Analytic philosophersBertrand Russell (1872-1970) Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)Gilbert Ryle (1900-76)Gottlob Frege (1848-1925)Richard Rorty (1931-)
Gottlob Frege (1848-1925)• wanted to put a rigorous logic at the heart ofphilosophy.• He was influential in the philosophy ofmathematics, logic and language.• He thought that the basis for mathematicscould be securely derived from logic and thata rigorous analysis of the underlying logic ofsentences would enable us to judge theirtruth-value.
Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)• combined Freges logical insights with theinfluence of David Humes empiricism• Russell thought that the world was composedof atomic facts. Sentences, if they were to bemeaningful, had to correspond to theseatomic facts
Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)• studied under Russell, his early ideasinfluenced the Vienna Circle and help form thelogical positivism of the 1920s and 30s.• In his earlier work Wittgenstein saw languageas picturing the world, in his later philosophyhe understands language by using themetaphor of a game.
Gilbert Ryle (1900-76)• Linguistic philosophy, in the mid 20th century• Linguistic philosophers such as Gilbert Ryle(1900-76) thought many of the traditionalproblems of philosophy could be dissolved bythe careful study of language as it is used.
Richard Rorty (1931-)• By the 1970s there was a growing dissatisfaction withlinguistic philosophy, and philosophers began to showmore interest in the philosophy of mind and theapplication of philosophical methods to wider issues inpolitics, ethics and the nature of philosophy itself• has used the methods of analytic philosophy todeconstruct its assumptions. Rorty is influenced asmuch by Heidegger as he is by Wittgenstein, and hisapproach echoes the ideas of the post-structuralists. Itmay be that the future will see the concerns ofanalytic and continental philosophies converge.
Analytic• 20th century ,a style of doingphilosophy• Is concerned with analysis –analysis of thought,language, logic, knowledge,mind, etc;• Is most evident inmethodology, that is, in afocus on analysis or onsynthesis.• try to solve fairly delineatedphilosophical problems byreducing them to their partsand to the relations in whichthese parts stand.Continental• Demarcates a group of(primarily) French and Germanphilosophers of the 19th and20th centuries• is concerned with synthesis –synthesis of modernity withhistory, individuals withsociety, and speculation withapplication• its concerns (more interestedin actual political and culturalissues and, loosely speaking,the human situation and its"meaning"), more self-conscious about the relationof philosophy to its historicalsituation
Bertrand Arthur WilliamRussell [3rd Earl](18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970)“The good life is one inspired by loveand guided by knowledge.”(What I Believe, 1925)
• He was a British philosopher, logician,mathematician and historian.• He was a prominent atheist, pacifist and anti-war activist, and championed freetrade between nations and anti-imperialism.• Russell was born on 18 May 1872 at theRussell family seat at "Ravenscroft" in thevillage of Trellech in Monmouthshire,southeast Wales, into an aristocratic family
• John Stuart Mill the great Utilitarianphilosopher, wasRussells godfather and, although Mill died theyear after his birth, Russell was influenced byhis work• Russell died of influenza on 2 February1970, aged 97, after suddenly falling ill whilereading at his homein Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire, andWales
As a PHILOSOPHER:• most famous amongst philosophers for hiswork on mathematical logic• Begins with the treatment propositions calledanalysis• They continued together with Wittgenstein afascinating approach to be philosophicallanguage, followed by the school of logicalpositivism with its concern with the problemof meaning as empirical verifiability
• As a young man however he abandoned thebasic beliefs of religion namely freewill,immortality and God• He rejected Hegelianism and every kind ofidealism• philosophy should be scientific and perhapseven more rigorous than the sciencesthemselves,ANALYSIS OF EMPIRICAL DATA--- analysis of things as they are given inexperience
• FACTS---sense data are realities, they aretrans-subjective things of the outside worldare not given to us directly they are given tous through their properties and their relationsto each other• we therefore can not infer the existence ofeither not known empirically to exist and mindconstructs logical relations with in the sensefield in which facts are given
EmpiricistTo be cognitive meaningful, a principle must betestable by empirical sensible
LANGUAGE• the most fruitful source of logical construction• it is by the analysis of language that we arebrought to a knowledge of the reality beyond it• there is some kind of connection between theway the mind works and the way reality is orbetween " the laws of syntax and the laws ofphysics“1. laws of syntax- language2. laws of physics- science
His Philosophy Focus on:• Involves a criticism of scientific knowledge not from a point of viewless concerned with details and more concerned with the harmonyof the whole body of special sciences.• . The laws and language of the sciences must themselves besubjected to logical analysis in order to clarify their meaning whichbecomes one of the major tasks of philosophy• Looking for harmony trying to find out what is "ultimate" in theuniverse, is a clear indication that he is not eschewing metaphysicsaltogetherPhilosophy• hes holding one goal: philosophy is to give an account of "daily life"- borne out in practical way by his ardent and personal commitmentto social causes for most of his life
The Supreme Moral Rule"Act so as to produce harmonious rather than discordant desires”a. Morality derives meaning in a social context, the common good/ happinessis the fundamental considerationa. Persons action should be inspired by love and guided by knowledge -- adesire for harmony in the whole of society Where life is finally all about is worth giving in full three passions, simple butoverwhelming strong governed life:1. Longing for love2. The search for knowledge3. Unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind
Ludwig Wittgenstein1889-1951“The world is everything thathappens”
• was the youngest of eight children, born to oneof the wealthiest families in Vienna• The family was of Jewish descent but had beenChristianized for three generations and had noinvolvement in Jewish culture or community• Wittgenstein went to Manchester to studyengineering and aeronautics, where he designedand patented a new airplane propeller.• this time he became interested in mathematicsafter discovering the works of Bertrand Russelland Gottlob Frege, two of the founders of whatwould later be known as the Analytic school ofphilosophy.
Philosophy:As a PHILOSOPHER:• Which is a search formeanings, truth, knowledge, etc., can only beunderstood as a social undertaking proceedingaccorded to grammatical forms.• Linguistic Analysis-- All philosophicalproblems are not real problems but only partof a language game — instead ofepistemology or metaphysics
• philosophy is an activity which can betherapeutic and lead to understanding, butcan only describe things as they are in theworld, and not vice versa• Things are connected by relationships. Theserelationships are the backbone of the worldlogic that defines the junction betweenlanguage and the world.• Philosophy fight against the bewitchment ofour intelligence by means of our language
• Philosophy is not a doctrine but an activityand as such it can produce, ‘no ethicalpropositions’• The object of philosophy is the logicalclarification of thoughts, so that the result ofphilosophy is not a number of philosophicalpropositions, but to make propositions clear.
Logical Positivism• Was a school of thought that appeared in Vienna in the1920’s• It was centered on the discussions of a group ofphilosophers known as the Vienna Circle.• They discussed logic, mathematics, language and had agreat distaste of metaphysics.• They claimed that true knowledge was gained throughsense experience and reason alone.• Influenced by advances in modern science, logicalpositivists sought to apply the scientific paradigm tophilosophy and show metaphysics to be meaningless.
Verifiability principle:•A factual statement is meaningful if and only if it is empiricallyverifiable•A claim is true or false if it can be verified by empiricalexperience.•Empirical Data – to analyze is language
Wittgenstein and Language• each language has its limits• The Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921) assertsSIX central thesis:1. The world is everything that happens2. What happens, the fact, is the existence of states of affairs3. The logical picture of facts is the thought4. Thought is the meaningful proposition5. The proposition is a truth function of elementary sentences6. The general form of the function of truth is [p, x, N (x)] This is thegeneral form of the proposal
Language Game:• Clarification of language what can be said by all can besaid clearlyLanguage--- Expression of thoughtProposition – is a vehicle of expressionA statement of fact, totality of propositions of factHow? A proposition is a picture of realityPicture: simply a representation‘’ What we can not speak of we must pass over insilence—mystical
Tractatus• clarification of language• Language is like a tool box language isdifferent usage uses purposes• Game- because it has many usage