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    problem problem Presentation Transcript

    • 1. Define the Problem
      • Defining a problem
        • Understanding the purpose of the study
        • Understanding the background issues
        • E.g. the company growth rate is low.
      • Discuss with decision makers, interviews with industry experts, analysis of secondary data, conducting focus groups analysis.
    • 2. Developing an Approach to the Problem
      • Formulating an analytical framework and models, research questions.
      • Determine a hypothesis: an educated guess
        • The hypothesis provides a research problem for the investigators which can be tested scientifically.
    • 3. Formulating a Research Design
      • A framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research
      • Details procedures needed to obtain the required information.
      • Conducting exploratory research, precisely defining the variables, designing appropriate scales to measure them.
      • How to obtain the data: survey or experiment
      • Design questionnarie
    • 4. Doing Field Work or Collecting Data
      • Field work involves personal, telephone, mail, or electronic interviewing
      • Proper selection, training, supervision, and evaluation of the field force are essential
    • 5. Preparing and Analyzing Data
      • Data Processing
      • Editing, coding, transcribing of collected data.
      • Analyze using different statistical techniques
      • Interpreted the results, find conclusions related to the marketing research questions
      • 6. Preparing and presenting the report.
      • First, select sources of information:
        • Secondary data
          • information already collected for another purpose
          • If use secondary data—designing the questionnaire, planning the sample, and collecting data are done for you. But make sure they are done right!
        • Primary data
          • information collected for the specific purpose at hand
      Source of information
      • Sources of secondary data
        • internal sources
          • balance sheets, sales figures, customer DB
        • government publications
          • statistics Canada
        • periodicals and books
          • Canadian trade index, Advertising age
        • commercial data
          • A.C. Nielsen, IRI
        • internet
      Source of information
      • Advantages of secondary data
        • low cost
        • less effort expended process
        • less time consuming
        • some information can be obtained only from secondary data
      • Disadvantages of secondary data
        • collected for some other purpose
        • may not be very accurate
        • may be outdated
      Pros and Cons of Secondary Data
      • Primary data collection process
        • Data collection methods
          • surveys
          • qualitative research—personal interviews & focus groups
          • observation
          • Experiment
        • Design study materials (e.g., questionnaire design)
        • Sampling
        • Data collection
      Primary Data
      • Survey
        • Data collection by asking people questions
          • personal interview
      • telephone survey
          • mail survey
          • Internet survey
        • Advantages
          • large size data, flexibility
        • Disadvantages
          • errors in questionnaire, expensive, response error
      Survey
      • Survey (cont.)
        • Personal interview
          • Advantages
            • flexible, more information
          • Disadvantages
            • expensive, time-consuming, interviewer bias
          • e.g., “shopping mall intercept”: a convenient, low-cost method
            • but lacks representativeness
      Personal Interview
      • Survey (cont.)
        • Telephone survey
          • Advantages
            • quickness, cost efficiency
          • Disadvantages
            • limited amount of information, limited accessibility of people, have to remember response options
      Telephone Survey
      • Survey (cont.)
        • Mail survey
          • Advantages
            • low cost
          • Disadvantages
            • low response rate
            • less control
      Mail Survey
      • Survey (cont.)
        • Internet survey
          • Advantages
            • low cost—much lower even than mail
          • Disadvantages
            • low response rate—large response bias
            • Data reliability—difficult to verify if personal information is true
      Internet Survey
      • Qualitative research
        • Types
          • individual depth interview
          • focus group interview
        • Advantages
          • resulting data have more depth and richness of context
        • Disadvantages
          • results not necessarily representative of population
          • Hard to quantify the results
      Qualitative Research
      • Qualitative research (cont.)
        • Focus group interview
          • Loosely structured group discussion led by interviewer
          • The discussion is observed or videotaped
          • Best for preliminary research
          • Individual depth interview: similar interview with a single person
          • Difficult to understand without seeing it, so we have a video.
      Focus Group Interview
      • Observational method
        • Types
          • personal observation
          • mechanical observation (e.g., scanner data)
        • Advantages
          • can have high degree of accuracy, short period of time for data collection
        • Disadvantages
          • unaware of motives, attitudes, or decision processes
      Obervational Method
      • Experiment
        • Tests the effects of variables in a controlled situation
        • Example: test of two different versions of advertisements in two different cities
        • Advantages
          • control
        • Disadvantages
          • unrealistic settings (laboratory experiments)
          • Expensive (real experiments)
      Experiment
      • Questionnaire design
        • Wording
          • simple, direct, unbiased—no leading questions
          • written with respondents in mind
        • Order
          • first question should create interest if possible
          • difficult or personal questions should be asked last
        • Format
          • open-ended questions
          • closed-end questions
      Questionnaire
      • Open- vs. close-ended questions
      • (asked of Americans) “What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?”
      • 1) the energy shortage 2) quality of public schools
      • 3) economy 4) war on terrorism
      • --- 70% endorsed “war on terrorism”
      Questionnaire
      • Same question in open-ended format
      • How can we get out of Iraq?
      • Survey and questionnaire design
        • Choosing a sample:
          • Samples need to be as representative as possible, ideally randomly chosen from the population of interest
          • Sample size must be large enough to have confidence in the results—depends on situation
          • Poorly chosen samples lead to biased results
      Sample selection
    • Reported daily TV consumption in hours Low frequency alternatives Up to ½ ½ to 1 1 to 1½ 1½ to 2 2 to 2½ More than 2½ High Frequency alternatives Up to 2½ 2½ to 3 3 to 3½ 3½ to 4 4 to 4½ More than 4½ Schwarz et al. (1985)
    • Reported daily TV consumption in hours Low frequency alternatives % Up to ½ 7.4 ½ to 1 17.7 1 to 1½ 26.5 1½ to 2 14.7 2 to 2½ 17.7 More than 2½ 16.2 High Frequency alternatives % Up to 2½ 62.5 2½ to 3 23.4 3 to 3½ 7.8 3½ to 4 4.7 4 to 4½ 1.6 More than 4½ 0 Schwarz et al. (1985)
      • Sampling
        • A sample is a subset of the population selected to represent the population as a whole
        • Samples should be representative of the population
        • Sample size
          • larger sample gives more reliable results
          • small samples are OK when they represent the population
          • (US presidential election poll: sample size of 1,000)
      Sample
      • Sampling (cont.): Sampling procedure
        • random sampling
          • every member of the population has a known probability of being included
        • convenience sampling
          • the researcher selects easiest population members from which to obtain information
          • lacks the representativeness of the population
          • (e.g.) shopping mall intercept
      Sampling
    • Summary
      • What is marketing research?
      • The marketing research process
        • Six stages