STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF CIS By zaid da’ood Supervisor prof. İlky salihoglu
WHAT IS INFORMATION SYSTEM ?A combination of hardware,software, infrastructure andtrained personnel organizedto facilitate planning, control,coordination, and decision making in an organization.
FIRST INFORMATION SYSTEMIN HUMAN’S HISTORY • We are all having this system already and human starting go forward to technology. • writing ,reading, computing, and memorizing all information result of these processes.• then human reaching to computer and use it to do most of the processes that information system need.
COMPUTER INFORMATION SYSTEM Information systems are computer-based infrastructures , organizations, personnel, and components that collect, process, store, transmit, display, disseminate, and act on information. Information systems generally provide computer-based assistance to people engaging their environment.
INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTUREEverything that supports information processing except informationitself: computer hardware general-purpose softwarenetworks and communication facilities.
INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTUREdatabase information management personnel and, procedures
INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE isa general scheme of the Information requirements in the organization (including information flows)
CENTRALIZED INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE Input transactions do notneed to be processed in real time. On-line-data-entry personalcan be centrally located. Large number of periodic outputs are produced by the system.
CENTRALIZED INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE Single-computer architecture Mainframe environment; PC environment Multi-computer architecture Group of similar computers Group of different computers implementing different tasks.
DECENTRALIZED (DISTRIBUTED) INFORMATIONARCHITECTURE PC in a LAN or WAN Client/Server Client/Server in a LAN Enterprise wide computing Client/Server evolution into Internet-based architecture
CLIENT/SERVER ARCHITECTURE Several computers share resources and are able to communicate with each other A client - a computer attached to the network, which is used to request and access shared network resources A server - a machine that is attached to the same network and provides clients with these services Purpose : optimize the use of computer resources
ENTERPRISE WIDE ARCHITECTURES It is broadly used to describe business initiatives and technology; for example,an "enterprise-wide focus upon customer satisfaction," or an "enterprise-wide security application." These are more oftencompany-wide ,restricted to acompanys employees and internal workings.
ENTERPRISE WIDE ARCHITECTURESAccess to data, applications, services, and real- time flows of data inDifferent LANs or databasesUse client/server architectureto create a cohesive, flexible,and powerful computingenvironment
ENTERPRISE WIDE ARCHITECTURES Provide total integration of departmental and corporate IS resources Increase the availability of information and thereby maximize the value of information.
THE EVOLUTION Computer Based Information Systems1940 Scientific, military applications1950 Routine business applications, TPS1960 MIS, office automation1970 DSS, LANs Client/server executive information system,1980 PC’s, AI, Groupware Integration, intelligent systems1990 the Web, intranets, extranets, ERP software2000 Internet, Electronic commerce, Smart systems
CONCLUSIONS: All information systems nowadays can not work without computers in each of its functions therefore is necessary developing information science and deal with it and managing it and develop the structural, efficiency and functionality of a computer for using in information systems in addition to the development of how to deal with the information and data input, output and efficiency to deal with them through user and dealing with it through the development of the computer internally ,and reduce errors to make computer systems more efficient in the constructional and functional features.
References:1-Computer-Aided Analysis and Design of Information Systems J.F. Nunamaker Jr. and Benn R. KonsynskiJr.University of Arizona Thomas Ho and Carl Singer Purdue University.2-Computer and Information Systems Policy of The Baptist College of Florida.3-The Protection of Information in Computer Systems JEROME H. SALTZER, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, ANDMICHAEL D. SCHROEDER, MEMBER, IEEE.4-UNDERSTANDING COMPUTERS: AN OVERVIEW FOR RECORDS AND ARCHIVES STAFF MANAGING PUBLICSECTOR RECORDSA STUDY PROGRAMME General Editor, Michael Roper; Managing Editor, Laura Millar .5- A Functional Taxonomy of Computer Based Information Systems Gregory Mentzas Department ofElectrical and Computer Engineering National Technical University of Athens Published in: "InternationalJournal of Information Management" (Volume 14, No. 6, December, pp. 397-410.) .