Effective Communication and Presentation
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Effective Communication and Presentation Effective Communication and Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • The Art of Communication by Zainal Abidin Sayadi Faculty of Science, Technology & Human Development zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • Presentation Outline
    • What is Communication
    • Principles of Effective Presentation
    • Presenting the Information
    • Effective Non-Verbal Messages
    • Using Visual Aids
    • Handling Questions
    • Question & Answer Session
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • 1. What is Communication zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 View slide
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
      • … the process of creating meaning between two or more people (Tubbs & Moss, 2000, p8)
    CHANNEL CHANNEL INTERFERENCE INTERFERENCE MESSAGES MESSAGES INPUT INPUT SENDER SENDER RECEIVER RECEIVER View slide
  • THE ELEMENTS
    • WHO
    • (sender)
    • TO WHOM
    • (receiver)
    • WHAT IS SAID
    • (message)
    • WHAT CHANNEL
    • (mode)
    • THE EFFECT
    • (feedback)
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
    • How Do People Communicate?
    • Speech
    • Written
      • Letters
      • Memos
    • Symbols (Symbolic behaviours)
      • Smiling
      • Laughing
      • Crying
    • Gestures
      • Hand movements
      • Body language
      • Facial expression
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 } } verbal Non-verbal
  • Reason to Communicate
    • To entertain
    • To persuade
    • To inform
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • THE TYPES
    • Intrapersonal Communication
    • Interpersonal Communication
    • Communication to Group
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • 2. Principles of Effective Presentation zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • Language use
    • Simple and not too complex
    • Comprehensible
    • Short sentences
    • Repetition of ideas
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • Principles of Effective Presentation
    • Credible
      • Show your credibility
      • Knowledgeable, confidence
    • Clear
      • Clarity in terms of language use and word choice
      • Sentences are correct grammatically – not too much jargon
    • Verbal – clear and audible
    • Accurate
      • Precise and exact
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • Principles of Effective Presentation
    • Appropriate
      • Content is appropriate to the aim, occasion and audience
      • Appearance and attire
      • Gestures must reflect appropriacy and suitable for certain occasion
    • Enthusiastic
      • Show your interest in the topics
      • Lively, active and dynamic presentation
    • Prevent Distractions
      • Sustain the audience’s attention
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • 3. Presenting the Information via Ideational Frameworks zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Ideational Frameworks
    • Burgess (1994)
      • IFs are models of how the mind organizes bodies of information or ideas in information sets.
      • Putting an abstract body of information, which may be in the form of a text into a concrete visual format
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Ideational Frameworks
    • Purpose
      • To provide insights into how meaning of the text is constructed
      • IFs act as a link between the receptive skills of reading and listening and the production skills of speaking and writing.
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Models of IFs
    • Flow Charts
      • Simple Linear Flow Chart
      • Bifurcating Flow Chart
      • Lateral Branch Flow Chart
      • Cyclic Flow Chart
    • Grids or Tables
    • Tree Diagrams
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Flow Charts
    • Used in managing a series of information that interrelate in terms of sequences as in description of sequences of events
    • They order graphically how something occurs with respect to temporal or causal sequences
    • It is well defined in instructions, descriptions of processes and narrations where the audience are able to view the flow of the content in a more concrete form
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Flow Charts a. A Simple Linear Flow Chart Roll some paper into a cylinder Push a band on to the pillar ETC.
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Flow Charts b. A Bifurcating Flow Chart The milk is transported to the dairy. It may be pasteurized It may be sterilized It is bottled
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Flow Charts c. A Lateral Branch Flow Chart He saw an advert for a job He applied for it He got it He had not seen the job He would not be the director if
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 d. A Cyclic Flow Chart Moisture falls on the land It flows into rivers It evaporates from the surface It goes to the sea
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Grids or Tables
    • Represent the attribution of characteristics to phenomena
    • They are used to organize clusters of ideas that interrelate across axes; (i) the axis of phenomena such as certain things or people, and (ii) the axis of criteria like the shape, size, etc.
    • The interrelation of the two axes occurs when and at the point where a phenomena meets a criteria thus a characteristic is obtained.
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Grid or Tables Loaves Number of Dough Pieces Basic Shapes Ends Decorations Lemon 1 Long Pointed A straight cut from end to end Plain Cottage 2 Round - None Bloomer 1 Long Rounded Many cuts across the top Notched Cottage 2 round - Many cuts around the edges
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Tree Diagram
    • Represent the highly abstract classification of information into hierarchies.
    • They are used to relate information to each other in order of generality.
    • It also produces a hierarchy of information that moves downwards narrowing in subdivisions from general to specific or from specific to general
  • zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Tree Diagram TRUNKS straight curved upright leaning upward downward Pronounced curve One curve Several curves Gentle curve
  • 4. Effective Non-Verbal Messages zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • Non-Verbal Messages
    • Physical appearance
      • Dress appropriately
      • Do not overdress / over make-up / too colourful
    •   Body posture
      • Upright position – do not slouch
    • Gestures
      • Hands / fingers movement
      • Head nodding
      • Move around
    • Eye Contact
      • Can improve rapport with members of the audience
      • Do not focus only on certain group of people or person
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • 5. Using Visual Aids zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • The need for visual aids
    • Enhance the audience’s comprehension of the subject matter
    • Help the audience to digest the ideas presented
    • Help the audience to grasp the content at a faster pace
    • Minimize miscommunication, misunderstanding / misinterpretations
    • Some elements or ideas are difficult to explain if only words are used
    • Help the audience to be more focused and attentive
    • Visual aids contribute to authenticity, beauty, credibility and variety to the presentation
    • Help to retain the memory
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • Guides for using visual aids
    • Do not use visual aids for the sake of using the aids.
    • Do not use too many visual aids – they could be the source of distraction
    • Practice using the aids
    • Familiar yourself with the equipment
    • Check the availability of the equipment
    • Ensure the aids shown related to the specific points discussed
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • 6. Handling Questions zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  • Rules in Handling Questions
    • Anticipate Questions
    • Listen carefully and attentively
    • Ask the person to repeat the question if it is not clear
    • If the question is not relevant to the scope of the content, or not related to your expertise, be honest and inform the audience
    • If you cannot answer the question, admit it
    • Appreciate members who offer their views or suggestions
    • Always be courteous and do not lose your temper
    zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011