Some Vascular disorders of retina

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Some Vascular disorders of retina

  1. 1. Vascular Disorders OfVascular Disorders Of RetinaRetina Retinal Artery Occlusion Retinal Vein Occlusion Retinopathy Of Prematurity Prepared By: Zain Saleh Roll No: 97
  2. 2. Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion
  3. 3. Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion • Definition: o It is a common vascular disorder characterized by retinal vein occlusion resulting in edema and hemorrhages on retina in the affected region with potential blinding complications • Types: o Central retinal vein occlusion o Branch Retinal vein occlusion • Etiology and Risk Factors: o Age of age of above 50 years o Systemic diseases like hyperlipidemia, Diabetes, Chronic Renal Failure o Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma
  4. 4. Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion • Clinical Presentation: o Sudden painless loss of vision o Persistent decreased central vision • Clinical Examination: o Visual Acuity- Severe visual loss, up to 20/200 o Intra Ocular Pressure- Raised o Fundus Examination- dilated, tortuous veins, retinal and macular edema, flame shaped hemorrhages, and cotton wool spots
  5. 5. Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion ( Central Retinal Vein Occlusion)
  6. 6. Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion (Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion)
  7. 7. Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion • Investigations: o Fluorescein Angiography o ECG o Blood CP o ESR o Blood Glucose level • Complications: o Chronic Macular Edema o Conversion from Non-Ischemic to Ischemic type o Retinal Neovascularization o Neovascular Glaucoma
  8. 8. Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion • Treatment: o Macular Laser Photocoagulation o Intra Vitreal injections anti-VEGF and steroids o Intra Vitreal triamcinolone injections
  9. 9. Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion
  10. 10. Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion • Definition: o Vascular disorder of retina resulting in sudden painless loss of vision, with antecedent transient visual loss • Types: o Central Retinal Artery Occlusion o Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion • Etiology: o Thrombosis due to atherosclerosis o Embolism o Raised Intra Ocular Pressure o Giant Cell Arteritis o Angiospasm- Retinal Migraine
  11. 11. Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion • Clinical Presentation: o Sudden painless severe loss of vision o Repeated transient episodes of decreased vision or blindness • Clinical Examination: o Visual Acuity-Severely reduced, between counting finger and light perception o Direct Pupillary Light Reflex- Absent o Fundus Examination- Whitish appearance of retina, thin retinal arteries, segmented blood column in retinal vessels, cherry red spot at macula, pale appearance of optic disc
  12. 12. Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion (Central Retinal Artery Occlusion)
  13. 13. Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion (Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion)
  14. 14. Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion • Treatment: o Intraocular pressure lowered immediately by anterior chamber paracentasis or I.V Acetazolamide o Inhaled oxygen and carbon dioxide mixture to improve oxygen delivery to retina o Thrombolytic therapy
  15. 15. Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity
  16. 16. Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity • Definition: o It is a bilateral vasoproliferative retinopathy occurring in premature infants with low birth weight and exposed to high concentration of oxygen • Etiology and Risk Factors: o Low birth weight o Exposure to high concentrations of oxygen o Premature birth • Pathology: o Interference with normal vascularization process
  17. 17. Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 1- Changes at junction of vascular and avascular retina as demarcation line
  18. 18. Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 2- Formation of distinct ridge
  19. 19. Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 3- Extra retinal fibrovascular proliferation
  20. 20. Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 4- Severe retinal detachment
  21. 21. Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 5- Total retinal detachment seen as whitish mass (leukocoria) behind iris
  22. 22. Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity • Treatment: o Peripheral retinal laser in stage 2 o Ablation of avascular retina in stage 3 o Vitreotomy in stage 4 & 5

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