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Module 5 - Language

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  1. Zaid Ali Alsagoff [email_address] Module 5: Language
  2. Can You Recognize These Logos?
  3. Top 10 Advertising Slogans? Agree I do! UNITAR Takes You Far. 1. Nike Just do it. 2. McDonalds I’m lovin’ it. 9. M&M candies M&Ms melt in your mouth, not in your hand. 10. L'Oréal Because I'm worth it. 8. Clairo Does she ... or doesn't she? 7. BMW The ultimate driving machine. 6. KFC Finger lickin' good. 5. DeBeers Diamonds are forever. 4. Volkswagen Think small. 3. Company Slogan No
  5. It is estimated that nearly half a million Americans will die this year from diseases caused by smoking.
  6. Module 5: Language <ul><li>What is Language? </li></ul>2. Language As A Tool Language 3. Persuasion & Propaganda
  7. What is Language? “ He who defines the terms wins the argument” - Chinese Proverb
  8. 5.1 What is Language? <ul><li>Language is a tool we have been using to understand and develop our thinking. We have been: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning about the thinking of others by reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressing our own thinking through writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging ideas with others by speaking and listening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thought and language can contribute to clear, effective thinking and communication. </li></ul>Language is a system of symbols for thinking and communicating.
  9. Language As A Tool “” Sometimes words have two meanings” - Led Zeppelin
  10. 5.2 Language As A Tool <ul><li>Language is a powerful tool : </li></ul><ul><li>To Clarify Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>For Social Communication </li></ul><ul><li>To Influence People </li></ul>
  11. 5.2.1 Clarify Thinking <ul><li>Language is a tool, then, powered by patterns of thinking. With its power to represent your thoughts, feelings, and experiences symbolically, language is the most important tool your thinking process has. </li></ul>“ I know what I want to say, but I just can’t find the right words.”
  12. 5.2.1 Clarify Thinking <ul><li>The relationship between thinking and language is interactive ; both processes are continuously influencing each other in many ways. </li></ul>Clear and precise language leads to clear and precise thinking. Clear Language Specific Distinct Precise Accurate Clear Thinking Specific Distinct Precise Accurate
  13. 5.2.1 Clarify Thinking <ul><li>Vague language - using words that are very imprecise and general. Vague words are words that lack a clear and distinct meaning. Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I had a nice time yesterday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That is an interesting book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She is an old person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She is a beautiful girl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous language - also interfere with the clear expression of thoughts. An ambiguous word is a word with more than one (1) meaning that is open to different interpretations. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He fed her dog biscuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The duck is ready to eat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flying planes can be dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The shooting of the hunter disturbed him </li></ul></ul>The Rock says you should avoid vague and ambiguous language.
  14. 5.2.1 Clarify Thinking <ul><li>Here are some rules that can be adopted to achieve clear communication : </li></ul>Rules 6. Utilize manner and context to clarify meaning 5. Use a simple straightforward style 4. Tell the truth <ul><li>You should vary the style of your communication, depending on the knowledge, age and status of your listeners </li></ul>2. Don't tell listeners what they already know 1. Tell listeners what you believe they want to hear
  15. 5.2.2 Social Communication <ul><li>Language is always used in context . </li></ul><ul><li>We should use the language style that is appropriate to the social situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Language styles vary from informal to formal . Example: Describe how you usually greet the following people when you see them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Good Friend: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Teacher: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Parent: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Employer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Waiter/Waitress: </li></ul></ul>
  16. 5.2.2 Social Communication <ul><li>Language styles –used in a context. You always speak with a person in mind, according to the situation. You may converse differently with friends, colleagues, parents and relatives. Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Yo dude, wassup… how ya been!’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good morning Mr. Jones, how are you today?’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slang - slang is a restrictive style that limits its speakers to a particular group. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ All the guys in my class are busted’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Man, she’s a real bomb!’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ He’s definitely a crack-head’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ She’s so hip and happening’ </li></ul></ul>
  17. 5.2.2 Social Communication <ul><li>Jargon - is made up of words, expressions, and technical terms that are understood by professional circles, but not to general public. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: ‘Breaker, breaker 1-9, c’mon in, little frog’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: ‘Roger and back to you, Charley’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A: ‘You gotta back down. You got a smokey ahead’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: ’10-4 skipper. Over and out’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialect - is a form of language that may be so different in terms sound patterns, vocabulary and sentence structure, that it is generally may not be understood by people outside the specific regional or ethnic group. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Jom pi Kedah’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Kami semua sihat sokmo’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(People in Kedah may talk Bahasa Malaysia differently than people in Kuala Lumpur or Kelantan.) </li></ul>
  18. 5.2.2 Social Communication <ul><li>The ability to think critically gives you the insight and the intellectual ability to: </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish people’s language use from their individual qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct inaccurate beliefs about people. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stereotypical responses. </li></ul>Remember
  19. 5.2.3 Influence People <ul><li>The intimate relationship between language and thinking makes it natural that people use language to influence the thinking of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of language are often used to promote the uncritical acceptance of viewpoints: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphemistic language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotive Language </li></ul></ul>By developing insight into these language strategies, you will strengthen your abilities to function as a critical thinker.
  20. 5.2.3 Influence People <ul><li>Euphemistic language - to speak with good words and involves substituting a more pleasant way of saying something instead of a blunt way. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: To disguise the unpleasantness of death, we could say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘She passed away’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘She departed this life’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Social Drinker” (Alcoholic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Purification of the race” (Slaughter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Soft Targets” (people to be killed) </li></ul></ul>Euphemisms can become dangerous when they are used to create misperception of important issues.
  21. 5.2.3 Influence People <ul><li>Emotive Language - Language that would probably stimulate certain feelings in you. Language that evokes feelings in others. - The emotional dimension of language. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: What is your immediate reaction to the following words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mawi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murderer </li></ul></ul>
  22. 5.2.3 Influence People <ul><li>Emotive language often plays a double role – it not only symbolizes and expresses our feelings but also arouses or evokes feelings in others (E.g. “ I Love You!”) </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of emotive words is usually a sign that a personal opinion or evaluation rather than a fact is being stated. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ KL is a filthy and dangerous city – only idiots would want to live there.” </li></ul></ul>Emotive language usage can be misleading and even dangerous when speakers do not identify their opinions as opinions because they want you to treat their judgments as facts.
  23. Persuasion & Propaganda “ A dollar spent on brainwashing is more cost-effective than a dollar spent on product improvement.” - Scott Adams
  24. 5.3 Persuasion & Propaganda <ul><li>Language is used not only to communicate ideas but also to persuade or convince others to 'see things our way '. </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion or propaganda refers to any material that is written or spoken by those who want others to believe that what they are saying is true. </li></ul><ul><li>Six (6) common persuasive techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Association Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeals to Pity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity & Testimonials (Bandwagon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Card Stacking </li></ul></ul>
  25. 5.3.1 Exposure Effect <ul><li>Exposure Effect - In this technique, constant exposure of something is used to create familiarity, which in turn, will enhance your liking. Example : Our kids are being bombarded with the various fast food advertisements. These fast food chains are not only promoting their menu but other goodies that appeal to children as well. This constant exposure in the television, newspapers and street advertisements eventually creates a sense of familiarity to children these days. </li></ul>
  26. 5.3.2 Association Effect <ul><li>Association Effect - If two events occur close together in living and/or space, the mind will form an association between them. This technique is widely used within the political scene to create guilt by association. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, it is also possible to have virtue by association. This means, you can also associate things positively. Example: Your supervisor appraises your work. At the same time, he is aware of your close relationship with the Managing Director. This will then have a positive impact on your position. </li></ul>
  27. 5.3.3 Personal Attack <ul><li>Personal Attack - Arguments against the person. This form of persuasion or propaganda attacks the person who supports a cause, and not the cause itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying principle of this technique is that you should oppose an idea if you do not like the person who supports that idea. This is because the idea and the person are closely associated. </li></ul>Mary suggested that I give more time during class for students to ask questions. What does she know about teaching? Idiot! She knows nothing about teaching!
  28. 5.3.4 Appeals to Pity <ul><li>Appeals to Pity - This technique is commonly used in legal pleadings. In such pleadings, the defendant's poor background or turbulent home life will often be brought up to gain leniency in sentencing, should the defendant be found guilty. </li></ul>If I get caught, the Judge will give me a mild sentence due to my turbulent and sad childhood in the ghetto. Isn’t life wonderful!
  29. 5.3.5 Popularity & Testimonials (Bandwagon) <ul><li>Popularity and Testimonials - This technique also known as ' bandwagon ' relies on the need for conformity due to its persuasive power. It is persuasive because it claims that everyone supports a certain position or buys that certain product. </li></ul><ul><li>A variation of the popularity technique is testimonials. For instance, certain products are endorsed by famous people or idols. Their testimonials are taken to prove the effectiveness of the product. </li></ul>
  30. 5.3.6 Card Stacking <ul><li>Card stacking (or suppressed information) - Operates as a persuasive technique by omitting information that supports the unfavored view. Example: This technique is normally used in most advertisements whereby companies only advertise the positive effects and not the negative or side effects of a product. </li></ul>
  31. Group Activity
  32. Group Activity PMI Plus Points? Minus Points? Interesting Points? Rating: 1 to 7 (1 – Disaster, 4 – Average, 7 – Excellent) <ul><li>Break into groups of 4-5. </li></ul><ul><li>10 min: Do PMI & Rate the 3 UNITAR Student intake adverts. </li></ul><ul><li>20 min: Conceptualize a generic UNITAR Student intake advert for 2008. Create a catchy slogan and visualize with words (or sketch) the images or graphics that could persuade students to join or learn more about UNITAR. </li></ul><ul><li>5 min: Document your ideas in the template provided. </li></ul><ul><li>15 min: Group Presentation & Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Important Notice: Contributions that are good will be shared with UNITAR’s Marketing Department. </li></ul>
  33. 2005 PMI Plus Points? Minus Points? Interesting Points? Rating: 1 to 7 (1 – Disaster, 4 – Average, 7 – Excellent)
  34. 2006 PMI Plus Points? Minus Points? Interesting Points? Rating: 1 to 7 (1 – Disaster, 4 – Average, 7 – Excellent)
  35. 2007 PMI Plus Points? Minus Points? Interesting Points? Rating: 1 to 7 (1 – Disaster, 4 – Average, 7 – Excellent)
  36. 2008? PMI Plus Points? Minus Points? Interesting Points? Rating: 1 to 7 (1 – Disaster, 4 – Average, 7 – Excellent) Which group has the best UNITAR student intake advertisement suggestion for 2008?
  37. Summary <ul><li>Language is a powerful tool: </li></ul><ul><li>To Clarify Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>For Social Communication </li></ul><ul><li>To Influence People </li></ul>5.2 Language As A Tool <ul><li>Persuasion or propaganda refers to any material that is written or spoken by those who want others to believe that what they are saying is true. </li></ul><ul><li>Six (6) common persuasive techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Association Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals to Pity </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity & Testimonials (Bandwagon) </li></ul><ul><li>Card Stacking </li></ul>5.3. Persuasion & Propaganda Language is a system of symbols for thinking and communicating. 5.1. What is Language?
  38. Any Questions?
  39. The End
  40. References <ul><li>Book </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 6 – Thought & Language: John Chaffee, Thinking Critically , 6th Edition, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>O n l i n e R e s o u r c e s </li></ul><ul><li>Courseware - Module 7: </li></ul><ul><li>Marlboro Man: </li></ul><ul><li>Here is what’s left of the Marlboro Man: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be a Butthead: Source: </li></ul><ul><li>George Bush: </li></ul><ul><li>Burger: </li></ul><ul><li>Fast food facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Pizza: </li></ul><ul><li>Beckham (Pepsi): </li></ul>
  41. Contact Details Zaid Ali Alsagoff UNIVERSITI TUN ABDUL RAZAK 16-5, Jalan SS 6/12 47301 Kelana Jaya Selangor Darul Ehsan Malaysia E-mail: [email_address] Tel: 603-7627 7238 Fax: 603-7627 7246