Glimpse of our past

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Glimpse of our past

  1. 1. GLIMPSE of OUR PAST The Philippines : "A foretaste through history“ Prepared by Raizza Corpuz
  2. 2. PHILIPPINE GEOGRAPHY RPC 2013
  3. 3. Theories • Part of a lost continent • It was believed that the Philippines was a remnant of a vast continent in the pacific which had sunk during pre- historic times like the fabled Atlantis lost somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. • This lost pacific continent was called “Lemuria” or “Mu” • Its remnants aside from Philippines were Borneo, Celebes, Java, Sumatra, and other islands of the pacific. RPC 2013
  4. 4. Volcanic Origin ♦ It was proposed by Dr. Bailey Willis. ♦ According to this theory, Philippines was born due to the eruptions of sea volcanoes in remote epochs. Dr. Bailey Willis ♦ was a geological engineer who worked for theUnited States Geological Survey (USGS), and lectured at two prominent American universities. RPC 2013
  5. 5. • Land Bridge Theory o This theory suggests that Philippines was once a landmass bridging China and the Asian Mainland, to Borneo, Indonesia, New Guinea, and even Australia. o The present China Sea was an exposed dry land known as the Sunda Shelf which covered an area of 1, 800, 000 square kilometers. o During the post glacial age, about 250, 000 years ago, the world’s ice melted, causing the sea level to rise. Consequently, the lower land regions including the land bridges linking Asia and the Philippines were submerged, thus, Philippines archipelago was formed. RPC 2013
  6. 6. This theory is supplied by the following plausible reasons 1. Similarity of fauna and flora in Asia and the Philippines 2. Similarity of rock structure 3. Existence of the shallow China Sea between the Asia Mainland and the Philippines 4. The presence of a fore deep at the eastern margin of the Philippines indicating the archipelago was once the edge of the Asia continental Platform RPC 2013
  7. 7. Archipelago’s Name • Filipinas • The name given to Philippines in 1543 by the ill- starred Spanish explorer, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in honor of Prince Felipe of Austria who later became Philip II, the greatest king of Spain. • This name first appeared on a rare map published at Venice in 1554 by Giovanni Battista Ramusio. RPC 2013
  8. 8. Philippine Islands ♦ The anglicized name of Filipinas during the American colonial regime. ♦ Republic of the Philippines ♦ The name given to Philippines after the decolonization in 1946. ♦ Ma-yi/ ma-i ♦ The name given to Philippines by the early Chinese traders such as Chau Ju Kua and Wang Ta- Yuan. ♦ Same names such as Mintolang for Mindanao, Makilu for Manila, and Pishoye for Visayas were also dubbed to Philippines by the Chinese. RPC 2013
  9. 9. ♦ Ma- i is generally accepted to refer to the island of Mindoro in Luzon because of its gold and proximity in the Chinese mainland. • Rizaline Republic ♦ The name proposed by the Katipunan General Artemio Ricarte in honor of Dr. Jose Rizal • Maharlika ♦ It was proposed by former President Ferdinand Marcos after his dream of making the Philippines great again. RPC 2013
  10. 10. Pearl of the Orient Seas ♦ The most romantic name of the Philippines. ♦ It was originally given in 1751 by father Juan J. Delgado as a name of Manila (Pearl of the Orient) and was also mentioned by Manuel De Azcarraga y Palmero. ♦ It was also grunted by Dr. Jose P. Rizal in his published article in the Hong Kong Telegraph RPC 2013
  11. 11. Geography and Resources • Location • The Philippine Archipelago sprawls a little above the equator in Southeast Asia between latitude 4 degree 23” and 21 degree 25” north and longitude 116 degree and 127 degree east. • Area ♦ The Philippines is an archipelago of 7, 107 islands of which 2, 773 are named. ♦ It has a total land area of 115, 707 sq. miles or 299, 681 sq. km. ♦ Luzon has an area of 40, 814 sq. miles while Mindanao has 36, 906 sq. miles. RPC 2013
  12. 12. Philippines has a very strategic location due to the following; 1. It serves as a bridge between the cultures of the East and the West 2. It lies at the crossroad of international air and sea routes. 3. It looms as bastion of democracy in an area where dictators and communism hold sway over Asian Nations. 4. It is the citadel of Christianity between the largely Christian west and largely non- Christian east. Hence, its role as “Christian Light of the World”. RPC 2013
  13. 13. Shape RPC 2013 ♦ Philippines is an inverted Y- shaped archipelago of numerous islands, islets, coral reefs, abundant rivers, lakes and bays, mountains and valleys, cool plateaus, and scenic volcanoes.
  14. 14. ♦ Christian Scholars commented that Luzon is like a Helmet, Visayas and Mindanao is the Arms and Legs, and Palawan is Spirit Sword. RPC 2013
  15. 15. Climate ♦ The Philippine climate is tropical and monsoonal in character. ♦ The two distinct seasons are dry season and wet season. ♦ The temperature varies from 21 degree Celsius to 32 degree Celsius. ♦ The coldest month is January and the Hottest is May. RPC 2013
  16. 16. Regions RPC 2013
  17. 17. ♦ Region 1- Ilocos Region ♦ Region 2- Cagayan Valley ♦ Region 3- Central Luzon ♦ Region 4A- CALABARZON ♦ Region 4B- MIMAROPA ♦ Region 5- Bicol Region ♦ Region 6- Western Visayas ♦ Region 7- Central Visayas ♦ Region 8- Eastern Visayas RPC 2013
  18. 18. ♦ Region 9- Zamboanga Peninsula ♦ Region 10- Northern Mindanao ♦ Region 11- Davao Region ♦ Region 12- SOCCSKSARGEN ♦ Region 13- CARAGA ♦ CAR- Cordillera Administrative Region ♦ NCR- National Capital Region ♦ ARMM- Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao RPC 2013
  19. 19. Natural Resources ♦ Soil is the most important natural resources in the Philippines primarily of most people earn a living from tiling the land. Filipinos are fortunate of having a highly fertile land. ♦ The country has rich plant life. Agricultural experts believed that 8,120 species of plants grow in the country, that is, about 1,000 varieties of orchids, 1,000 species of rice, and 3,000 species of trees. RPC 2013
  20. 20. ♦ 850 species of birds are found in the Philippines. Carabao is the most useful animal for it serves as farmer’s best friend. ♦ At least 2,000 species of fish are found in the waters of the Philippine archipelago. ♦ Philippine forest lands have a total area of 16,633,000 hectares which represents 55 percent of the total land area. The Philippines rank third in forest reserves. RPC 2013
  21. 21. ♦ Philippines is one of Asia’s great gold producing regions. ♦ Energy in the Philippines is used to supply electricity and fuel to run factories, light homes, and offices. RPC 2013
  22. 22. Beauty Spots ♦ The Banaue Rice Terraces was built more than 2,000 years ago by hardy Ifugaos using only their bare hands and crude stone tools. ♦ The Mount Mayon is the Crowning Glory of the Philippine Natural Wonders. ♦ Manila Bay is one of the Enchanting Wonders of the Country. ♦ Other beauty spots are being rediscovered. RPC 2013
  23. 23. Historical Places 1. Luneta Park- It was a beautiful setting built in honor of the Philippines greatest hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal. It is used to be called Bagumbayan Field where Rizal was executed by a Spanish military firing squad at early dawn of December 30, 1896. RPC 2013
  24. 24. ♦ Corregidor- It is a national shrine nicknamed as “The Rock”. This was the vlast bastion to fall to the invading Japanese in 1942. Such made it the symbol of the determined resistance of its Filipino and American defenders. RPC 2013
  25. 25. ♦ Paoay Church- It was built in 1694 commissioned by the Augustinian friars led by Fr. Antonio Estavillo. It was declared as one of the national treasures by former president Ferdinand Marcos. RPC 2013
  26. 26. ♦ Intramuros (Fort Santiago)- It was the old capital of Manila which was built in 1571. It was used to be the seat of colonial powers of both Spain and the United States of America. It was also a dreaded prison under the Spanish regime and the scene of countless military police atrocities during the Japanese occupation. Here, too, Dr. Jose Rizal spent his last hours before his execution at Bagumbayan. RPC 2013
  27. 27. ♦ Aguinaldo Shrine- It was here where Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. This was where the Philippine flag first raised. RPC 2013
  28. 28. ♦ Cavite Shrine- It was in this place where Emilio Aguinaldo was declared the first president of the Philippine republic. The republic of which the first in Asia. RPC 2013
  29. 29. ♦ Barasoain Church- It was here where the constitution of the republican government was drafted on September 15, 1898. this constitution was also known as the Malolos Constitution because the church is located in Malolos, Bulacan. RPC 2013
  30. 30. ♦ Mount Samat- It is situated at Pilar, Bataan. It is in this mountain that the gigantic cross named as “Dambana ng Kagitingan” (Altar of Valor) was erected on April 1942. the cross symbolizes the heroic and courageous defense made by fatigue, hungry, and sick Filipino and American soldiers in regain our freedom during world war II. RPC 2013
  31. 31. Beauty Spots ♦ The Banaue Rice Terraces was built more than 2,000 years ago by hardy Ifugaos using only their bare hands and crude stone tools. ♦ The Mount Mayon is the Crowning Glory of the Philippine Natural Wonders. ♦ Chocolate Hills in Bohol RPC 2013
  32. 32. RPC 2013
  33. 33. THE FILIPINO PEOPLE Origin of the Filipinos ♦The Religious Sources(Friar- Historians Ideas) • The ancestors of the Filipinos sprung out of the soil like wild plants. • Filipinos were created by the sun. • Filipinos were produced from base metals by the magic act of the ancient alchemist or termed as herbolarios RPC 2013
  34. 34. • Filipinos descended from the Adam of Asia; the other Adam being European Adam, for whom the Spaniards and the Jews came from. • Filipinos were descendants of Tarshish, one of Noah’s great grandsons, who settled in the Philippines after the great flood. RPC 2013
  35. 35. Legends ♦ The first Filipino couple sprang out from bamboo nodules. They were named Lalake and Babae or Malakas and Maganda. ♦ The second legend claims a racial superiority in the brown complexion of the Filipinos that is Filipinos were baked by God named Bathala. RPC 2013
  36. 36. Theories ♦ Migration Theory- It was proposed by Professor H. Otley Beyer. Beyer believed that Filipinos came from to the Philippines in different waves of migration. ....MIGRATION THEORY.xlsx RPC 2013
  37. 37. Critiques • Prof. Beyer used the 19th century scientific methods of progressive evolution and migratory diffusion as the basis for his hypotheses, which have now been proven to be too simple and unreliable to explain such theory. • The empirical archaeological data for this theory was based on surface finds and mere conjecture, which lot of imagination and unproven data included. • There are no evidences of the existence of the Dawn Man. So far, the oldest human fossil in the Philippines is the skull cap of a stone aged Filipino about 22,000 years ago which was excavated by Dr. Robert B. Fox inside Tabon Cave in Palawan on May 28, 1962. RPC 2013
  38. 38. • Undue credit is given to the Malays as the original settlers of the lowland regions and the dominant cultural transmitters. • The migration theory does not agree with the real character of Filipinos, who are adaptive and highly creative people because it suggests that the Filipinos were only passive receptors of outside culture. RPC 2013
  39. 39. Core Population Theory- ♦This theory asserted that Filipinos were not merely passive receptors of outside culture but adaptors and in some way initiators of creative changes. It puts emphasis on the cultural integrity and adaptability of the Filipinos which made this theory favored by modern scholars. RPC 2013
  40. 40. Filipino Traits ♦ Strengths of the Filipino Character 1. Family Orientation-It refers to a genuine and deep love for the family. For the Filipinos, the family, as the basic social institution. 2. Hard Work and Industry- It refers to one’s willingness to risk taking jobs in a foreign land with a different culture, not to mention the social cost. RPC 2013
  41. 41. 3. Flexibility, Adaptability, and Creativity - Filipinos have the capacity to adjust and to adapt to conditions and circumstances in a given environment, both physical and social. 4. Pakikipagkapwa- tao- It refers to a deep sense of concern for one’s dignity and respect. This is manifested in a basic regard for justice and fairness to others. “Pakikiramay “pakikiramdam” and “pagtitiwala” are bonds that promote feelings of closeness to one another and become the foundation of unity RPC 2013
  42. 42. 5. Joy and Humor- - It refers to propensity to cheer and laugh and have a fun loving approach to the ups and downs of life 6. Faith and Religiosity- Filipinos have a deep faith in God. Their innate religiosity enables them to comprehend and genuinely accept reality in the context of God’s will and plan RPC 2013
  43. 43. SHARE WHAT YOU READ! PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD OF THE PHILIPPINES…. RPC 2013 CULTURAL EVOLUTION
  44. 44. PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD: Philippine History a look into our past settings, customs, practices and culture
  45. 45. History Tabon Man •The oldest human fossil found in the Philippines is the skull cap of a "Stone-Age Filipino", about 22,000 years old. •Discovered by Dr. Robert B. Fox, American anthropologist of the National Museum, inside Tabon Cave Palawan, on May 28, 1962. .
  46. 46. ♦ Early historians believed that the first settlers of the Philippines came by the land bridges from Mainland Asia during Pleistocene epoch. They lived by hunting and gathering. ♦ Western historians assume that our aborigines were the Australo-Melanesian people – small with dark skin and curly brown hair. Ancestors of today’s Negritos or Aetas. RPC 2013
  47. 47. 1. The Negritos The first people to come to the Philippines. They were called Atis or Aetas They came across land bridges from mainland Asia about 25, 000 years ago. The Negritos were very small people and less than five feet tall. They were called Negritos because they have black skin, short kinky hair, thick lips, and black noses.
  48. 48. ♦ In the field of archaeology, Migration of Proto-Austronesian type is believed to have resulted to the peopling of the Philippine archipelago. Their arrival being linked to the New Stone Age in Southeast Asia RPC 2013
  49. 49. ♦ Mainland Origin Hypothesis by Peter Bellwood and K.C. Chang states that the early inhabitants originated from South China and Taiwan. ♦ By about 5,000 BC to 4,000 BC they have reached Northern Philippines. They replace the hunting and gathering people. RPC 2013
  50. 50. ♦ Island Origin Hypothesis lead by Wilhelm Solheim II proposed that prehistoric people originated and dispersed from an island in Southeast Asia. ♦ Proto-Austronesian developed primarily in Northeastern Indonesia and Mindanao Island. RPC 2013
  51. 51. The Indonesians ♦ They were the first immigrants to come by the sea to the Philippines. ♦ They came about 5, 000 years ago and sailed in boats from South Asia. ♦ They drove the Negritos into the mountainsand lived in the lowlands. ♦ There were two types of Indonesians: – 1. tall, with light skin, large forehead, high nose and thin lips – 2. shorter and darker, large nose, thick lips
  52. 52. The Indonesians •First Sea-Immigrants •They were the maritime Indonesians, who belonged to the Mongoloid race with Caucasian affinities. • They belonged to the New Stone Age (Neolithic).
  53. 53. Felipe Landa Jocano (Questions and Challenges in Philippine Pre-History) ♦ “They stand co-equal as ethnic groups, without anyone being the dominant group, racially or culturally”. ♦ “The differences are due to the differences of their response to their environment”. ♦ “On the other hand, similarities are due to the adjustment to their environment”.
  54. 54. ♦ The people of prehistoric island Southeast Asia belonged to same population. It grew out of combination of human evolution and movements of other people. ♦ The core population shared a common cultural orientation and cultural elements. ♦ The configuration of these shared elements into a common way of life is what we call the base culture. ♦ None of these ancient men could be categorized under any of the historically identified ethnic groups. It was the West who fragmented the population into groups.
  55. 55. ♦ … the explanation of the peopling of the Philippines through a series of waves of migration as documented by folk history like the Maragtas has to be reconsidered. ♦ The undue credit given to the Malays as the original settlers of the region and dominant cultural transmitter must be corrected.
  56. 56. CAGAYAN MAN & TABON MAN  Homo Sapiens (Tabon Man) – “It is difficult to come up with the perfect theory, the artifacts can not speak for themselves” (Dr. Eusebio Dizon, National Museum) – Robert Fox (Lecture in National Museum) • Why in Palawan? – Palawan is the perfect corridor thet bridged the Philippines to Borneo. – First men who came to the Philippines inhabited the island eversince Paleolithic era (500,000 years ago.
  57. 57. – When the ice melted and land bridges sank, Neolithic era began. – It was the start of the dramatic changes in tools of ancient man and were much superior to the tools of Paleolithic people. – These tools, according to Fox, are commonly in the Pacific were found in cave sites in Palwan. – There are two general theories on where the Neolithic Man who inhabited the Philippines came from…
  58. 58. Pre - History The cultural achievements of pre-colonial Philippines include those covered by prehistory and early history of the Philippines archipelago and its inhabitants, which are the indigenous forebears of today's Filipino people. These early Filipinos possessed a culture and technology that were quite advanced considering the timeline of history of science when it flourished. Waves of migrants who came to settle in the islands contributed to the development of ancient Philippine civilization.
  59. 59. ♦ Prehistoric aborigines, a cross of Afro- Asiatic and Austro-Aborigines, now called Negritos (Aeta, Agta, Ayta) reached the islands by way of land bridges around 15,000 to 30,000 BC, and they were excellent hunters and food gatherers. In its midst, other ancient civilizations were also thriving and evolving. RPC 2013
  60. 60. ♦ The Proto-Malays, a Mongol-Asiatic race, arrived around 2500 BC using oceanic vessels called balangays, and they brought with them their knowledge in seafaring, farming, building of houses from trees and creation of fire for cooking. The next to arrive were the Duetero-Malays, of India- Asiatic race (Indian, Chinese, Siamese, Arabic), that prevailed with a more superior and advanced culture. RPC 2013
  61. 61. ♦ They possessed their own systems of writing, knowledge and skills in agriculture, metallurgy, jewelry-making as well as boat- building. ♦ When the Spaniards came to the islands in the 15th century, industries such as mining, agriculture, fishing and pottery were already in place and contacts with other Asian nations had been long established. RPC 2013
  62. 62. Peopling of thePeopling of the Pre-ColonnialPre-Colonnial PhilippinesPhilippines The Negritos were early settlers but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated ; and they were followed by speakers of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, a branch of the Austronesian languages, who began to arrive in successive waves beginning about 4000 B.C.E, displacing the earlier arrivals. By 1000 B.C. the inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago had developed into four distinct kinds of peoples: tribal groups, such as the Aetas, Hanunoo, Ilongots and the Mangyan who depended on hunter-gathering and were concentrated in forests; warrior societies, such as the Isneg and Kalingas who practiced social ranking and ritualized warfare and roamed the plains; the petty plutocracy of the Ifugao Cordillera Highlanders, who occupied the mountain ranges of Luzon; and the harbor principalities of the estuarine civilizations that grew along rivers and seashores while participating in trans-island maritime trade.
  63. 63. Pre – ColonialPre – Colonial CultureCulture During the early period thousand years ago, the early Filipinos were composed of different groups that came from different part of Asia. With different groups they form their own community, system of education and religious belief. They group into different communities composed of 50 to 2,000 individuals and they construct their shelters in different areas according to their lifestyle and source of living. Usually they were situated along the seashores, streams, rivers, forests, fertile land areas and even in caves. In water areas they look for fish, shells and pearls as their source of living. They also used boat and craft as there means of transportation for an easier travel and carrying their goods for trade from one place to another. For those people located in land areas they cultivate the land and plant rice, bananas and crops. After the harvest they no longer use the area indeed they just move to another place with less grass and fine soil and abundant of trees where they can start farming again. Perhaps this gives an idea that the Philippines is very rich of resources for a bountiful living.
  64. 64. Pre – ColonialPre – Colonial CultureCulture During the pre-colonial time there was already an indigenous spiritual traditions practiced by the people in the Philippines. Generally, for lack of better terminology prehistoric people are described to be animistic. Their practice was a collection of beliefs and cultural mores anchored in the idea that the world is inhabited by spirits and supernatural entities, both good and bad, and that respect be accorded to them through nature worship thus; they believed that their daily lives has a connection of such beliefs.
  65. 65. Pre – ColonialPre – Colonial CultureCulture These spirits are said to be the anito or diwata that they believed to be good and bad. The good spirits were considered as there relatives and the bad were believed to be their enemies. Some worship specific deities like Bathala a supreme god for the Tagalog, Laon or Abba for the Visayan, Ikasi of Zambal, Gugurang for the people of Bicol and Kabunian of Ilocano and Ifugao. Aside from those supreme deities they also worship other gods like Idialao as god of farming, Lalaon of harvest, Balangay god of rainbow and Sidapa god of death.
  66. 66. Pre – ColonialPre – Colonial CultureCulture Others also worship the moon, stars, caves, mountains, rivers, plants and trees. Some creatures are being worship too like the bird, crow, tortoise, crocodile and other things they believed has value and connected to their lives.
  67. 67. ♦ The variation of animistic practices occurs in different ethnic groups. Magic, chants and prayers are often key features. Its practitioners were highly respected (and some feared) in the community, as they were healers, midwife (hilot), shamans, witches and warlocks (mangkukulam), babaylans, tribal historians and wizened elders that provided the spiritual and traditional life of the community. In the Visayas region there is a belief of witchcraft (kulam) and mythical creatures like aswang, Nuno sa Punso and other mythical creature. RPC 2013
  68. 68. Pre – ColonialPre – Colonial ClothingClothing During this pre-colonial era historians have found out that the “Barong Tagalog” (dress of the Tagalog) already existed. The earliest Baro or Baro ng Tagalog was worn by the natives of Ma-I (the Philippines name before) just before they were colonized by the Spaniards.
  69. 69. ♦ The men wore a sleeve-doublet made of Canga (rough cotton) that reached slightly below the waist. It is collarless with a front opening. Their loins were covered with a pane that hung between the legs and mid-thigh. The women also wore a sleeve dress but shorter than the men. They also wear a pane attached to the waist and reaching to the feet accented by a colourful belt. The materials used for their dress is of fine line or Indian Muslin. RPC 2013
  70. 70. Pre – ColonialPre – Colonial ClothingClothing The Visayan men wore a jacket with a Moorish style rob, that reach down their feet and was embroidered in beautiful colours. Tagalog and Visayan men bound their temples and forehead with a “putong” (a narrow strips of clothe). They also wore gold jewellery and other accessories to beautify their bodies.
  71. 71. Pre – ColonialPre – Colonial Writing SystemsWriting Systems During the early period almost everyone in the society-male or female knows how to read and write. They have their own method of writing which they use sharp-pointed tools, leaves, bamboo and trunk’s skin. They write from top to bottom and read it from left to right. Accordingly they have their Alibata which script is different from China, Japan and India. This account was told by one of the first Spanish missionaries who came in the Philippines, Fr. Pedro Chirino.
  72. 72. Pre – ColonialPre – Colonial Writing SystemsWriting Systems Another account proved after the discovery of a jar in Calatagan, Batangas. This system of writing came from the alphabet of Sumatra. The first Visayan, Tagalog, Ilocano and some ethic groups have their own dialect and form of writing too. They have an alphabet composed of 17 letters; 3 of which are vowels and 14 are consonants. The Muslims have also their own system basing on there dialect. This is called kirim of Maranao and jiwi of the Tausug, which they are still using until this day.
  73. 73. Abugida: Pre – Colonial method of Handwriting (Baybayin)
  74. 74. Pre – Colonial FormPre – Colonial Form of Governmentof Government Before the Spaniards came into the Philippines there were existing culture of the Filipinos which were not distinguished by most of the filipinos especially for the new born filipino citizens. The Filipinos lived in settlements called barangays before the colonization of the Philippines by the Spaniards. As the unit of government, a barangay consisted from 30 to 100 families. It was headed by a datu and was independent from the other group.
  75. 75. Pre – Colonial Form ofPre – Colonial Form of GovernmentGovernment Usually, several barangays settled near each other to help one another in case of war or any emergency. The position of datu was passed on by the holder of the position to the eldest son or, if none, the eldest daughter. However, later, any member of the barangay could be chieftain, based on his talent and ability. He had the usual responsibilities of leading and protecting the members of his barangay. In turn, they had to pay tribute to the datu, help him till the land, and help him fight for the barangay in case of war. In the old days, a datu had a council of elders to advise him, especially whenever he wanted a law to be enacted. The law was written and announced to the whole barangay by a town crier, called the umalohokan.
  76. 76. Pre – Colonial Houses:
  77. 77. Social Classes Before the coming of Spanish colonizers, the people of the Philippine archipelago had already attained a semicommunal and semislave social system in many parts and also a feudal system in certain parts, especially in Mindanao and Sulu, where such a feudal faith as Islam had already taken roots. The Aetas had the lowest form of social organization, which was primitive communal.
  78. 78. Social Classes The barangay was the typical community in the whole archipelago. It was the basic political and economic unit independent of similar others. Each embraced a few hundreds of people and a small territory. Each was headed by a chieftain called the rajah or datu.
  79. 79. Social Classes The social structure comprised a petty nobility, the ruling class which had started to accumulate land that it owned privately or administered in the name of the clan or community; an intermediate class of freemen called the maharlikas who had enough land for their livelihood or who rendered special service to the rulers and who did not have to work in the fields; and the ruled classes that included the timawas, the serfs who shared the crops with the petty nobility, and also the slaves and semislaves who worked without having any definite share in the harvest..
  80. 80. There were two kinds of slaves then: those who had their own quarters, the aliping namamahay, and those who lived in their master's house, the aliping sagigilid. One acquired the status of a serf or a slave by inheritance, failure to pay debts and tribute, commission of crimes and captivity in wars between barangays RPC 2013

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