Final r eport in philhistofsocscie


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  • After two centuries, Adam Smith remains a towering figure in the history of economic thought. Known primarily for a single work— An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations  (1776), the first comprehensive system of political economy.
  • — set free, as it were, the complex elements of status, authority, and wealth that had been for so long consolidated
  • Marx observed that human history had been a continuous confrontation between oppressors and oppressed. Social harmony was impossible, because the domination of one social group was based on oppressing and exploiting other groups. For him  class struggle  was necessary for human progress. In the 19th century the two confronted groups were the bourgeois and the proletarians (workers) and their struggle would result into a proletarian revolution and lead to a communist society after a transition stage (dictatorship of the proletariat).
  • by the German historist philosopher Johann Gustav Droysen . REF: J. Gustav Droyen,  Historik: Vorlesungen über Enzyklopädie und Methodologie der Geschichte . Stuttgart: Fromann-Holzboog, [1858] 1977: 22, 150f. Lars Udehn,  Methodological Individualism: Background, History and Meaning , Routledge, 2001, p. 27.
  • REF: W. Dilthey,  Introduction to the Human Sciences . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
  • OCIAL SCIENCE to the FIELD of its OWN: the PROBLEM??? ANACHRONISM Anachronis- from the GREEK word ανά (ana: up, against, back, re-) and χρόνος (chronos: time) , is a  CHRONOLOGICAL inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person(s), events, objects, or customs from different periods of time. Often the item misplaced in time is an object, but it may be a verbal expression, a technology, a philosophical idea, a musical style, a material, a custom, or anything else associated with a particular period in time so that it is incorrect to place it outside its proper temporal domain.
  • Final r eport in philhistofsocscie

    1. 1. Prepared by Raizza Corpuz in the Last Two Hundred Years
    2. 2. What is the Historical EVOLUTION of SOCIAL SCIENCES in the last 200 years?
    5. 5. BASIC QUERY
    6. 6. Towards the EPOCH 1700 1800 1900 Industrial RevolutionFrench Revolution
    7. 7. Industrial Revolution RenaissanceRenaissance ReformationReformation Scientific RevolutionScientific Revolution Civil Revolution 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1700 1900
    8. 8. Middle Ages & Renaissance Period 1. Humanistic and devoted to history 2. Christian theology were taken up by intellectual leaders 3. Humanism as the most significant aspect of ancient philosophy
    9. 9. IF WE LOOK BACK TO HISTORY • 1620-1750: Early 17th century, during 150 years beginning in that decade there is already an achievements and innovations in the field of BIOLOGICAL and PHYSICAL SCIENCES while the SOCIAL SCIENCES remain
    10. 10. 17th century • The observation-based natural philosophy was replaced by natural science, which attempted to define and test scientific laws. • Social science continued this trend, attempting to find laws to explain social behavior, which had become problematic with the decline of tradition and the rise of modernity and industrialization.
    11. 11. Sociology's origins in philosophy and the humanities are still evident in tensions between quantitative and qualitative sociology, positivist and interpretive sociology, and objective and critical sociology.
    12. 12. • Social science adopted quantitative measurement and statistical methods from natural science to find laws of social behavior, as demonstrated in Emile Durkheim's book Suicide. • But sociology may also use qualitative methods
    13. 13. Positivist sociology (also known as empiricist) attempts to predict outcomes based on observed variables. Interpretive sociology (which Max Weber called verstehen, German for "understanding") attempts to understand a culture or phenomenon on its own terms.
    14. 14. 1700-1800 Mid 18th Century Mid 18th Century CapitalismCapitalism Civil RevolutionCivil Revolution Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution
    15. 15. French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution • the breakup of the old order—an order that had rested on kinship, land, social class, religion, local community and monarchy
    16. 16. ECONOMIC EFFECTS Between the 1780s and 1849 • economic transformation that embraced the first stages of the great Industrial Revolution and a still more general expansion of commercial activity • Major economic change was spurred by western Europe’s tremendous population growth
    17. 17. Capitalis m Capitalis m Civil Revolutio n Civil Revolutio n Industrial Revolutio n Industrial Revolutio n Economy Socio-Politics Society Socio, economic political reformation
    18. 18. There are two views about human society 1. Social Sciences 2. Natural Sciences
    19. 19. 2 views about Human Society NATURAL SCIENCE NATURAL SCIENCE SOCIAL SCIENCE SOCIAL SCIENCE Biological Origins of Society, explaining the evolutionary terms Biological Origins of Society, explaining the evolutionary terms Shaped by structure s like the economy or culture Shaped by structure s like the economy or culture
    21. 21. 19th-century • politics, industry  and  trade  is  basically  about  the  practical  efforts  of  human  beings  to  reconsolidate these elements •   so  the  history  of  social  thought  is  about  theoretical efforts to reconsolidate them— : that is, to give them new contexts of meaning
    22. 22. and from there spread to other  parts of the world.  • Industrial  Revolution,   in  modern  history,  the process of  change  from  an  agrarian,  handicraft  economy  to  one  dominated  by industry and machine manufacture. 
    23. 23. The first attempt to establish politics as social science • Established political science as an empirical, positive discipline, by using a METHOD a theory that unified SOCIAL SCIENCE. COMPARATIVE METHOD
    24. 24. 1. Clannishness of many social scientist • professional jealousy, rigid thinking, vested  interest in theories 2. Lack of common concepts or conceptual  apparatus 2 MAIN HINDRANCES in THE UNIFICATION of SOCIAL SCIENCE
    25. 25. 3 Characteristic FEATURE of the History of SOCIAL SCIENCE in the 19th century The various disciplines of SOCIAL SCIENCE became elaborated and CONSCIOUS
    26. 26. 3 Conditions of the Formation of NEW SPECIALIZED DISCIPLINE
    27. 27. Stages in the course of development of the various social- science disciplines in the `19th century, is the same with the “older “natural sciences
    28. 28. 1. Recognition of the new set of problems 2. the conscious attempt to lie down and  perfect  methods  of  research  and  investigation of the discipline 3. the  unification  of  both  the  theoretical  rivalries  tend  to  be  submerged  and  to  elaborate  Propositions  in  bridging  differences
    30. 30. LATE 18th and 19th century SYTEMATIC ECONOMIC THEORY
    31. 31. • Centered around the social product • KARL MARX , CLASSICAL ECONOMICS  • 1870’s- the principles of Marginalism  ABSTRACT THEORY • problems of methodology in economics have  tended to drop from the literature 
    32. 32. MARX • Marxism is not attempting simply  to understand society; it does not  only predict the rise of a  revolutionary proletariat that will  overturn capitalism, but also  actively mobilizes persons to do  this. •  It intervenes to change the world
    33. 33.   PSYCHOLOGY • systematic science of personality • the combination of ideas in the study  of mental diseases etc  • Contributed for the development of  several psychological theories • 1914, psychoanalysis • Behaviourism  • Development of Gestalt Psychology  in 1920
    34. 34. • FREUDIAN THEORY • Psychology—different views of biological or  sociological factors rather than to conflicts  over theory between social science and  sociological theory
    35. 35. ANTHROPOLOGY and SOCIOLOGY • sciences  which,  from  the  very  outset  had  to  deal with such a vast array of methodological  considerations
    36. 36. 2 PROBLEMS in the HISTORY of the SOCIAL SCIENCES in the 19th century 1. Examination of the situation existing at the  time of the various disciplines split off the  mainstream of social theory 2. Description of the institutional acceptance of  the disciplines as self-contained independent  whole
    37. 37. 1st half of the 19th century • Coordinated programs of study and research 2nd half of the 19th century • Eloquent evidence of the progressive  recognition of the social science disciplines • The academic influence in the professional  journal is overwhelming
    38. 38. The change of the 18th to 20th century truly is significant
    39. 39. • Social  scientist  has  become  specialized academic professional  • Changes the whole society and the  educational system of the advanced  counties • Brought  great  progress  in  scientific  knowledge,  it  also  shown  defects  and weaknesses
    40. 40. • It  enhances  the    clannishness  of  academic specialists  • Tended to make the limits between  the disciplines more rigid  • To  perpetuate  specialties  which  have  lost  much  of  their  original  reason for being
    41. 41. The CONCEPT OF EVOLUTION • provided a basis for empirical research in the realm of physical development of man, but it also suggested the like hood of discovering new knowledge about human society, it was applied to CULTURAL CHANGE
    42. 42. ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY • Unified body of thought • Combination of the data collected by ethnographic and archeological research of many men • The analogy between historical stages of culture and contemporary cultures on different levels led to the • The development of human personality from birth on was interpreted in analogy with the progress of the HUMAN SPIRIT in history
    43. 43. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION on the emergence of: • Anthropology • Psychology • Sociology
    45. 45. Synthesis of the SCIENCES of Man and SOCIETY • COMTE, SPENCER and MARX even MILL (later in the century) and German sociology attempted to produce a synthetic social science.
    46. 46. Social scientists began to adopt the scientific method to make sense of the rapid changes accompanying modernization and industrialization.
    47. 47. COMTE • he argued that SOCIOLOGY was to be the “queen science” that would stand at the top of a hierarchy of all sciences—
    48. 48. The Law of Three Stages It states that society as a whole, and each particular science develops through three mentally conceived stages: (1)the theological stage, (2) the metaphysical stage, (3) the positive stage.
    49. 49. SPENCER • Social Darwinism and Spencer • Herbert Spencer created what he called "sociology," a synthetic philosophy that tried to find a set of rules explaining social behavior. • extended Darwin's ideas about evolution into social life and ethics, hence the term "social Darwinism."
    50. 50. • to Spencer's synthetic philosophy, the laws of nature applied without exception to the organic realm as much as the inorganic, and to the human mind as much as the rest of creation.
    51. 51. • Spencer conceptualized society as a "social organism" that evolved from a simpler state to a more complex one, according to the universal law of evolution. • Spencer is perhaps best known for coining the term "survival of the fittest " elaborating what came to be known as the philosophy of social Darwinism
    52. 52. Marxist History – Historical Materialism • Marxist history is based strictly on a scientific view of the world, incorporating the science of evolution and the dialectic path of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. • Marxist evolution shapes its view of history based on the belief that humanity, as well as other living things, is constantly improving and will continue to do so.
    53. 53. • Marx sees society evolving through stages • He focuses on dialectical class conflict to control the means of production as the driving force behind social evolution.
    54. 54. 18th century • there was history, not social sciences • the founders of Political Economy (Smith, Cantillon, Hume, Physiocrats) discovered regularity in the operations of the market which opened the possibility of investigating human actions from a different than moral judgment, namely in terms of human choice and preference
    55. 55. • the elements of social cognition are abstract and not reducible to concrete images one would like to have metaphors. • These are based in positivist view of social science that holds that social science should be built up by experimental method as ideally applied in Newtonian physics.
    56. 56. ARGUMENT: • Social sciences have a distinct method, praxeology and verstehen, due to the special character of their objects, and owe their progress through it and do not have to and cannot use the method of the natural sciences.
    57. 57. Economics • deals with human action, not with objects (as physics does) such as commodities, economic quantities or prices.
    58. 58. Verstehen • Verstehen was introduced into philosophy and the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften) • He first made a distinction between nature and history in terms of the categories of space and time. The method of the natural sciences is explanation (erklären), while that of history is understanding (verstehen).
    59. 59. • The concept of Verstehen was later used by the German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey to: describe the first-person participatory perspective that agents have on their individual experience as well as their culture, history, and society.
    60. 60. • it is developed in the context of the theory and practice of interpretation (as understood in the context of hermeneutics) • and contrasted with the external objectivating third-person perspective of explanation (das Erklären) in which human agency, subjectivity, and its products are analyzed as effects of impersonal natural forces in the natural sciences and social structures in sociology.
    61. 61. METHOD SCIENCE is the method of the natural sciences is explanation. HISTORY is understanding (verstehen)explanation (erklären),
    62. 62. The 19th century • The fundamental ideas, themes, and problems of the social sciences to the problem of order that was created in men’s minds by the weakening of the old order, or European society, under the twin blows of the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution
    63. 63. Auguste Comte French philosopher known as the founder of sociology and of positivism. Comte gave the science of sociology its name and established the new subject in a systematic fashion
    64. 64. Concluding Remarks • The main problem with social sciences is the discontinuity between the laws governing society and the laws of the natural world
    65. 65. • social sciences, the natural world and the social world are interlinked and mutually related, but they remain essentially different. • Their relationship is one of resources, weather, climate, etc. but not of nature. The nature of society, in social sciences, is essentially different from the nature of the world.
    66. 66. • And the main problem with the natural sciences, is that they tend to reduce the laws governing social organisation to lower order of organisation, like biological explanations
    68. 68. Social Science Human ScienceHuman Science Natural ScienceNatural Science
    69. 69. SOCIAL SCIENCE to the FIELD of its OWN: the PROBLEM??? ANACHRONISM
    70. 70. WHY?
    71. 71. • Only in the 19th century was philosophy separated from 'science', and only in the early years of the 20th did 'social science' emerge as a set of disciplinary practices which could become the object of 'philosophy'. • This is more than a quibble over terms, since there never was a time when issues regarding the nature and methods of acquiring knowledge of the human condition were not contested.
    72. 72. • Moreover, since the lines between a philosophy of social science, a social philosophy, and a social science are also blurred, we consider these matters rather broadly. • Until lines were drawn, there were no boundaries--and even today the boundaries are fuzzy. • The intellectual hegemony of Christianity in the West defined the character of inquiry into the human condition.
    73. 73. , Greater integration of the social sciences, each with a well-developed theoretical system of its own, holds out the hope that Comte’s dream of a generalized science of man and society may be achieved in practice
    75. 75. Comte’s dreamof a generalized science of man and society may be achieved in practice
    76. 76. THANK YOU! And GOD BLESS!