SECTION 1. The Philippines is a democratic
and republican State. Sovereignty resides in
the people and all government authority
emanates from them.
A democratic and republican state.
-States that the Philippines is a democratic
Manifestations of a democratic and republican
The existence of a bill of rights.
The observance of the rule of the majority.
The observance of the principle that ours is a government of laws,
and not of men.
The presence of elections through popular will.
The observance of the principle of separation of powers and the
system of checks and balances.
The observance of the principle that the legislature cannot pass
The observance of the law on public officers .
The observance of the principle that the State cannot be sued
without its consents.
Sovereignty of the People
is the supreme power to govern.
It lies in the hands of the Filipino people who
have the right to choose the type of
government they want and to define the
powers it shall hold and exercise.
It is their right to abolish their government
and form a new one and organize it in such
form as seems to them best for their welfare
• Sovereignty is exercised indirectly
Through public officials elected by the people.
Officials appointed by the elected officials.
• Sovereignty is exercised directly
4.System of Initiative and Referendum
SECTION 2. The Philippines renounces war as
an instrument of national policy, adopts the
generally accepted principles of international law
as part of the law of the land and adheres to the
policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom,
cooperation, and amity with all nations.
Renunciation of war as instrument of national
• Philippines cannot declare war on another
• The country can only declare an existing state
an act of defense
Adoption of the generally accepted principles
of international law as part of the country’s
• International law-body of rules and principles
which govern s the relations of nations and
their respective peoples in their intercourse
with one another.
• “Doctrine of Incorporation”-the commitment of
the state to international laws
When international usage to be applied
A treaty has force of a statute
Constitution prevails over a treaty
Adherence to the policy of peace, equality,
justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity
with all nations.
• Philippines seek peace and unity with the
neighboring countries all over the world
regardless of race, ideology, and political
system on the basis of mutual trust, respect
and cooperation. It supports the rights of other
countries in terms of equality, freedom and
justice in their relations with one another and
the policies of peaceful negotiations, and
opposes the use of force, threat of force, in the
relations with other countries.
SECTION 3. Civilian authority is at all times,
supreme over the military. The Armed Forces
of the Philippines is the protector of the people
and the State. Its goal is to secure the
sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the
Supremacy of the Civilian Authority
The President is the commander-in-chief of the
armed forces of the Philippines,
The army, the navy, the air force, and the
The appointment of the high ranking officials
is vested in the President.
Armed Forces: Protector of the State
• Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP)
• Its goals is to discharge the function of being
the protector of:
The sovereignty of the State
Integrity of our National Territory
SECTION 4. The prime duty of the Government
is to serve and protect the people. The
Government may call upon the people to defend
the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all
citizens may be required, under conditions
provided by law, to render person military or civil
SECTION 5. The maintenance of peace and
order, the protection of life, liberty, and property,
and promotion of the general welfare are
essential for the enjoyment by all the people of
the blessings of democracy.
Peace and Order
• Duty of the government to maintain peace and
Through making laws
Promote the general welfare
SECTION 6. The Separation of Church and State
• The government shall not favor any religion,
support them using public funds ,or even
establish or set up a church.
• The Church should not get involved in
political issues or matters.
ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION CLAUSE
• The State shall have no official religion.
• The State cannot set up a church.
• Everyone has the freedom to profess their
belief or disbelief in any religion.
• Every religious minister is free to practice his
• The State cannot punish a person for
entertaining or professing religious beliefs or
• The command that Church and the state be
separate does not mean hostility towards
SECTION 7. The State shall pursue an
independent foreign policy. In its relations with
other states the paramount consideration shall
be national sovereignty, territorial integrity,
national interest, and the right to selfdetermination.
• Basic direction underlying the conduct by a State of
its affairs vis-a vis those of other States.
• It is a set of guidelines followed by a government of
1. Formulation and conduct of foreign policy
The president is the chief architect of Philippine
2. An instrument of domestic foreign policy
Its importance in the survival and progress of a country cannot be
Sole weapon of a State for the promotion of national interest in
3. Pursuit in an independent foreign policy
Simply means one that is not subordinate.
4. Basic Foreign policy objective
To establish friendly relation with all countries of the world
5. Paramount consideration
Must be a policy of flexibility and pragmatism guided only by the
welfare of our people and the security of our Republic.
Shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest,
and the right to self determination.
SECTION 8. The Philippines, consistent with the
national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of
freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory.
Freedom from Nuclear Weapons
•It is a prohibition from:
Of nuclear weapons, devices, or parts thereof in
• The use of nuclear for:
And other beneficial purposes
• If the national interest so requires
The storing of nuclear weapons in our
SECTION 9. The State shall promote a just and
dynamic social order that will ensure the
prosperity and independence of the nation and
free the people from poverty through policies that
provide adequate social services, promote full
employment, a rising standard of living, and an
improved quality of life for all.
Just and Dynamic Social Order
• This is accomplished through policies that:
Provide sufficient social services (in the field
of health, education, housing, etc).
Promote full employment.
A rising standard of living.
Improve quality of life for all.
SECTION 10. The State shall promote social
justice in all phases of national development.
The State must give preferential attention to the welfare of the less
fortunate members of the community
SECTION 11. The State values the dignity of
every human person and guarantees full respect
for human rights.
Belief in inherent dignity of every human person basis of human
A human person is a being not a thing.
•In a democratic state, the individual enjoys certain rights which
cannot be modified or taken away by the lawmaking body.
SECTION 12. The State recognizes the sanctity
of family life and shall protect and strengthen the
family as a basic autonomous social institution.
It shall equally protect the life of the mother and
the life of the unborn from conception. The
natural and primary right and duty of parents in
the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and
the development of moral character shall receive
the support of the Government.
Right of human life of the unborn from
conception and of the mother
Once conceived, a child has the right to be born
and the right to live.
• Mandates the protection of the unborn from
the possibility of abortion being legalized.
• The State should also protect the health of the
Rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and
development of moral character
• A duty of both parents and government
Proper education and good upbringing of the
children can help to the welfare of the society
and the common good. The government should
share the responsibility of the parents to train
their children to be worthy citizens by
supporting and encouraging them in order to
prepare them for the future.
• Right of State to interfere with education of the
The parents and the government have the duty
in giving adequate education to the children
• Power of State to regulate all schools
The State has the power to require the age
children of proper age to attend school, the
teachers shall be of a good moral character and
teach the children certain points to good
• The State and parental obligations
It is the duty of the State to see whether the
parents fulfill their obligations in the education
of their child
• Duty of State to encourage educational
Support and encourage private and parochial
schools as long as they meet the secular
SECTION 13. The State recognizes the vital role
of the youth in nation-building and shall promote
and protect their physical, moral, spiritual,
intellectual, and social well-being. It shall
inculcate in the youth patriotism and
nationalism, and encourage their involvement in
public and civic affairs.
Role of the Youth in Nation Building
• Youth are better educated, more well-informed.
• The constitution recognizes the importance of
SECTION 14. The State recognizes the role of
women in nation-building, and shall ensure the
fundamental equality before the law of women
Role of women in nation building
• Our women have proven their capabilities in
different fields in business, professions, arts,
education and in public service even
• In the past and even today, women involve
themselves in worthy causes or activities
involving national concerns
• The State should formulate strategies to expand women’s
participation in non-household and productive activities, and
make them as the direct contributors to the country’s economic
• It is the duty of the State to ensure equality before the law in all
aspects of national life by rectifying or ending all practices and
systems that are disadvantageous to women or discriminate
SECTION 15. The State shall protect and
promote the right to health of the people and
instill health consciousness among them.
•is the state physical, social and mental well-being rather than
merely than merely the absence of physical diseases
These constitution gives the right to the people to health
SECTION 16. The State shall protect and
advance the right of the people to a balanced and
healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and
harmony of nature.
Right to Balanced and Healthful Ecology
• The need for a program to address the
ecological problems of:
Dying river beds
Destruction of waterways
Protect human life
SECTION 17. The State shall give priority to
education, science and technology, arts, culture,
and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism,
accelerate social progress, and promote total
human liberation and development.
The States prioritizes the following through their different
programs like the:
SECTION 18. The State affirms labor as a
primary social economic force. It shall protect the
rights of workers and promote their welfare.
• Human labor is not only treated as land, tools, or machinery. It
mandates the State to provide living wage and full participation
to workers in decision-making processes which affect their rights
SECTION 19. The State shall develop a selfreliant and independent national economy
effectively controlled by Filipinos.
• States the constitutional guidelines in the development of the
Independent national economy
And effective Filipino control of the economy
SECTION 20. The State recognizes the
indispensable role of the private sector,
encourages private enterprise, and provides
incentives to needed investments.
Role of private sectors in the economy
• The Constitution does not favor an economy
where the State directly competes with private
• The business of government is governance and
SECTION 21. The State shall promote comprehensive
rural development and agrarian reform.
• Covers all phases of rural development:
SECTION 22. The State recognizes and promotes
the rights of indigenous cultural communities
within the framework of national unity and
• Recognizes the existence and the rights of the indigenous cultural
• Directs the State to promote the rights of indigenous cultural
communities by considering their customs, traditions, beliefs,
• Implementing state policies with full respect to their culture,
dignity, uniqueness and human rights.
SECTION 23. The State shall encourage nongovernmental, community-based, or sectoral
organizations that promote the welfare of the
• The state is required to encourage these organizations because
recent events have shown that, under responsible leadership,
they can be active contributors to the political, social, and
economic growth of the country – promote the welfare of the
SECTION 24. The State recognizes the vital role
of communication and information in nationbuilding.
• Means of communications such as:
• The people are enlightened on certain public
• They can also serve as useful tools to promote
unity among the Filipinos.
SECTION 25. The State shall ensure the
autonomy of local governments.
• Local affairs can best be regulated by the
people in the locality.
SECTION 26. The State shall guarantee equal
access to opportunities for public service, and
prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by
• This does not allow the existence of political
dynasties or the practice of keeping political
power within the control of select families.
• Emphasizes the duty of the government to
uphold democratic elections and appointments.
SECTION 27. The State shall maintain honesty
and integrity in the public service and take
positive and effective measures against graft and
Honesty and integrity in public service
Undermines the quality of life for people
especially in poor qualities.
• The constitution seeks to minimize and find
completely to eliminate graft and corruption, a
way to attack problem.
SECTION 28. The Subject to reasonable
conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts
and implements a policy of full public disclosure
of all its transactions involving public interests.
Section 7 of the Bill of Rights
Guarantees the people’s right to know any
transaction entered into by the government.
Limited to things which involves public
The policy covers matters involving public
interest especially those concerning the
utilization of public funds and property.