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  • Definition 3 expresses philosophy as we are going to understand it in this class. Philosophy in this sense is (like definition 1, but unlike definition 2) an activity: it is something you do. In particular, doing philosophy is using our rationality in trying to figure out the answers to difficult questions (related to any subject matter).
  • Ethics is a branch of philosophy which assesses explanatory theories concerning the moral rightness or wrongness of different kinds of actions, as well as the moral goodness or badness of different kinds of emotions, intensions, volitions and states of character.
  • Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη - episteme-, "knowledge, science" + λόγος, "logos") or theory of knowledge
    is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.[1]
    Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims.
    The term was introduced into English by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier (1808–1864).[2]
  • It addresses the
    • What is knowledge?
    • How is knowledge acquired?
    • What do people know?
    • How do we know what we know?
  • Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy which assesses world views.
    A world view is any more or less complete enumeration of the most general categories of being, coupled with a definition of each of those categories, an account of the way in which things in those categories are related to each other, as well as an account of the ultimate origins of things.
    Metaphysics (G. meta ta physica – “after the Physics”) ~ a science that studies all beings insofar as they are beings.
    Ontology (G. ontologia; onto – “being” and logia – “talking”; “talking about being”) ~ a metaphysical study of all realities/beings insofar as they exist.
    Real ~ extra-mental or that whose existence is independent of the human mind.
    Logical ~ one which is considered as intra-mental (e.g., numbers, geometrical points, mathematical objects, time); they don’t have “real existence” in the outside world.
    Ideal ~ one which is purely intra-mental; those whose existence lies only inside the human mind (e.g., flying-horse, golden mountain, square-circle) Approaches to Philosophy
    Special Metaphysics ~ studies beings specially or specifically, when it studies the world (cosmology), God (theodicy), and man (rational psychology).
    Cosmology ~ a metaphysical science which studies the general nature of the world or the structure and history of the universe.
    Theodicy or Natural Theology ~ a metaphysical science which studies the nature, operations, and attributes of God or the study about God in the context of reason, not of faith.
    Rational Psychology ~ a metaphysical science which treats man’s nature as a being endowed with reason and intellect which studies the rational metaphysics of the human soul
  • A philosophical study on the correct processes of thinking.
    The systematic study of argument
    The rule of inference
    Distinguishing valid from invalid argument
    Examination fallacies
    Using correct argument patterns

    1. 1. PHILOSOPHY Prepared by Raizza Corpuz
    4. 4. REMEMBER • In studying PHILOSOPHY one should KNOW the : 1.Contextualize/ation 2.Basis In this way one can distinguish both VALIDITY and TRUTH, GENUINE and ESSENTIAL ideals.
    6. 6. “Wasn’t it extraordinary to be in the world right now, wandering around in a wonderful adventure!” ― Jostein Gaarder, Sophie's World
    7. 7. Wonder • To be filled with curiosity or doubt • An event inexplicable by the laws of nature; a miracle. • A feeling of puzzlement or doubt. Source: Thesaurus Dictionary
    8. 8. Wander: Verb • Walk or move in a leisurely, casual, or aimless way. • An act or instance of wandering. verb. roam - ramble - rove straynoun. wandering - stroll - saunter ramble Source: Thesaurus Dictionary
    9. 9. • Philosophers’ definition-arises out of wonder, out of curiosity, out of desire to learn, and to understand things. • According to the Philosopher, Philosophy is a process of analysis, criticism, interpretation and speculation • Analysis-if we know how to synthesis and antithesis. • Synthesis- put idea together or event of the same characteristic. • Antithesis- remove from or put it out, removing ideas • Criticism- is a process of commenting or giving a judgment, even if its positive or negative. • Interpretation-demonstration of ideas. • Speculation-being satisfied.
    10. 10. A. Meaning of Philosophy Etymology Etymology- or etymological definition of Philosophy -derived for Greek words etimos and logos Etimos-root, origin, cause, basis, history Logos-study Etymology-study of the history of the word Philosophy comes from the Geek Words Philia and Sofia. Sofia-wisdom Philia-love, desire for, interest in Philia and Sofia join by Pythagoras-600 B.C. Episteme-means knowledge Wisdom-defining deeply, wise, according to etymology -is an awareness of something which is basic. -knowledge of the basic principle. Knowledge-is only a million formation -simple data that comes from the outside that pass to our senses.
    11. 11. What is Philosophy as a TERM/WORD? The term “philosophy” comes from the Greek language. It consists of two words : • philos, (love, or philia )– friendship, affection • sophos (learned scholar, sage, or • sophia - wisdom, knowledge, talent)
    12. 12. “philo” - love “sophia” - wisdom THUS: 1. Philosophy is the love of wisdom 2. Philosophy attempts to answer life's Big Questions 3. Philosophy is about Questions 4. Philosophers ask Questions about what people Believe 5. Philosophy is about Examining Ourselves & Our Beliefs
    13. 13. THERE ARE MANY QUESTIONS but there are SOME BIG QUESTION What? Why? HOW
    14. 14. What are the REASONS for a particular belief?
    15. 15. Have you ever looked in the mirror and asked: The Unexamined Life is not worth living.” (Socrates) Who am I? Why am I here? What should I do with my life?
    16. 16. Have you ever looked in the mirror and asked: OR???
    17. 17. Examining Our Beliefs Behavior Beliefs and Values World-View I Exist. Other People Exist. I believe that my friend is real I talk to my friend
    18. 18. What is ‘Philosophy’?
    20. 20. Ethics Religion Epistemology Politics Aesthetics Philosophy Science Logic Metaphysics Branches of Philosophy
    21. 21. Branches of Philosophy
    22. 22. Ethics Questions: How should we live? What is good and evil? What is the best way to live? What is Justice? Is right and wrong the same everywhere or different everywhere?
    23. 23. Ethics
    24. 24. Epistemology Knowledge Science Explores the nature and limitations of knowledge Definition of knowledge Investigates how knowledge is obtained Explores the relationship between belief, truth and knowledge
    25. 25. Epistemology Questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? How do we know what we know?
    26. 26. What is Epistemology?
    27. 27. Epistemological Questions
    28. 28. Metaphysics Knowledge Science Explores the fundamental nature of reality and being Ontology Existence Objects Properties Space and Time Cause and Effect
    29. 29. Metaphysics Questions: What is real? What is reality? What is reality like?
    30. 30. Metaphysics
    31. 31. Politics Political Philosophy Explores the relationship between citizens and governments Liberty Legal Justice Property Ownership Citizen's Rights System of Law
    32. 32. Politics Questions: How should government be organized? What makes a government legitimate? Who decides who the leaders should be? What laws are good and necessary? How should law be enforced?
    33. 33. Aesthetics Sensori-Emotional Values Explores the nature of beauty, art, and taste with the creation and appreciation of beauty
    34. 34. Aesthetics Questions What is beauty? What is art? What is the value of beauty and art? Who should judge what is beautiful or artistic? How should art and beauty be judged?
    35. 35. Aesthetics Discussion: On the left is Marcel Duchamp's ready-made “sculpture” called “Fountain”. It's a factorymade urinal on a stand. Is this “Art”? Why / Why not? Is it beautiful? Offensive? Why?
    36. 36. Logic Rules for Thinking The systematic principles (or rules) for thinking rationally. Inferences are made by construction of Arguments Rules of Logic determine which arguments are VALID and which are FALACIES
    37. 37. Logic
    38. 38. Religion Philosophy of Religion Branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion Nature & Existence of God Theology Examination of Religious Experience Analysis of Religious language and texts Relationship between Religion and Science
    39. 39. Religion Questions Does God exist? What is God? What is the nature of the relationship between God and humans? Is God active in the world? How? Is there life after death? What is the relationship between Religion and Ethics? ...Religion and Science?
    40. 40. Religion Pantheism What is God? God is the Universe and the Universe is God. There is no distinction between God and the universe (nature). Some forms of Buddhism are examples of pantheism.
    41. 41. Religion Panentheism What is God? God is in the Universe and the Universe is in God God is more than the Universe. God and the Universe are connected but not identical.
    42. 42. Philosophy of Science Science Concerned with the assumptions, foundations, methods and implications of science. Empirical Verification Inductive Logic Objectivity of the Observer
    43. 43. Philosophy of Science Questions What is the natural world? How should we study nature? What methods are useful in the study of nature? Can science establish Natural Laws which are absolute (true everywhere and for everyone)? What are the limits of scientific knowledge?
    44. 44. THANK YOU!!! –END--
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