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Some Vascular disorders of retina
 

Some Vascular disorders of retina

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    Some Vascular disorders of retina Some Vascular disorders of retina Presentation Transcript

    • Vascular Disorders OfVascular Disorders Of RetinaRetina Retinal Artery Occlusion Retinal Vein Occlusion Retinopathy Of Prematurity Prepared By: Zain Saleh Roll No: 97
    • Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion
    • Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion • Definition: o It is a common vascular disorder characterized by retinal vein occlusion resulting in edema and hemorrhages on retina in the affected region with potential blinding complications • Types: o Central retinal vein occlusion o Branch Retinal vein occlusion • Etiology and Risk Factors: o Age of age of above 50 years o Systemic diseases like hyperlipidemia, Diabetes, Chronic Renal Failure o Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma
    • Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion • Clinical Presentation: o Sudden painless loss of vision o Persistent decreased central vision • Clinical Examination: o Visual Acuity- Severe visual loss, up to 20/200 o Intra Ocular Pressure- Raised o Fundus Examination- dilated, tortuous veins, retinal and macular edema, flame shaped hemorrhages, and cotton wool spots
    • Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion ( Central Retinal Vein Occlusion)
    • Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion (Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion)
    • Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion • Investigations: o Fluorescein Angiography o ECG o Blood CP o ESR o Blood Glucose level • Complications: o Chronic Macular Edema o Conversion from Non-Ischemic to Ischemic type o Retinal Neovascularization o Neovascular Glaucoma
    • Retinal Vein OcclusionRetinal Vein Occlusion • Treatment: o Macular Laser Photocoagulation o Intra Vitreal injections anti-VEGF and steroids o Intra Vitreal triamcinolone injections
    • Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion
    • Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion • Definition: o Vascular disorder of retina resulting in sudden painless loss of vision, with antecedent transient visual loss • Types: o Central Retinal Artery Occlusion o Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion • Etiology: o Thrombosis due to atherosclerosis o Embolism o Raised Intra Ocular Pressure o Giant Cell Arteritis o Angiospasm- Retinal Migraine
    • Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion • Clinical Presentation: o Sudden painless severe loss of vision o Repeated transient episodes of decreased vision or blindness • Clinical Examination: o Visual Acuity-Severely reduced, between counting finger and light perception o Direct Pupillary Light Reflex- Absent o Fundus Examination- Whitish appearance of retina, thin retinal arteries, segmented blood column in retinal vessels, cherry red spot at macula, pale appearance of optic disc
    • Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion (Central Retinal Artery Occlusion)
    • Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion (Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion)
    • Retinal Artery OcclusionRetinal Artery Occlusion • Treatment: o Intraocular pressure lowered immediately by anterior chamber paracentasis or I.V Acetazolamide o Inhaled oxygen and carbon dioxide mixture to improve oxygen delivery to retina o Thrombolytic therapy
    • Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity
    • Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity • Definition: o It is a bilateral vasoproliferative retinopathy occurring in premature infants with low birth weight and exposed to high concentration of oxygen • Etiology and Risk Factors: o Low birth weight o Exposure to high concentrations of oxygen o Premature birth • Pathology: o Interference with normal vascularization process
    • Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 1- Changes at junction of vascular and avascular retina as demarcation line
    • Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 2- Formation of distinct ridge
    • Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 3- Extra retinal fibrovascular proliferation
    • Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 4- Severe retinal detachment
    • Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity Stage 5- Total retinal detachment seen as whitish mass (leukocoria) behind iris
    • Retinopathy Of PrematurityRetinopathy Of Prematurity • Treatment: o Peripheral retinal laser in stage 2 o Ablation of avascular retina in stage 3 o Vitreotomy in stage 4 & 5