Learning Outcome:After completing this chapter, students will be able to:1. Explain what is typography and identify it’s Character2. Enumerate and gain understanding about the functions of typography in art and design3. Evaluate and understand type of typography4. Explore the invention and development of typefaces from the age of Palaeolithic till Roman Empire_________________________________________________________________________1.1. What is typographyTypography is the art and technique of arranging type, type design, and modifying type glyphs. Typeglyphs are created and modified using a variety of illustration techniques.The arrangement of type involves the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, leading (linespacing), adjusting the spaces between groups of letters (tracking) and adjusting the spacebetween pairs of letters (kerning).Typography is performed by typesetters, compositors, typographers, graphic designers, art directors,comic book artists, graffiti artists, and clerical workers. Type Design Modifying type glyphs
GraffitiTypography is not a fine art.The typographer exists not to express his own design preferences, his own aesthetic needs, but toprovide a useful (because usable) connection between someone with something to say and someoneto say it to. 1.2. WHERE TYPE IS USE? Type is everywhere. It is on almost everything we buy, on the pages of books and magazine, on walls, floors and street signs. As the examples here demonstrate, the are many typeface varieties and each possesses a distinct personality. Some typefaces are formal and convey a sense of authority, while others are more relaxed and appear to be less structured. Typeface usage can therefore tell a reader as much about the originator of the communication as the message itself.
1.3. FUNCTIONS OF TYPOGRAPHYCurrent typographic functions can be divided into the following categories:1.3.1 Art/Autonomous typographyIn this case typography is mainly used for aesthetic purposes. The individual style andexpression of the designer is often more important than the text.
1.3.2 Communication typographyImpression typographyThe main function of impression type is to get people to read. In this case form can also be moreimportant than legibility. But it does have a specific function: attract attention.* Legibility Suitability is how fast the character can be identified.Information typographyOften called book typography. This is the kind of typography that is usually very subtle and itshighest priority is legibility. It often involves high quantities of text.
Interactive/navigationalThere are many ways to represent interactive type. Besides legibility, usability is introduced asan extension of typography. Navigational typography has several functions: It tells the user where he/she is in relation to the rest of the content It tells the user where to go and how to get somewhere It provides direct feedback to accentuate interaction It accurately represents the content through language and aesthetics1.4 TYPE OF TYPOGRAPHY1.4.1 Display typographyTypography is a potent element in graphic design, where there is less concern for readability andmore potential for using type in an artistic manner.
Type is combined with negative space, graphic elements and pictures, forming relationships and dialog between words and images. Color and size of type elements are much more prevalent than in text typography. Most display typography exploits type at larger sizes, where the details of letter design are magnified. Color is used for its emotional effect in conveying the tone and nature of subject matter. Display typography encompasses posters; book covers; typographic logos and word marks billboards; packaging; on-product typography; calligraphy; *graffiti; inscriptional & architectural lettering; poster design and other large scale lettering signage; business communications & promotional collateral; advertising; word marks & typographic logos (logotypes) and kinetic typography in motion pictures and television; vending machine displays; online & computer screen displays. Book covers (Display Typography)1.4.2 Advertising Typography Typography has long been a vital part of promotional material and advertising. Designers often use typography to set a theme and mood in an advertisement; for example using bold, large text to convey a particular message to the reader. Type is often used to draw attention to a particular advertisement, combined with efficient use of color, shapes and images. Today, typography in advertising often reflects a companys brand. Fonts used in advertisements convey different messages to the reader; classical fonts are for a strong personality, while more modern fonts are for a cleaner, neutral look.
A print advertisement from a 1913 issue of National Geographic Examples of Advertising Typography1.4.3 Newspapers, magazines, and periodicalsTypography is used in all newspapers, magazines and periodicals.Headlines are often set in larger type to attract attention and are placed near the masthead.For example, BERITA HARIAN uses a bold, colourful and comparatively modern style throughtheir use of different fonts and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper name is placedon a coloured background.
Popular Malaysia newspapers like BERITA HARIAN and UTUSAN use typography heavily.1.5. Early movement type
LAB ACTIVITYActivity : Create Character and Object from TypeSoftware: Adobe IllustratorSTEP 1Open the adobe Illustrator Cs4 and set the document to A4 size, landscape orientationSTEP 2Select on Type tool and start type any words on the artboardSTEP 3Use your creativity in choosing the typeface that is going to be used in your character. You canuse different type of typefaces based on your character.
STEP 4To get a good composition you have to use this tool to rotate, scale up, scale down and changethe position at typeface.STEP 5In the character number 3 from Garamond have been used to produce the body of a car.STEP 6Try different types of composition to find a good layout and apparent.
STEP 7After all the chosen type combined, we can look at the character in detail.Examples:
AssignmentTask: Create 3 Characters and 3 Objects from the Type. You can use A-Z, 0-9and others symbols.Requirements: 1. Size = A4 size. (Display all characters and objects in one page) 2. Black and White or Colour 3. Label the items ( Ex: Cars/Bicycle/Boys/Girls) 4. Use Adobe Illustrator to complete the task 5. Print and save your artwork into your portfolio. 6. Submit After Practical ClassCriteria: Idea development (by using the sources creatively) [ 5 Marks ] Good alignment and balance [ 5 Marks ] Presentation show the High quality (have market value) [ 5 Marks ] Message delivery (visual show the message clearly) [ 5 Marks ] Clean finishing [ 5 Marks ] TOTAL = 25 MARKSNOTES: This Assignment is one part of Assignment 1 (A1). This assignment willcomplete after student submit all the parts in Assignments 1.