Effective Communication and Presentation


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Effective Communication and Presentation

  1. 1. The Art of Communication by Zainal Abidin Sayadi Faculty of Science, Technology & Human Development zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>What is Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of Effective Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting the Information </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Non-Verbal Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Using Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Question & Answer Session </li></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  3. 3. 1. What is Communication zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  4. 4. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 <ul><ul><li>… the process of creating meaning between two or more people (Tubbs & Moss, 2000, p8) </li></ul></ul>CHANNEL CHANNEL INTERFERENCE INTERFERENCE MESSAGES MESSAGES INPUT INPUT SENDER SENDER RECEIVER RECEIVER
  5. 5. THE ELEMENTS <ul><li>WHO </li></ul><ul><li>(sender) </li></ul><ul><li>TO WHOM </li></ul><ul><li>(receiver) </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS SAID </li></ul><ul><li>(message) </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT CHANNEL </li></ul><ul><li>(mode) </li></ul><ul><li>THE EFFECT </li></ul><ul><li>(feedback) </li></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  6. 6. <ul><li>How Do People Communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbols (Symbolic behaviours) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expression </li></ul></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 } } verbal Non-verbal
  7. 7. Reason to Communicate <ul><li>To entertain </li></ul><ul><li>To persuade </li></ul><ul><li>To inform </li></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  8. 8. THE TYPES <ul><li>Intrapersonal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communication to Group </li></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  9. 9. 2. Principles of Effective Presentation zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  10. 10. Language use <ul><li>Simple and not too complex </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensible </li></ul><ul><li>Short sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition of ideas </li></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  11. 11. Principles of Effective Presentation <ul><li>Credible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show your credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable, confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity in terms of language use and word choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentences are correct grammatically – not too much jargon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal – clear and audible </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise and exact </li></ul></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  12. 12. Principles of Effective Presentation <ul><li>Appropriate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content is appropriate to the aim, occasion and audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance and attire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures must reflect appropriacy and suitable for certain occasion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show your interest in the topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lively, active and dynamic presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevent Distractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustain the audience’s attention </li></ul></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  13. 13. 3. Presenting the Information via Ideational Frameworks zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  14. 14. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Ideational Frameworks <ul><li>Burgess (1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IFs are models of how the mind organizes bodies of information or ideas in information sets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting an abstract body of information, which may be in the form of a text into a concrete visual format </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Ideational Frameworks <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide insights into how meaning of the text is constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IFs act as a link between the receptive skills of reading and listening and the production skills of speaking and writing. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Models of IFs <ul><li>Flow Charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Linear Flow Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bifurcating Flow Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral Branch Flow Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclic Flow Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grids or Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Tree Diagrams </li></ul>
  17. 17. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Flow Charts <ul><li>Used in managing a series of information that interrelate in terms of sequences as in description of sequences of events </li></ul><ul><li>They order graphically how something occurs with respect to temporal or causal sequences </li></ul><ul><li>It is well defined in instructions, descriptions of processes and narrations where the audience are able to view the flow of the content in a more concrete form </li></ul>
  18. 18. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Flow Charts a. A Simple Linear Flow Chart Roll some paper into a cylinder Push a band on to the pillar ETC.
  19. 19. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Flow Charts b. A Bifurcating Flow Chart The milk is transported to the dairy. It may be pasteurized It may be sterilized It is bottled
  20. 20. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Flow Charts c. A Lateral Branch Flow Chart He saw an advert for a job He applied for it He got it He had not seen the job He would not be the director if
  21. 21. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 d. A Cyclic Flow Chart Moisture falls on the land It flows into rivers It evaporates from the surface It goes to the sea
  22. 22. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Grids or Tables <ul><li>Represent the attribution of characteristics to phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>They are used to organize clusters of ideas that interrelate across axes; (i) the axis of phenomena such as certain things or people, and (ii) the axis of criteria like the shape, size, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The interrelation of the two axes occurs when and at the point where a phenomena meets a criteria thus a characteristic is obtained. </li></ul>
  23. 23. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Grid or Tables Loaves Number of Dough Pieces Basic Shapes Ends Decorations Lemon 1 Long Pointed A straight cut from end to end Plain Cottage 2 Round - None Bloomer 1 Long Rounded Many cuts across the top Notched Cottage 2 round - Many cuts around the edges
  24. 24. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Tree Diagram <ul><li>Represent the highly abstract classification of information into hierarchies. </li></ul><ul><li>They are used to relate information to each other in order of generality. </li></ul><ul><li>It also produces a hierarchy of information that moves downwards narrowing in subdivisions from general to specific or from specific to general </li></ul>
  25. 25. zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011 Tree Diagram TRUNKS straight curved upright leaning upward downward Pronounced curve One curve Several curves Gentle curve
  26. 26. 4. Effective Non-Verbal Messages zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  27. 27. Non-Verbal Messages <ul><li>Physical appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress appropriately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not overdress / over make-up / too colourful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Body posture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upright position – do not slouch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands / fingers movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head nodding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move around </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eye Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can improve rapport with members of the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not focus only on certain group of people or person </li></ul></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  28. 28. 5. Using Visual Aids zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  29. 29. The need for visual aids <ul><li>Enhance the audience’s comprehension of the subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Help the audience to digest the ideas presented </li></ul><ul><li>Help the audience to grasp the content at a faster pace </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize miscommunication, misunderstanding / misinterpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Some elements or ideas are difficult to explain if only words are used </li></ul><ul><li>Help the audience to be more focused and attentive </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids contribute to authenticity, beauty, credibility and variety to the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Help to retain the memory </li></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  30. 30. Guides for using visual aids <ul><li>Do not use visual aids for the sake of using the aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use too many visual aids – they could be the source of distraction </li></ul><ul><li>Practice using the aids </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar yourself with the equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Check the availability of the equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the aids shown related to the specific points discussed </li></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  31. 31. 6. Handling Questions zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011
  32. 32. Rules in Handling Questions <ul><li>Anticipate Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Listen carefully and attentively </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the person to repeat the question if it is not clear </li></ul><ul><li>If the question is not relevant to the scope of the content, or not related to your expertise, be honest and inform the audience </li></ul><ul><li>If you cannot answer the question, admit it </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate members who offer their views or suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Always be courteous and do not lose your temper </li></ul>zainals@uthm.edu.my 2011