Chapter 3Chapter 3
JOB ANALYSISJOB ANALYSIS
Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes
CLO 2 – illustrate properly the
procedures and processes in managing
human resource
L...
DefinitionsDefinitions
Job analysis - Systematic process of determining
skills, duties, and knowledge required for
perfor...
Definitions (Cont.)Definitions (Cont.)
A work group consisting of a supervisor,
two senior clerks, and four word
processi...
Questions Job Analysis Should AnswerQuestions Job Analysis Should Answer
What physical and mental tasks does
worker accom...
Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management ToolJob Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool
Tasks Responsibil...
Job specification & Job descriptionJob specification & Job description
PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
Job designJob design
PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
Job enlargementJob enlargement
PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
Job rotationJob rotation
PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
The use of job analysisThe use of job analysis
PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
Recruitment & selectionRecruitment & selection

Helps in determining what kind of person is
required to perform a particu...
Performance analysisPerformance analysis

To check if goals and objectives of a
particular job are met or not.

It helps...
Training & developmentTraining & development

Be used to assess the training and
development needs of employees.

The di...
Compensation managementCompensation management
o
Plays a vital role in deciding the pay
packages and extra perks and benef...
Job designing & redesigningJob designing & redesigning

The main purpose of job analysis is to
streamline the human effor...
Job analysis processJob analysis process
PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
Identification of job analysis purposeIdentification of job analysis purpose

To determine its need and desired
output. S...
Who will conduct job analysisWho will conduct job analysis

To decide who will conduct it.

Some companies prefer gettin...
How to conduct the processHow to conduct the process

A planned approach about how to carry
the whole process is required...
Strategic decision makingStrategic decision making

Deciding the extent of employee
involvement in the process, the level...
Training of job analystTraining of job analyst

To train the job analyst about how to
conduct the process and use the sel...
Preparation of job analysis processPreparation of job analysis process

Communicating it within the organization
is the n...
Data collectionData collection

To collect job-related data including
educational qualifications of employees,
skills and...
Documentation, verification andDocumentation, verification and
reviewreview

Proper documentation is done to verify
the a...
Developing JD & JSDeveloping JD & JS

To segregate the collected data in to useful
information.

Job Description describ...
Reasons For ConductingReasons For Conducting
Job AnalysisJob Analysis
 Staffing - Haphazard if recruiter does not know
qu...
Reasons For ConductingReasons For Conducting
Job Analysis (Cont.)Job Analysis (Cont.)
Safety and Health - Helps identify ...
Summary of Types of Data CollectedSummary of Types of Data Collected
Through Job AnalysisThrough Job Analysis
Work Activi...
Summary of Types of Data CollectedSummary of Types of Data Collected
Through Job Analysis (Cont.)Through Job Analysis (Con...
Summary of Types of Data CollectedSummary of Types of Data Collected
Through Job Analysis (Cont.)Through Job Analysis (Con...
Job Analysis MethodsJob Analysis Methods
Questionnaires
Observation
Interviews
Employee recording
Combination of
meth...
QuestionnairesQuestionnaires
Typically quick and economical to use
Structured questionnaire to employees
Problem: Emplo...
ObservationObservation
Job analyst watches worker perform job
tasks and records observations
Used primarily to gather in...
InterviewsInterviews
Interview both employee and
supervisor
Interview employee first,
helping him or her describe
duties...
Employee RecordingEmployee Recording
Describe daily work
activities in diary or log
Problem: Employees
exaggerating job
...
Combination of MethodsCombination of Methods
Usually use more than one method
Clerical and administrative jobs:
question...
Other Methods Available forOther Methods Available for
Conducting Job AnalysisConducting Job Analysis
Functional Job Anal...
Functional Job AnalysisFunctional Job Analysis
Concentrates on the interactions among
the work, the worker, and the
organ...
 Helps in collecting and recording job-related data to a
deeper extent.
 It is used to develop task-related statements.
...
Position Analysis QuestionnairePosition Analysis Questionnaire
Uses a checklist approach to identify job
elements
Focuse...
Critical Incident MethodCritical Incident Method
 Is a set of procedures used for collecting direct observations of
human...
 CIT is a flexible method that usually relies on five major
areas.
 The first is determining and reviewing the incident,...
Conducting Job AnalysisConducting Job Analysis
People who participate
in job analysis should
include, at a minimum:
Emplo...
Job DescriptionJob Description
Document that states
tasks, duties, and
responsibilities of job
Vitally important job
des...
Items Frequently Included In a JobItems Frequently Included In a Job
DescriptionDescription
Major duties performed
Perce...
Content of a Job DescriptionContent of a Job Description
Job Identification - Job title, department,
reporting relationsh...
O*NET, the Occupational InformationO*NET, the Occupational Information
NetworkNetwork
Comprehensive government-developed
...
Job SpecificationJob Specification
Job Specification - Minimum
qualifications person should possess
to perform particular...
Problems If Job SpecificationsProblems If Job Specifications
Are InflatedAre Inflated
May systematically eliminate
minori...
Timeliness of Job AnalysisTimeliness of Job Analysis
Rapid pace of
technological change
makes need for
accurate job analys...
Job Analysis for Team MembersJob Analysis for Team Members
With team design, there are no narrow
jobs
Work departments d...
Job Analysis and the LawJob Analysis and the Law
Equal Pay Act - Similar pay
must be provided if jobs are
not substantial...
Job Analysis and the Law (Cont.)Job Analysis and the Law (Cont.)
Civil Rights Act - Basis for adequate defenses
against u...
Trends & Innovations:Trends & Innovations:
Talent ManagementTalent Management
Process of anticipating workforce needs, ma...
Strategic PlanningStrategic Planning
Strategic Planning - Process by
which top management determines
overall organization...
Strategic Planning and Implementation ProcessStrategic Planning and Implementation Process
MISSION DETERMINATION
Decide wh...
Strategy ImplementationStrategy Implementation
Leadership
Organizational
Structure
Information and
Control Systems
Tec...
Human Resource PlanningHuman Resource Planning
Systematic process of
matching internal and
external supply of people
with ...
Human Resource Planning ProcessHuman Resource Planning Process
External EnvironmentExternal Environment
Internal Environme...
DefinitionsDefinitions
Requirements forecast - Determining
number, skill, and location of employees
organization will nee...
Forecasting Human ResourceForecasting Human Resource
RequirementsRequirements
Zero-based forecasting - Uses
current level...
Forecasting Human ResourceForecasting Human Resource
RequirementsRequirements (Cont.)(Cont.)
Relationship between Volume ...
The Relationship of Sales Volume to NumberThe Relationship of Sales Volume to Number
of Employeesof Employees
Number of
Em...
Forecasting HR AvailabilityForecasting HR Availability
Determining whether firm will be
able to secure employees with
nec...
Use of HR DatabasesUse of HR Databases
Many workers needed for future positions may
already work for firm.
Databases inc...
Shortage of Workers ForecastedShortage of Workers Forecasted
Creative recruiting
Compensation incentives –
Premium pay i...
Surplus of EmployeesSurplus of Employees
Restricted hiring –
Employees who leave are
not replaced
Reduced hours
Early r...
DownsizingDownsizing
Also known as restructuring and rightsizing
Reverse of company growing and
suggests one-time change...
System Used In the Event ofSystem Used In the Event of
DownsizingDownsizing
Unionized - Seniority usually is the basis
U...
Negative Aspects of DownsizingNegative Aspects of Downsizing
Cost associated with low
morale of those remaining
Layers r...
Negative Aspects ofNegative Aspects of
Downsizing (Cont.)Downsizing (Cont.)
Employee loyalty significantly reduced
Insti...
OutplacementOutplacement
Laid-off employees given
assistance in finding employment
elsewhere
Companies use outplacement ...
Succession PlanningSuccession Planning
Process of ensuring that qualified
persons are available to assume key
managerial ...
Disaster PlanningDisaster Planning
Should focus on catastrophes that range
from natural calamities such as
hurricanes, ea...
Human Resource Information SystemsHuman Resource Information Systems
(HRIS)(HRIS)
Any organized approach
for obtaining rel...
HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEMHUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM
Goal: Integrate Core Processes into Seamless SystemGoal...
Manager Self-ServiceManager Self-Service
Use of software and corporate network to
automate paper-based processes requirin...
Employee Self-Service (ESS)Employee Self-Service (ESS)
Processes that automate
transactions formerly labor-
intensive for...
Job DesignJob Design
Process of determining specific tasks to
be performed, methods used in
performing these tasks, and h...
Job Design (Cont.)Job Design (Cont.)
Job enlargement - Changes in scope of
job to provide greater variety to worker
Reen...
A Global Perspective: India Getting theA Global Perspective: India Getting the
Job Done, but DifferentlyJob Done, but Diff...
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any f...
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Chapter 3 job analysis, strategic planning, job description and job specification

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  • i wanna be you to Understanding it5. Questions Job Analysis Should AnswerQuestions Job Analysis Should Answer What physical and mental tasks does worker accomplish? When is job to be completed? Where is job to be accomplished?
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Chapter 3 job analysis, strategic planning, job description and job specification

  1. 1. Chapter 3Chapter 3 JOB ANALYSISJOB ANALYSIS
  2. 2. Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes CLO 2 – illustrate properly the procedures and processes in managing human resource LLO : ◦ Understand job analysis process ◦ Understand job analysis ◦ Explain job analysis approaches ◦ Understand the use of job analysis information to human resource management PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  3. 3. DefinitionsDefinitions Job analysis - Systematic process of determining skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in organization Job - Consists of group of tasks that must be performed for organization to achieve its goals Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in organization PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  4. 4. Definitions (Cont.)Definitions (Cont.) A work group consisting of a supervisor, two senior clerks, and four word processing operators has 3 jobs and 7 positions. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  5. 5. Questions Job Analysis Should AnswerQuestions Job Analysis Should Answer What physical and mental tasks does worker accomplish? When is job to be completed? Where is job to be accomplished? How does worker do job? Why is job done? What qualifications are needed to perform job? PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  6. 6. Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management ToolJob Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool Tasks Responsibilities Duties Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications Knowledge Skills Abilities Staffing Training and Development Performance Appraisal Compensation Safety and Health Employee and Labor Relations Legal Considerations PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  7. 7. Job specification & Job descriptionJob specification & Job description PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  8. 8. Job designJob design PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  9. 9. Job enlargementJob enlargement PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  10. 10. Job rotationJob rotation PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  11. 11. The use of job analysisThe use of job analysis PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  12. 12. Recruitment & selectionRecruitment & selection  Helps in determining what kind of person is required to perform a particular job.  It points out the educational qualifications, level of experience and technical, physical, emotional and personal skills required to carry out a job in desired fashion.  The objective is to fit a right person at a right place. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  13. 13. Performance analysisPerformance analysis  To check if goals and objectives of a particular job are met or not.  It helps in deciding the performance standards, evaluation criteria and individual’s output.  On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is measured and he or she is appraised accordingly. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  14. 14. Training & developmentTraining & development  Be used to assess the training and development needs of employees.  The difference between the expected and actual output determines the level of training that need to be imparted to employees.  It also helps in deciding the training content, tools and equipments to be used to conduct training and methods of training. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  15. 15. Compensation managementCompensation management o Plays a vital role in deciding the pay packages and extra perks and benefits and fixed and variable incentives of employees. o The pay package depends on the position, job title and duties and responsibilities involved in a job. o The process guides HR managers in deciding the worth of an employee for a particular job opening. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  16. 16. Job designing & redesigningJob designing & redesigning  The main purpose of job analysis is to streamline the human efforts and get the best possible output.  It helps in designing, redesigning, enriching, evaluating and also cutting back and adding the extra responsibilities in a particular job.  This is done to enhance the employee satisfaction while increasing the human output. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  17. 17. Job analysis processJob analysis process PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  18. 18. Identification of job analysis purposeIdentification of job analysis purpose  To determine its need and desired output. Spending human efforts, energy as well as money is useless until HR managers don’t know why data is to be collected and what is to be done with it. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  19. 19. Who will conduct job analysisWho will conduct job analysis  To decide who will conduct it.  Some companies prefer getting it done by their own HR department while some hire job analysis consultants.  Job analysis consultants may prove to be extremely helpful as they offer unbiased advice, guidelines and methods.  They don’t have any personal likes and dislikes when it comes to analyze a job. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  20. 20. How to conduct the processHow to conduct the process  A planned approach about how to carry the whole process is required in order to investigate a specific job. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  21. 21. Strategic decision makingStrategic decision making  Deciding the extent of employee involvement in the process, the level of details to be collected and recorded, sources from where data is to be collected, data collection methods, the processing of information and segregation of collected data. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  22. 22. Training of job analystTraining of job analyst  To train the job analyst about how to conduct the process and use the selected methods for collection and recoding of job data. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  23. 23. Preparation of job analysis processPreparation of job analysis process  Communicating it within the organization is the next step.  HR managers need to communicate the whole thing properly so that employees offer their full support to the job analyst.  The stage also involves preparation of documents, questionnaires, interviews and feedback forms. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  24. 24. Data collectionData collection  To collect job-related data including educational qualifications of employees, skills and abilities required to perform the job, working conditions, job activities, reporting hierarchy, required human traits, job activities, duties and responsibilities involved and employee behaviour. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  25. 25. Documentation, verification andDocumentation, verification and reviewreview  Proper documentation is done to verify the authenticity of collected data and then review it.  This is the final information that is used to describe a specific job. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  26. 26. Developing JD & JSDeveloping JD & JS  To segregate the collected data in to useful information.  Job Description describes the roles, activities, duties and responsibilities of the job.  job specification is a statement of educational qualification, experience, personal traits and skills required to perform the job. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  27. 27. Reasons For ConductingReasons For Conducting Job AnalysisJob Analysis  Staffing - Haphazard if recruiter does not know qualifications needed for job  Training and Development - If specification lists particular knowledge, skill, or ability, and person filling position does not possess all necessary qualifications, training and/or development is needed  Performance Appraisal - Employees should be evaluated in terms of how well they accomplish duties specified in their job descriptions and any other specific goals that may have been established  Compensation - Value of job must be known before dollar value can be placed on it PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  28. 28. Reasons For ConductingReasons For Conducting Job Analysis (Cont.)Job Analysis (Cont.) Safety and Health - Helps identify safety and health considerations Employee and Labor Relations - Leads to more objective human resource decisions Legal Considerations - Having done job analysis important for supporting legality of employment practices PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  29. 29. Summary of Types of Data CollectedSummary of Types of Data Collected Through Job AnalysisThrough Job Analysis Work Activities - Work activities and processes; activity records (in film form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility Worker-oriented activities - Human behaviors, such as physical actions and communicating on job; elemental motions for methods analysis; personal job demands, such as energy expenditure PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  30. 30. Summary of Types of Data CollectedSummary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis (Cont.)Through Job Analysis (Cont.) Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used Job-related tangibles and intangibles - Knowledge dealt with or applied (as in accounting); materials processed; products made or services performed Work performance - Error analysis; work standards; work measurements, such as time taken for a task PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  31. 31. Summary of Types of Data CollectedSummary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis (Cont.)Through Job Analysis (Cont.) Job context - Work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives; physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts Personal requirements for job - Personal attributes such as personality and interests; education and training required; work experience PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  32. 32. Job Analysis MethodsJob Analysis Methods Questionnaires Observation Interviews Employee recording Combination of methods PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  33. 33. QuestionnairesQuestionnaires Typically quick and economical to use Structured questionnaire to employees Problem: Employees may lack verbal skills Some employees tend to exaggerate significance of their tasks PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  34. 34. ObservationObservation Job analyst watches worker perform job tasks and records observations Used primarily to gather information on jobs emphasizing manual skills Used alone is often insufficient Difficulty: When mental skills are dominant in a job PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  35. 35. InterviewsInterviews Interview both employee and supervisor Interview employee first, helping him or her describe duties performed Then, analyst normally contacts supervisor for additional information PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  36. 36. Employee RecordingEmployee Recording Describe daily work activities in diary or log Problem: Employees exaggerating job importance Valuable in understanding highly specialized jobs PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  37. 37. Combination of MethodsCombination of Methods Usually use more than one method Clerical and administrative jobs: questionnaires supported by interviews and limited observation Production jobs: interviews supplemented by extensive work observations may provide necessary data PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  38. 38. Other Methods Available forOther Methods Available for Conducting Job AnalysisConducting Job Analysis Functional Job Analysis Position Analysis Questionnaire Critical Incident Method Computer Job Analysis PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  39. 39. Functional Job AnalysisFunctional Job Analysis Concentrates on the interactions among the work, the worker, and the organization Modification of the job analysis schedule Assesses specific job outputs and identifies job tasks in terms of task statements PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  40. 40.  Helps in collecting and recording job-related data to a deeper extent.  It is used to develop task-related statements.  The technique helps in determining the complexity of duties and responsibilities involved in a specific job.  This work-oriented technique works on the basis of relatedness of job-data where complexity of work is determined on a scale of various scores given to a particular job.  The lower scores represent greater difficulty. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  41. 41. Position Analysis QuestionnairePosition Analysis Questionnaire Uses a checklist approach to identify job elements Focuses on general worker behaviors instead of tasks 194 job descriptors relate to job- oriented elements Each job being studied is scored relative to the 32 job dimensions PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  42. 42. Critical Incident MethodCritical Incident Method  Is a set of procedures used for collecting direct observations of human behavior that have critical significance and meet methodically defined criteria.  These observations are then kept track of as incidents, which are then used to solve practical problems and develop broad psychological principles.  A critical incident can be described as one that makes a significant contribution—either positively or negatively—to an activity or phenomenon.  Critical incidents can be gathered in various ways, but typically respondents are asked to tell a story about an experience they have had. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  43. 43.  CIT is a flexible method that usually relies on five major areas.  The first is determining and reviewing the incident, then fact-finding, which involves collecting the details of the incident from the participants.  When all of the facts are collected, the next step is to identify the issues.  Afterwards a decision can be made on how to resolve the issues based on various possible solutions.  The final and most important aspect is the evaluation, which will determine if the solution that was selected will solve the root cause of the situation and will cause no further problems. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  44. 44. Conducting Job AnalysisConducting Job Analysis People who participate in job analysis should include, at a minimum: Employee Employee’s immediate supervisor PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  45. 45. Job DescriptionJob Description Document that states tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job Vitally important job descriptions are both relevant and accurate PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  46. 46. Items Frequently Included In a JobItems Frequently Included In a Job DescriptionDescription Major duties performed Percentage of time devoted to each duty Performance standards to be achieved Working conditions and possible hazards Number of employees performing the job, and to whom they report The machines and equipment used on job PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  47. 47. Content of a Job DescriptionContent of a Job Description Job Identification - Job title, department, reporting relationship, and job number or code Job Analysis Date - Aids in identifying job changes that would make description obsolete Job Summary - Concise overview of job Duties Performed - Major duties PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  48. 48. O*NET, the Occupational InformationO*NET, the Occupational Information NetworkNetwork Comprehensive government-developed database of worker attributes and job characteristics Primary source of occupational information Replaces Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  49. 49. Job SpecificationJob Specification Job Specification - Minimum qualifications person should possess to perform particular job Should reflect minimum, not ideal qualifications for particular job Job specifications are often included as major section of job descriptions PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  50. 50. Problems If Job SpecificationsProblems If Job Specifications Are InflatedAre Inflated May systematically eliminate minorities or women from consideration Compensation costs will increase Job vacancies will be harder to fill PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  51. 51. Timeliness of Job AnalysisTimeliness of Job Analysis Rapid pace of technological change makes need for accurate job analysis even more important now and in the future. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  52. 52. Job Analysis for Team MembersJob Analysis for Team Members With team design, there are no narrow jobs Work departments do is often bundled into teams Last duty shown on proverbial job description, “And any other duty that may be assigned,” is increasingly becoming THE job description. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  53. 53. Job Analysis and the LawJob Analysis and the Law Equal Pay Act - Similar pay must be provided if jobs are not substantially different as shown in job descriptions Fair Labor Standards Act - Employees categorized as exempt or nonexempt PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  54. 54. Job Analysis and the Law (Cont.)Job Analysis and the Law (Cont.) Civil Rights Act - Basis for adequate defenses against unfair discriminations charges in selection, promotion, and other areas of HR administration Occupational Safety and Health Act - Specify job elements that endanger health or are considered unsatisfactory or distasteful by most people Americans with Disabilities Act - Make reasonable accommodations for disabled workers PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  55. 55. Trends & Innovations:Trends & Innovations: Talent ManagementTalent Management Process of anticipating workforce needs, managing current workers, attracting highly skilled workers and integrating and developing them to achieve maximum workforce productivity Basically talent management exists to support company objectives Companies are going to have to be innovative as they attempt to recruit highly talented individuals PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  56. 56. Strategic PlanningStrategic Planning Strategic Planning - Process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes and objectives and how they are to be achieved Strategic planning at all levels can be divided into four steps PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  57. 57. Strategic Planning and Implementation ProcessStrategic Planning and Implementation Process MISSION DETERMINATION Decide what is to be accomplished (purpose) Determine principles that will guide the effort ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Determining external conditions, threats, and opportunities Determining competencies, strengths, and weaknesses within the organization External Internal OBJECTIVE SETTING Specifying corporate-level objectives that are: • Challenging, but attainable • Measurable • Time-specific • Documented (written) STRATEGY SETTING Specifying and documenting corporate-level strategies and planning STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  58. 58. Strategy ImplementationStrategy Implementation Leadership Organizational Structure Information and Control Systems Technology Human Resources PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  59. 59. Human Resource PlanningHuman Resource Planning Systematic process of matching internal and external supply of people with job openings anticipated in the organization over a specified period of time PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  60. 60. Human Resource Planning ProcessHuman Resource Planning Process External EnvironmentExternal Environment Internal EnvironmentInternal Environment Strategic Planning Human Resource Planning Forecasting Human Resource Requirements Comparing Requirements and Availability Forecasting Human Resource Availability Surplus of Workers Demand = Supply No Action Shortage of Workers Recruitment Selection Restricted Hiring, Reduced Hours, Early Retirement, Layoffs, Downsizing
  61. 61. DefinitionsDefinitions Requirements forecast - Determining number, skill, and location of employees organization will need at future dates in order to meet goals Availability forecast - Determination of whether firm will be able to secure employees with necessary skills, and from what sources PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  62. 62. Forecasting Human ResourceForecasting Human Resource RequirementsRequirements Zero-based forecasting - Uses current level as starting point for determining future staffing needs Bottom-up approach - Each level of organization, starting with lowest, forecasts its requirements to provide aggregate of employment needs. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  63. 63. Forecasting Human ResourceForecasting Human Resource RequirementsRequirements (Cont.)(Cont.) Relationship between Volume of Sales and Number of Workers Required Simulation Models - Simulation is a forecasting technique for experimenting with real-world situation through mathematical model representing that situation. A model is abstraction of the real world. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  64. 64. The Relationship of Sales Volume to NumberThe Relationship of Sales Volume to Number of Employeesof Employees Number of Employees 500 400 300 200 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Sales (thousands) PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  65. 65. Forecasting HR AvailabilityForecasting HR Availability Determining whether firm will be able to secure employees with necessary skills, and from what sources Show whether needed employees may be obtained within company, from outside organization, or from combination of these sources PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  66. 66. Use of HR DatabasesUse of HR Databases Many workers needed for future positions may already work for firm. Databases include information on all managerial and nonmanagerial employees. Companies search databases within company to see if employees with needed qualifications already exist. Growing trend: Automatically notify qualified employees of new positions. PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  67. 67. Shortage of Workers ForecastedShortage of Workers Forecasted Creative recruiting Compensation incentives – Premium pay is one method Training programs – Prepare previously unemployable people for positions Different selection standards PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  68. 68. Surplus of EmployeesSurplus of Employees Restricted hiring – Employees who leave are not replaced Reduced hours Early retirement Downsizing - Layoffs PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  69. 69. DownsizingDownsizing Also known as restructuring and rightsizing Reverse of company growing and suggests one-time change in organization and number of people employed Typically, both organizational structure and number of people in the organization shrink for purpose of improving organizational performance PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  70. 70. System Used In the Event ofSystem Used In the Event of DownsizingDownsizing Unionized - Seniority usually is the basis Union-free - Productivity and needs of the organization Retention bonuses are used to entice terminated employees to remain for short periods of time to ensure continued services PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  71. 71. Negative Aspects of DownsizingNegative Aspects of Downsizing Cost associated with low morale of those remaining Layers removed, making advancement in organization more difficult Workers may seek better opportunities, fearing they may be in line for layoffs PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  72. 72. Negative Aspects ofNegative Aspects of Downsizing (Cont.)Downsizing (Cont.) Employee loyalty significantly reduced Institutional memory lost Remaining workers required to do more When demand for products/services returns, firm may realize it has cut too deep May be an increase in number of discrimination lawsuits PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  73. 73. OutplacementOutplacement Laid-off employees given assistance in finding employment elsewhere Companies use outplacement to take care of employees by moving them successfully out of company rather than having to do it on their own PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  74. 74. Succession PlanningSuccession Planning Process of ensuring that qualified persons are available to assume key managerial positions once the positions are vacant Goal is to help ensure a smooth transition and operational efficiency PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  75. 75. Disaster PlanningDisaster Planning Should focus on catastrophes that range from natural calamities such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods to man-made crises such as 9/11 Always significant human resource issues to address Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  76. 76. Human Resource Information SystemsHuman Resource Information Systems (HRIS)(HRIS) Any organized approach for obtaining relevant and timely information on which to base HR decisions PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  77. 77. HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEMHUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM Goal: Integrate Core Processes into Seamless SystemGoal: Integrate Core Processes into Seamless System PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA Input Data Types Job Analysis Recruitment Selection/Job Posting/ Employee Referral T&D Performance Appraisal Compensation Benefits Safety Health Labor Relations Employee Relations Output Data Uses* Employee Tracking Diversity Programs Hiring Decisions Training Programs/E- learning/Management Succession Compensation Programs Benefit Programs (e.g., prescription drug programs) Health Programs (e.g., Employee Assistance Programs) Bargaining Strategies Employee Services Organizational Strategic Plans Human Resource Management Plans Contribute Toward Achievement of: Human Resource Information System *Manager and employee self-service is available.
  78. 78. Manager Self-ServiceManager Self-Service Use of software and corporate network to automate paper-based processes requiring manager’s approval, record-keeping or input, and processes that support manager’s job MSS can help managers develop and grow staff and assist employees in determining their career paths and developing required competencies PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  79. 79. Employee Self-Service (ESS)Employee Self-Service (ESS) Processes that automate transactions formerly labor- intensive for employees and HR professionals ESS applications can free up valuable HR staff time, reducing administrative time and costs PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  80. 80. Job DesignJob Design Process of determining specific tasks to be performed, methods used in performing these tasks, and how job relates to other work in organization Job enrichment - Basic changes in content and level of responsibility of job, to provide greater challenge to worker PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  81. 81. Job Design (Cont.)Job Design (Cont.) Job enlargement - Changes in scope of job to provide greater variety to worker Reengineering - Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  82. 82. A Global Perspective: India Getting theA Global Perspective: India Getting the Job Done, but DifferentlyJob Done, but Differently Indian companies invested $6 billion in U.S., which created jobs for Americans Most Indian companies going global have adopted strategy of ‘not rocking the boat’ at their newly acquired foreign operations Gaining an appreciation of local laws and customs is important Language and food choices often present challenges PB501/Chapter 3/Haniza/PSA
  83. 83. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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