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Cloud computing and education Cloud computing and education Document Transcript

  • CLOUD COMPUTING AND EDUCATION By Zaid da’ood NEAR EAST UNIVERSITY January 20, 2013
  • 4. CLOUD COMPUTING AND EDUCATION4.1. Introduction4.2. Knowledge on E-Learning4.2.1. Definition4.2.2. History4.3. How to Develop an E-Learning System?4.4. Virtual and Personal Learning Environments4.4.1. Virtual Environments4.5. Using Cloud Computing for E-learning Systems4.5.1. Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 Tools4.6 An E-learning System Architecture Based on Cloud Computing4.6.1. System initiation process group4.6.2. System planning process group4.6.3. System execution process group4.6.4. System monitoring and controlling process group4.6.5. System closing process group 4.7. Cloud Computing Benefits for E-learning Solutions 4.8. Conclusion 4.9. References:
  • 4. CLOUD COMPUTING AND EDUCATION4.1. Introduction The purpose of this chapter is discuss the cloud techniques that could use in e-learningsystems, lets take this realist example as an introduction taking some problems and discus it ,Over the years software and (internal transaction network)ITN education industry haveevolved, these days students faculty and staff have new expectations in addition to computersthey expect IT services to work on a wide array of devices like phones and web browsers, toserve this demand IT departments are all augmenting their on premises software, withsoftware delivered over the internet what many call cloud computing if this combination of onpremises software and cloud solutions they give the education industry choice and how theyreact to the needs of the education community to help explain this further lets meet toeducation leaders this is David he runs a large school district that depends on software Davidpurchases software has installed on the school districts computers his success depends onsoftware that uniquely developed for his district and the hardware that runs it David isconcerned about making sure school districts data are secure and accessible now this team isdistributed he needs to collaborate and share data more frequently with other groups withinthe school district and now hes thinking about creatively engaging parents and thecommunity on the internet David likes the familiarity of on premises software but hesworried about the flexibility to meet his school districts evolving needs in the future withshrinking resources across the country is our second education leader Nancy her universityhas a lot in common with David school district but she is already thinking differently abouther software instead of installing it on the universitys local computers she use softwaredelivered over the internet Nancy depends on the internet to what usually connect theuniversity and its students faculty and staff anywhere she also values that cloud computinghelps eliminate many of her IT worries whether its employees working remotely or makingsure her computers have the latest updates but she worries with all the data in the cloud whosprotecting it where is it being stored whos managing what if theres a problem or a serviceoutage plus because internet services are sometimes designed to work similarly for every usershe can tailor them to meet her universities specific requirements when David and then seemeat it finally becomes clear what David sees limitations with on premises software ourstrengths for the internet services Nancy is using and vice versa they agree the best solutioncan be a combination of both on premises software in addition to cloud services David andNancy illustrate a powerful and growing trend todays educator shouldnt be limited schooldistricts and higher education institutions need flexibility and choice from a technologypartner this prepared to grow and adapt to their ever evolving needs Microsoft and its partnershave worked closely with the education community from more than twenty-five years fifteenof which delivering clown based services were dedicated to meeting the needs of theeducation community in the cloud and from the cloud or on premises with a commitment tosecurity standards and enterprise reliability and flexibility that software plus services.We will see in this chapter everything about cloud computing related with e-learning trying tocollect all information that any organization need to manage an e-learning system with thecloud computing let’s see. View slide
  • 4.2. Knowledge on E-Learning Many universities and learning centers are using e-learning because it can be as veryeffective at a lower cost. Developing these systems is more expensive than preparingclassroom materials and training the trainers, especially if using multimedia or highlyinteractive methods. However, delivery costs for e-learning including costs of web serversand internet techniques are much lower than those for classroom materials, instructor time,participants’ travel and job time lost to attend classroom sessions. For the term Online learning as used in machine learning, see online machine learning.E-learning includes all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching,including educational technology. The information and communication systems,whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learningprocess. This often involves both out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiencesvia technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum. Abbreviationslike CBT (Computer-Based Training), IBT (Internet-Based Training) or WBT (Web-BasedTraining) have been used as synonyms to e-learning. E-learning is the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual education opportunities and digitalcollaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape,satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in theform of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio. It is commonly thought that newtechnologies can make a big difference in education. In particular, children can interact withnew media, and develop their skills, knowledge, and perception of the world, under theirparents monitoring, of course. Many proponents of e-learning believe that everyone must beequipped with basic knowledge in technology, as well as use it as a medium to reach aparticular goal. [1] Figure 1 shows some knowledge on e-learning. figur1[http://www.zythepsary.com/thesis/2-2-methodologies-2/] View slide
  • 4.2.1. Definition There are many definition on e-learning I read it before and we will read in future but Iwill present to you my opinion simple definition, that the e-learning systems can be used todevelop any type of knowledge and skills by offering effective instructional methods basedon learners’ needs. ELearning is a term that means something different to almost everyone who uses it.Some use the term to refer to packaged content pieces and others to technical infrastructures.Some think only of web-based self-study while others realize eLearning can encompass real-time learning and collaboration. Almost all agree that eLearning is of strategic importance.Almost all also agree that eLearning is an effective method that should be blended into acorporation’s current learning mix. [2] ELearning refers to the use of internet or wireless technologies to deliver a broad arrayof training solutions. E-Learners access the learning from computers via the internet or anintranet, or through a hand held device like a palm pilot. In 2001 Marc Rosenberg suggestedthe following definition of eLearning: “the use of Internet technologies to deliver a broadarray of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance.” (p. 28). In less than two shortyears this definition has expanded to include wireless as well as internet technologies with thetwo technologies often working together to delivery focused learning to the job-site. The origins of the term e-Learning is not certain, although it is suggested that the termmost likely originated during the 1980s, within the similar time frame of another deliverymode online learning. While some authors explicitly define e-Learning, others imply aspecific definition or view of e-Learning in their article. These definitions materialize, somethrough conflicting views of other definitions, and some just by simply comparing definingcharacteristics with other existing terms. In particular, Ellis (2004) disagrees with authors likeNichols (2003) who define e-Learning as strictly being accessible using technological toolsthat are web-based, web-distributed, or web-capable. The belief that e-Learning not onlycovers content and instructional methods delivered via CD-ROM, the Internet or an Intranet(Benson et al., 2002; Clark, 2002) but also includes audio- and videotape, satellite broadcastand interactive TV is the one held by Ellis. Although technological characteristics areincluded in the definition of the term, Tavangarian, Leypold, Nölting, Röser, and Voigt (2004)as well as Triacca, Bolchini, Botturi, and Inversini (2004) felt that the technology being usedwas insufficient as a descriptor. Tavangarian et al. (2004) included the constructivisttheoretical model as a framework for their definition by stating that eLearning is not onlyprocedural but also shows some transformation of an individuals experience into theindividuals knowlege through the knowledge construction process. Both Ellis (2004) andTriacca et al. (2004) believed that some level of interactivity needs to be included to make thedefinion truly applicable in describing the learning experience, even though Triacca et al.(2004) added that eLearning was a type of online learning.[3]
  • 4.2.2. History In the early 1960s, Stanford University psychology professors PatrickSuppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach math andreading to young children in elementary schools in East Palo Alto, California.Stanfords Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. In1963, Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction,working with Stanford and others, developed computer assisted instruction. Luskin completedhis landmark UCLA dissertation working with the Rand Corporation in analyzing obstatclesto computer assisted instruction in 1970. Early e-learning systems, based on Computer-BasedLearning/Training often attempted to replicate autocratic teaching styles whereby the role ofthe e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systemsdeveloped later based on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), whichencouraged the shared development of knowledge. As early as 1993, William D. Graziadeidescribed an online computer-delivered lecture, tutorial and assessment project usingelectronic mail. By 1994, the first online high schoolhad been founded. In 1997 Graziadei,W.D., et al., published an article entitled "Building Asynchronous and SynchronousTeaching-Learning Environments: Exploring a Course/Classroom Management SystemSolution". They described a process at the State University of New York (SUNY) ofevaluating products and developing an overall strategy for technology-based coursedevelopment and management in teaching-learning. The product(s) had to be easy to use andmaintain, portable, replicable, scalable, and immediately affordable, and they had to have ahigh probability of success with long-term cost-effectiveness. Today many technologies canbe, and are, used in e-learning, from blogs to collaborative software,ePortfolios, and virtualclassrooms. Most eLearning situations use combinations of these techniques. [4]4.3. How to Develop an E-Learning System? To develop an e-learning system should detect a group of developers from deferentspecialist, Any e-learning system need an analyzing as a first step to start using it and make itmore useful to the users (trainer, lecturer, students, etc….), and of course designing thesystem model to simplify the dealing with this model and make it more flexible to use anddeliver the information or can easily reaching the data as a second step , the next stepdevelopment start after collecting all data and experience to put it realistic and apply it in oursystem ,implementation is our aim to create developing system, the last step is evaluatesystem work and controlling the advantage and disadvantage, register all the positive andnegative result. Adapting existing models to match specific needs is wiser than proceedingwithout any plan. However, flexibility is needed to select and adapt a model to a givensituation. E-learning projects different in complexity and size. The process described below iscomprehensive – it covers all the options that can be included in a complex learning project.However, some of the steps can be skipped or simplified according to project’s objectives andrequirements, such as budget, expertise or organizational constraints.
  • 1- analyzing A needs analysis should be conducted at the start of any development effort todetermine whether. Training is required to fill a gap in professional knowledge and skills, ande-learning is the best solution to deliver the training. The needs analysis allows theidentification of general, high-level course goals. Analysis also is needed to determine thecourse content, Task analysis identifies the job tasks that learners should learn or improve andthe knowledge and skills that need to be developed or reinforced. This type of analysis ismainly used in courses designed to build specific job-related skills (also called “performcourses”). Topic analysis is carried out to identify and classify the course content. This istypical of those courses that are primarily designed to provide information (also called“inform courses”). 2- Designing The design stage includes the following activities: Putting a set of learning objectives need to achieve the general, high-level courseobjective, identifying the order in which the objectives should be achieved (sequencing), andselecting instructional, media, evaluation and delivery strategies. The results of the designingstage are A blueprint that will be used as a reference to develop the course . The blueprintillustrates the curriculum structure (e.g. its organization in courses, units, lessons, activities);the learning objectives associated with each unit; and the delivery methods and formats (e.g.interactive self‑paced materials, synchronous and/or asynchronous collaborative activities) todeliver each unit. 3-Development This step, the e-learning content is actually produced. The content can vary greatly,depending on the available resources. For example, e-learning content may consist of onlysimpler materials (i.e. those with little or no interactivity or multimedia, such as structuredPDF documents) which can be combined with other materials (e.g. audio or video files),assignments and tests. In that situation, storyboard development and the development ofmedia and electronic interactions would not be conducted. The development of multimediainteractive content is comprised of three main steps:  Content development: writing or collecting all the required knowledge and information.  Storyboard development: integrating instructional methods (all the pedagogical elements needed to support the learning process) and media elements. This is done by developing the storyboard, a document that describes all the components of the final interactive products, including images, text, interactions, assessment tests.  Courseware development: developing media and interactive components, producing the course in different formats for CD-ROM and Web delivery and integrating the content elements into a learning platform that learners can access. 4 - Implementation In this step the course is delivered to learners. The curricula is installed on a server andmade accessible for learners. In facilitated and instructor-led courses, this stage also includesmanaging and facilitating learner’s activities.
  • 5 - Evaluation An e-learning project can be evaluated for specific evaluation purposes. You may wantto evaluate learners’ reactions, the achievement of learning objectives, the transfer of job‑related knowledge and skills, and the impact of the project on the organization. 4.4. Virtual and Personal Learning Environments I choose a simple topic discuss the beginning of this environment, that related with thetraditional learning organizations, The reaction of education systems and institutions to therise of social networking has been at best bewilderment, at worst downright hostility, a refusalto engage in these issues risks school becoming increasingly irrelevant to the everyday livesof many young people and particularly irrelevant to the ways in which they communicate andshare knowledge.[5] Source: http://steve-wheeler.blogspot.com/2010/07/anatomy-of-ple.html
  • 4.4.1. Virtual Environments Social Networks Social network sites can be construct a public or semi-public profile within a boundedsystem and articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and view andtraverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.Professional Networks Professional network generally refers to a professional network service, a virtualcommunity that it is focused on professional interactions instead of social interactions.[wiki]Special-formed learning networks for life-long learners A learning network is a group of persons who create, share, support and study learningresources (“units of learning”) in a specific knowledge domain.[6] And also in the future wewill see and living with many new environments, for the raison of technology and internetapplications developing and I will discuss more environments in another position in thischapter. Communities of people who share interests and activities, connect people at low costand here is most social network services such as chat, messaging, email, video, voice chat, filesharing, blogging, discussion groups, and so on, and I prefer to mention about some socialnetwork best site that helped greatly e-learning in the past 10 years, Here is top [7] 3 social e-learning tools in 2012: 1- Twitter Twitter is an online social networking service and micro blogging service that enablesits users to send and read text-based messages of up to 140 characters, known as "tweets".It was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey and launched that July. The service rapidlygained worldwide popularity, with over 500 million registered users as of 2012,generating over 340 million tweets daily and handling over 1.6 billion search queries perday. Since its launch, Twitter has become one of the ten most visited websites on theInternet, and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet." Unregistered users can readtweets, while registered users can post tweets through the website interface, SMS, or arange of apps for mobile devices. [8]Cost: freeAvailability: onlinewww.twitter.com2-YoutubeYouTube is a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees inFebruary 2005, on which users can upload, view and share videos. The company is basedin San Bruno, California, and uses Adobe Flash Video and HTML5 technology to displaya wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips,and music videos, as well as amateur content such as video blogging, short originalvideos, and educational videos. [9]
  • Cost: freeAvailability: onlinewww.youtube.com3- Google DocsGoogle Docs is a free web-based office suite offered by Google within its GoogleDrive service. It also was a storage service but has since been replaced by Google Drive itallows users to create and edit documents online while collaborating in real-time with otherusers. Google Docs combines the features of Writely and Spreadsheets with a presentationprogram incorporating technology designed by Tonic Systems. Data storage of files up to1 GB total in size was introduced on January 13, 2010, but has since been increased to 10 GB;documents using Google Docs native formats do not count towards this quota. The largelyanticipated cloud storage feature by Google is said to be replacing most of Docs features in2012. This extension or replacement of Google Docs called Google Drive was opened to thepublic on April 24, 2012. [10]Cost: freeAvailability: onlineDocs.google.com4.5. Using Cloud Computing for E-learning Systems E-learning systems provide processes of delivering the learning contents to learners whohave different backgrounds, interests, and locations away from a classroom in order tomaximize the effectiveness of learning. Usually, the classical e-learning system is based onclient/server architecture thus they lack of the scalability, flexibility and interoperability. Itmakes the learning resources cannot share, and the system improvement is not easily. Thecloud computing architecture in the e-learning system that the architecture separate into threelayers includes infrastructure, platform and application. This architecture needs to designcomponents in order to transfer the learning resources to the cloud platform. Infrastructurelayer, the learning resources from the traditional system are transferred to the cloud databaseinstead of the usual DBMS. Platform layer, a new e-learning system that consists of the CMS,AMS, and other service components were developed. These components were developed tobe the intermediary between cloud database and the applications. Finally, application layer,CAT web application and WBI application were developed for interacting with the studentsclient .The results shown that all applications co-operated with the other components suitably.Applying the cloud computing makes the classical e-learning more scalability, flexibility, andinteroperability. Moreover, cloud computing induces the way that e-learning can be share anddistribute the learning resources to any kind of devices and platforms. Since the e-learningservices are used for a relative short time, pay per use of the cloud could reduce the cost thusthe organization pay only for capacity that actually used. [11]
  • http://geekandpoke.typepad.com4.5.1. Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 Tools At the beginning, we had access to e-mails; all concepts were new to who depended on post offices, telephones. A rapid change in the era of Information technology always keeps on growing and is always bringing new changes in Computer in the Cloud, SaaS, Web 3.0 and now, Cloud computing is a trend which is integral to Web 2.0 which bring all sorts of user data as well as operating systems online and this makes it unnecessary to use storage devices enabling content sharing platform with web access. Some Advantages Of This Trend Are: In most cases the user does not have to worry about the operating system and hardware that is being used. The corporate job and file sharing become easier, since all the information is in the same “place“, or the “cloud computing solutions“; It is easy to imagine that we came from a generation of services. The difference between Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 is that, with the concept of the web as a platform, involving applications in social networks, and IT, this term is new for the web and just because of that, it is hard to update the technical specifications, but a change in how it is perceived by users and developers is an environment for interaction and participation which today encompasses numerous languages and call the second phase.
  • What Can We Find In Web 3.0? Searching Information Compilation of information processing Presentations of all kinds of information and knowledge of Information Technology . We understand the critical success factors in this new environment are absolutely linked to the simplicity, applicability, usability among others. In these 3 aspects even the WEB 3.0., the question is whether the opportunities created by new technologies will bring clear results and applicability to justify a new wave on Internet or not. [12] And another many applications we mention about it in chapter 2.4.6 An E-learning System Architecture Based on Cloud Computing At the first step view, cloud computing based development of e-learning systemsfollows the same pattern as any other system development project.4.6.1. System initiation process group The initiation of an e-learning system development project using cloud computingarchitecture comprises of developing the project charter and the development of thepreliminary project scope statement. The project charter represents the document thatformally authorizes the development project and endows project manager with theauthority to employ organizational resources to project activities. Preliminary projectscope statement defines what needs to be accomplished, i.e. the functional specificationsof the future e-learning system and the project objectives that have to be met. At thisstage special care should be given to the strong correlation between the project objectivesand project scope. It is important to quantitatively measure the efficiency of the projectobjectives as they will have a crucial impact upon the efficiency of the future e-learningcloud computing system. In order to assess the fitness of the proposed objectives, the If-then analysis from the LogFramework analysis [13] will be employed. The fitness f of theobjective (Oi) is defined function of the project scope S as: ( ) if 0,then { When ( ) equals 1 this means the completion of objective Oi leads to theaccomplishment of project scope S. In order for the project scope S to be consideredcompletely defined one must have: ∑ which means, all the stated objectives Oi must lead to the accomplishment of the projectscope S. In the field of e-learning system implementation using cloud computing, S might be“implement an e-learning system for the 100 students of the PhD program with a maximuminitial investment of 50.000Euro”.4.6.2. System planning process group The very nature of a cloud computing business model and of its technical architecturemakes the planning of a cloud computing based project different than any other ITdevelopment project. Considering the cloud computing infrastructure will be rented from the
  • service provider, the project manager’s focus moves from choosing the right technology tochoosing the right vendor. Instead of Concentrating on the computing power of the architecture and the costs of scaling upthe e-learning system, the project manager will be looking at such parameters as serviceavailability, data security, backup and contingency plans the cloud computing vendor offers,etc. The availability of the cloud computing based e-leaning system can be calculated as: Where: A – The availability of the system during a year. A is measured in percents. UT – the total uptime of the e-learning system, measured in seconds. 31536000 –Represent the total number of seconds during a year. Service availability A of more than 99% is considered a highly available e-learningsystem. The data security e-leaning efficiency metrics is defined as:where: DS – the security degree of the e-learning system, measured in percent’s; DA –the number of successfully denied attacks upon the e-leaning system during a year; TNA– the total number of denied attacks upon the e-leaning system during a year. The morebusiness oriented and less technical nature of the cloud computing based project activitiescan be immediately observed in the project scope planning, project work breakdownstructure, activity identification and sequencing, activity duration estimation and scheduledevelopment. This is because the service provider takes on this initial burden and thenoffers on-demand virtualized processing power. For project activity duration estimation,one or several of the described techniques [14], [15] and [16] can be successfully employed.Cost estimation and cost budgeting project processes are highly biased because of thecloud computing architecture. The service supplier absorbs up-front costs and spreads thecosts over a longer period and over several cloud computing customers. Thus, the initialcapital expenditure of the project is converted to ongoing operational expenditure of thee-leaning system maintenance. Table 1 shows the average fees for cloud computingservices. Google App Engine includes a free quota. After this quota is exceeded, the ratesfrom table 1 apply [15]. Amazon EC2 services are charged based on the required resources(small, medium or large) [17] Microsoft Azzure services are not yet commerciallyavailable [18] Provider Average Average Average CPU cost bandwidth storage (per hour) cost (per cost (per GB/month) GB/month) Amazon 0.11$ 0.12$ 15$ Google 0.10$ 0.11$ 15$ Microsoft 0.12$ 0.125$ 15$
  • Using cloud computing instead of investments in datacenters (hardware and softwarelicenses) will result in a shift from capital expenditure (CapEx) to operational expenditure(OpEx). Quality planning project process involves creating test plans for the future e-learningsystem. The tests should take into consideration both intrinsic system features andperformance testing on the cloud computing architecture. Human resource planning entailsallocating both legacy software development personnel and cloud computing engineers thatare aware of the peculiarities of these platforms. Communications planning means decidingwhat project processes and tools will be used for timely and appropriate generation,collection, distribution, storage and retrieval of project information. More exactly, this meanssetting up the reports that have to be generated, their content and frequency. Also, this impliessetting up a bug tracking system for recording all the issues that arise during e-learningsystem development. The ration of bugs to the total number of features developed is calledbug-feature ration: Where:BFR – the ration between the numbers of bugs (defects) discovered and the number offeatures developed. This metric show how many bugs are there for every developed feature. Bugs – the number of defects found in the system. Features – the number of featuresdeveloped according to the project plan.Risk management planning project processes need special attention when working withcloud computing infrastructure. It is true that the cloud computing maintenance burdenresides solely within the responsibilities of the provider. Even though there are servicelevel agreement items in the contract with the vendor, still Gartner analyst’s advices us[19] to discuss the following items with our future cloud computing vendor:  Privileged user access, means asking who has specialized access to data and what are the procedures regarding hiring and management of such administrators.  Regulatory compliance, means asking whether the vendor is willing to undergo external audits and/or security certifications.  Data location, does the provider allow for any control over the location of data.  Data segregation means making sure that data encryption is available at all stages. Also this implies making sure that the encryption schemes are designed and tested by experienced professionals.  Recovery means discussing what happens to data in the case of a disaster, and whether the vendor offers complete restoration. If so, how long does that process will take?  Investigative support means making sure that the vendor has the ability to investigate any inappropriate or illegal activity.  Long-term viability, what happens to data if the company goes out of business? Also this implies making sure that the date will be returned in an appropriate format.  Data availability means asking what are the procedures of moving the data onto a different environment, should the vendor decide to do that.
  • 4.6.3. System execution process group Executing the project means directing and managing the project development andperforming ongoing quality assurance. For a successful cloud computing based e-learningsystem to be developed, legacy software development techniques can be successfullyemployed. That is source control software, build scripts for building the deploymentpackage and automated tests for regression testing. Project criticality analysis techniques[20] can be easily employed in order to enhance the project development quality. Thecriticality index of a task represents the probability that this task will be on the criticalpath: ∑Where:TC – task criticality, a number between 0 and 1 inclusively.TCi – equals 1 if task is on critical path at iteration i and 0 otherwise.N – The total number of Monte Carlo simulations. The closer to 1 is TC for a given task,the higher the probability that that task will be on the critical path. The closer to 0 is atask’s TC, the higher the probability that the task will not reside on the critical path. Thehigher the TC of a task, the higher is the importance to manage the duration of that taskin order to avoid project delays. The sensitivity index of a task represents the correlationbetween task duration and the overall project duration. In practice, the sensitivity index SIis calculated as the pearman’s Rank Correlation between task duration and projectduration: ∑ ( )Where:SI – sensitivity index of a task.di = xi – yi – the difference between the ranks of the corresponding values xi (taskduration) and yi (project duration);n – the number of simulations performed. The sensitivity index SI values lie between -1and 1. In the field of project duration estimation, a SI less than 0 has no sense because theproject duration cannot be shorter as long as the task duration goes longer. So the onlymeaningful values are between 0 and 1 inclusively. The greater the SI of a task, thehigher is the correlation between task duration and the overall project duration. Thecruciality index CI represents the product of the two indexes calculated above and showsthe importance to manage the duration-uncertainty of anactivity:CRUI CI SI
  • Where:CRUI – the cruciality index of a task;CI – criticality index of a task;SI – sensitivity index of a task.The CRUI metric has no unit of measure but its significance lies in its ability to rankproject tasksaccording to the descending order of the importance to manage the uncertainty of anactivity. The higher the CRUI of a task, the more attention the task needs from themanager of the project regarding timely execution of the task. Project execution during e-learning system implementation can benefit from such performance metrics used in thefield of automated software testing. Test success rate is defined as:Where:TS – test success rate, measured as a percentage;TP – test cases that passed with success;TNT – total number of tests.The closer the TS test success rate to 100%, the higher the quality of the e-learningsystem. For most of the e-learning systems the acceptance criteria is a TS rate of 100%.In [21] are presented metrics related to the cost effective software testing process.4.6.4. System monitoring and controlling process group The monitoring and controlling processes are performed during the entire projectlifecycle in order to take preventive and corrective actions so as to meet the establishedproject performance goals. Continuous monitoring gives the project management teaminsights regarding project health and identifies any areas that might need specialattention. The cloud computing based e-learning systems are no different than othersoftware development projects. More exactly, monitoring and controlling processes areconcerned with:  Assessing project current performance.  Comparing planned and actual project performance.  Analyzing, tracking and monitoring identified project risks.  Provide accurate information regarding project status report.  Provide updated project costs and schedule information.  Manage ongoing feature change requests. The ongoing performance of the project can be successfully tracked using EarnedValue Management technique. Figure 1 depicts the earned value method metrics for aregular e-learning project implementation. ∑ ( )
  • Where:EV – current earned value of the project, i.e. the sum of the planned value of thecompleted elements of the project;PV – planned value of various project elements. Only completed project elements will betaken into consideration for this formula calculation.PV from figure 1 represents the planned (budgeted) project value earning as the elearning system implementation advances. PV will be calculated on a per case basis, butgenerally it will be a function of the implemented features:PV = f(features)AC from figure 1 represents the actual cost of the work performed. AC is calculated asthe sum of all the individual costs incurred: ∑Figure 1Where:AC – actual cost of the work performed;Ci – the cost of executing the feature i .Earned value management method is a valuable tool for monitoring project progress andfor anticipating and mitigating any problems the project may sustain.4.6.5. System closing process group Project closing involves finalizing all project activities and performing theacceptance and delivery of the final e-learning system. During this stage the project scopeis checked against the initial objectives, the e-learning system installation andmaintenance is documented, the acceptance testing of the final product is performed andthe formal closing of the project is executed.
  • 4.7Cloud Computing Benefits for E-learning Solutions Cloud computing is evolving quickly into a race for computing power, communications and transactions. As it merges further with social and identity services, it even challenges the idea of national boundaries and resource management. In the next few years there will be a massive building phase with a lot at stake for traditional and new service providers. We predict cloud platforms that emphasize open data exchanges through APIs will become the dominant force for building ecosystems that will tip the balance of the developer mindshare – and perhaps set the social boundaries for this generation. The future will be driven by the relationship between transactions. The architecture of the enterprise will evolve beyond standards-based B2B data exchange and will instead develop real-time APIs to use with its partners; to the extent these interfaces are real-time, the enterprise itself will need to become real-time to keep up with location-driven and personalized relationships. Real-time is the life blood of the enterprise. As APIs continue to develop, the next evolution of enterprise software will look like advanced Twitter-bots or real-time algorithms. [22] 4.8. Conclusion Dear reader in this chapter we trying to close to you how to treat with cloud computingand how to use it with an e-learning system ,at the first we present a short cut introduction toshows the converting of education organization from traditional education to technologyeducation and cloud education , we mention about how we can develop an e-learning systemstep by step and some environment that will be more benefited to use it with e-learningsystem, and declare about some using the cloud in now a days web and tools also bycollecting some data from many reference we trying to create An E-learning SystemArchitecture Based on Cloud Computing how it work ? How is the processing go on? What isthe outcome from the execution? How can we control the system? And many features. Finally off course we present the benefit from the using of cloud computing in e-learning and another system also we hope to deliver our information briefly and clearly andwe hope that our book will be useful and help the organizations to use the cloud techniques.
  • 4.9. References:1- [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-learning].2- [ August 2003, the herridge group].3- [ e-Learning, online learning, and distance learning environments: Are they the same? Joi L. Moore, Camille Dickson-Deane, Krista Galyen].4- [Wiki,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-learning#History].5- [GrahamAttwell,Personal Learning Environments].6- [Rob Koper, Open University of the Netherlands]. 7- [Top 100 Tools for Learning 2012 by Jane Hart on Oct 01, 2012]8- [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter].9- [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YouTube].10- [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Docs].11- [ Computer & Information Science (ICCIS), 2012 International Conference on Date of Conference: 12-14 June 2012 Author(s): Phankokkruad, M. Fac. of Inf. Technol., King Mongkuts Inst. of Technol. Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand ]. 12- [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_3.0#Web_3.0]13- [The Logical Framework, USAID 1971,http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNABI452.pdf].14- [Vetrici M., Software Project Duration Estimation Using Metrix Model, Informatica Economica Journal, Vol. XII, no. 47/2008, pp.87-91.]. Temnenco V., Software Estimation, Enterprise- Wide, IBM The Rational Edge, Vol. June 2007, http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/rational/library/jun07/temnenco/index.html.].15- [Pocatilu P., Vetrici M., Schedule Risk Management for Business M-Applications Development Projects, WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMPUTERS, Issue 4, Volume 8, April 2009, ISSN: 1109-2750, pp. 735-745].16- [Billing and Budgeting Resources – Google App Engine – Google Code http://code.google.com/intl/ro/appengine/docs/bil ling.html].17- [Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/, retrieved on August 2009].18- [Google Apps - www.google.com/a, retrieved on August 2009].19- [Brodkin J., Gartner: Seven cloud-computing security risks, Infoworld, July 2008, http://www.infoworld.com/d/security- central/gartner-seven-cloud-computing- security-].risks-853, retrieved on August 2009].20- [Vetrici M., Improving software project quality using criticality analysis, Proceedings of The Ninth International Conference on Informatics in Economy IE 2009, Bucharest, Romania.].21- [Lazic L., Mastorakis N., Cost Effective Software Test Metrics, WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMPUTERS, Issue 6, Volume 7, June 2008, pp. 599-619].22- [http://readwrite.com/search?keyword=cloud].