44. 44. The encomienda was not a land grant, it was more of an administrative unit to extract tribute RPCORPUZ 2013
  45. 45. The Tribute • In July 26, 1523, King Charles V decreed that Indians who had been pacified should contribute a “moderate amount” in recognition of their vassalage (Cushner 1979). In theory the tribute or tax was collected from the natives in order to defray the costs of colonization and to recognize their vassalage to the king of Spain. RPCORPUZ 2013
  46. 46. The Political Structure • Spain established a centralized colonial government in the Philippines that was composed of a national government and the local governments that administered provinces, cities, towns and municipalities. RPCORPUZ 2013
  47. 47. Provinces King Philippines Governor General Spain Alcalde Mayor Towns Gobernadorcillo Barangays Cabeza de Barangay Alcaldia-Mayor Corregimientos Political Structure in the Philippines during Spanish ColonizationRPCORPUZ 2013
  48. 48. The Royal Audiencia Apart from its judicial functions, the Royal Audiencia served as an advisory body to the Governor General and had the power to check and a report on his abuses. The Audiencia also audited the expenditures of the colonial government and sent a yearly report to Spain. RPCORPUZ 2013
  49. 49. The Polo The Polo or forced labor is another Spanish that had created discontent among the Indios during the Spanish times. All men between sixteen and sixty years of age, except chieftains and their elder sons, were required to render labor of various forms for 40 days in the colony. This was instituted in 1580 and reduced to 15 days per year in 1884 (Constantino). RPCORPUZ 2013
  50. 50. Polo y Servicio RPCORPUZ 2013
  51. 51. The Bandala In the first half of the 17th century, Governor Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera begins collecting the bandala from the natives. Bandala is an annual quota of products assigned to the natives for compulsory sale to the government. RPCORPUZ 2013
  52. 52. 5. Towards the Hispanization of the Natives RPCORPUZ 2013
  53. 53. Spanish integration The Spaniards integrated into the Philippine society their o Religion o Language o Custom o Arts and o Science RPCORPUZ 2013
  54. 54. Union of Church and state The Colonial Administration shared the power of governance with the Church. The church meddled with governmental functions and this led to the supremacy of the Church over the Government. RPCORPUZ 2013
  55. 55. Reduccion The Spanish authorities clustered the Filipino population into village settlements where they could more easily be instructed. Spanish urbanization was centered in the city of Manila, within a walled city called Intramuros. RPCORPUZ 2013
  56. 56. Intramuros RPCORPUZ 2013
  57. 57. Churches RPCORPUZ 2013
  58. 58. Churches RPCORPUZ 2013
  59. 59. SCHOOLS RPCORPUZ 2013
  60. 60. roads RPCORPUZ 2013
  61. 61. Bahay na bato RPCORPUZ 2013
  62. 62. Bahay na bato azotea comedor RPCORPUZ 2013
  63. 63. Social structure RPCORPUZ 2013
  64. 64. Social structure • Peninsulares = Spaniards who grew up in Spain • Insulares = Spaniards who grew up in the Philippines • Spanish Mestizos = half-Spaniards • Principalia = former Filipino tribe leaders before the invasion of Spain (datus, rajahs, maharlikas and others) • Chinese Mestizos = half-Chinese • Chinese = Chinese living in the Philippines • ‘Indios’ = what the Spaniards derogatorily call the Filipinos RPCORPUZ 2013
  65. 65. education Education in the prehispanic period is informal. The children are only taught by their parents in vocations that can be used in their everyday lives. But with the coming of the Spaniards, education was formalized and it focused on the doctrines of Christianity. RPCORPUZ 2013
  66. 66. education The subjects taught were catechism, reading and writing in the dialect, music, arithmetic, and trades and industries. The Spanish aristocracy tried to distinguish themselves from indios through the use of language and level of education. RPCORPUZ 2013
  67. 67. education Higher education was established exclusively for Spaniards and Filipinos, referring to those born in the colony to Spanish parents. Colleges and universities were closed to indios. RPCORPUZ 2013
  68. 68. education Colleges, which later, became universities, were also established. Examples of these are: University of Sto.Tomas, Ateneo de Manila, San Juan de Letran, etc. Schools and nunnery for women were also introduced. RPCORPUZ 2013
  69. 69. education School for boys were separated from that of the girls. Courses such as Law, Medicine, Engineering were limited only to males. Females were given special education in the colegio (regular schools for girls) and in the beaterio (combined school and nunnery). RPCORPUZ 2013
  70. 70. Printed books and published materials • Doctrina Christiana (1593) • Pasion • Doce Pares de Francia, Bernardo Carpio, Adela at Florante written by Jose de la Cruz • Lam-Ang by Pedro Bukaneg • Florante at Laura by Francisco Baltazar RPCORPUZ 2013
  71. 71. Development of infrastructure and public utilities Ferrocaril de Manila: the only railway line in the archipelago, which was constructed using mainly Filipino labor. By 1892, five street car service lines connected the primate city with the suburbs with horse-drawn cars. RPCORPUZ 2013
  72. 72. Development of infrastructure and public utilities Puente Colgante (Quezon bridge): the first suspension bridge in the Far East. Public Lighting System: used with coconut oil as fuel (1814). By 1893, the walled city (Intramuros) and suburbs were already powered by electricity, with the founding of the La Electricista de Manila. RPCORPUZ 2013
  73. 73. Galleon trade Through the galleon trade (derived from the name of the ships used to transport goods from one country to another), American-Asian commerce flourished, but only a very few privileged Spaniards were benefited. RPCORPUZ 2013
  74. 74. Galleon trade RPCORPUZ 2013
  75. 75. Christianity Christianity is considered as Spain’s greatest and lasting legacy in the country. The Christianization (Roman Catholic) of the Filipinos was really the most outstanding achievement of the Spanish missionaries. And as a result of the missionaries’ apostolic labors, the Filipino people have become uniquely the only Christian nation in the entire Asian world. RPCORPUZ 2013
  76. 76. Christianity The Spaniards converted much of the Philippines to Christianity except for Mindanao and Sulu. The striking resemblances between the pre- colonial religion and Catholicism have made the latter acceptable to the local inhabitants. RPCORPUZ 2013
  77. 77. Images of Catholicism RPCORPUZ 2013
  78. 78. Images of Catholicism Pahiyas RPCORPUZ 2013
  79. 79. Images of Catholicism Dancing in Obando RPCORPUZ 2013
  80. 80. Images of Catholicism Peñafrancia FestivalRPCORPUZ 2013
  81. 81. REFLECTIVE ANALYSIS • The said expedition is considered historic because it marked the first CIRCUMNAVIGATION of the globe and proved that the world is round. • The Philippines was easily conquered because the native lacked unity and a centralized form of government RPCORPUZ 2013
  82. 82. ASSIGNMENT/PARTICIPATION Per GROUP: Summarized and Create a 4pics one word STORY for Struggle for Rights and Freedom Chapter 5 1-32 1. I: 1-5 2.II: 6-10 3. III: 11-16 4. VI: 17-21 5.V: 22-24 6. VI: 27-28 7. VII:29-32 RPCORPUZ 2013