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Zaid Ali Alsagoff [email_address] Module 3: Arguments Part 3
How many times does the letter “ F ” appear in the following sentence?
These functional fuses have been developed after years of scientific investigation of electric phenomena, combined with the fruit of long experience on the part of the two investigators who have come forward with them for our meeting today.
You = Entrepreneur? Why? Entrepreneurship is not genetic; it can be learned. “ Whatever you can do, or dream you can do, begin it. Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it. Begin it NOW!” - Goethe
The leading country for entrepreneurship is Brazil , where one in eight adults is an entrepreneur (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2000).
United States (one in 10)
Australia (one in 12)
Germany (one in 25)
United Kingdom (one in 33)
Finland and Sweden (one in 50)
Ireland and Japan (less than one in 100)
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 1999 defined entrepreneurship as:
Source: http://www.certificate.net/wwio/biz0210014.shtml “ Any attempt at new business or new venture creation, such as self-employment, a new business organization, or the expansion of an existing business, by an individual, a team of individuals, or an established business."
Although your objective might be to win, your success in an argument should be measured by how well you defend your claim and fair, accurate , and honest you are in presenting your case. Whether in the end your opponent agrees or disagrees with you, you should strive to put forward the most rational and even-handed presentation you can muster.
Know Yourself Why are you writing an argument? Are you willing to grant your opponent his or her good points and to defend your own fairly and honestly.
Know Your Audience Adjust your style to the audience and anticipate their reactions. Always assume the best about your audience (open-minded, intelligent, rational and humane), which will prevent you from overstating your case.
Choose and Narrow Your Topic Select a topic that is both controversial and interesting to you.
Write a Sentence that Expresses Your Claim Provide a single statement of your central claim and organize your material in an manner that will allow your readers to easily recognize your premises.
Gather Ideas: Brainstorm and Research List supporting and opposing premises. Distinguish between facts and opinions.
Examples: Controversial, attention-grabber, surprising statistics, famous quote, interesting story, and a little-known fact.
Include a Thesis Statement Give a clear and carefully worded statement of your claim somewhere in the opening paragraph.
Develop your Body Paragraphs
Start each body of paragraph with a topic sentence and develop the paragraph with details that support your topic. Be certain that you have defended your premises and any assumptions on which your argument is based. Defend your claim with factual evidence, expert opinion, examples and with appropriate analogies.
Provide a Satisfying Conclusion
Examples: Return to the opening, make a prediction, ask a question, call for action, end with a story different from the one you started with, and emphasize the importance of your claim.
Look for both small issues (e.g. grammatically errors) and larger issues and evaluate your argument from the point of view of someone who disagrees with you. Be honest and question your evidence and logic.
Consider What You Have not Written and Revise
Try to disagree with what you have written by finding a way to reject each of the premises you have offered as support. It will help reveal areas where connections are left unexplored or where unexamined assumptions are guiding your thinking.
Show Your Work Before your write your final, edited draft seek the advice of your professor, a tutor, or a peer who might alert you to any shortcomings in the argument you may have failed to notice.
Edit Your Work
Check for grammatical mistakes, misused or missing punctuation, misspellings, and typographical errors. Also, try reading your paper out loud to hear how it sounds. Doing so can sometimes help reveal awkward phrases or repetitive sentence structures.
Hand It In
Your argument will be evaluated on its strength, its form and content, its support, etc.
Break into groups of 4 - 6, read the articles (2) about entrepreneurship provided by the lecturer, and then:
Use the general guidelines (critical thinking standards) to evaluate the arguments stated in the articles.
Is Entrepreneurship Genetic or Can It be Learned?
What is your group’s opinion based on the articles provided and your previous knowledge and experiences about entrepreneurship?
Document the group’s opinion and reasons to support it (less than 150 words).
Read the articles 10 min Group presentation & discussion 15 min The Group leader must submit their findings in hard-copy or soft-copy format to the lecturer before or during the next class. Document the group’s opinion and reasons to support it. 5 min Group discussion - Is Entrepreneurship Genetic or Can It be Learned? 10 min
Summary Before You Write - Know yourself, Know your audience, Choose and narrow your topic, Write a sentence that expresses your claim, Gather ideas: brainstorm and research and Organize your ideas. Writing the First Draft - Provide an interesting opening, Include a thesis statement, Develop your body paragraphs and Provide a satisfying conclusion. After the First Draft - Read what you have written and revise, Consider what you have not written and revise, Show your work, Edit your work and Hand it in. 8. Writing Arguments A good argument from the standpoint of critical thinking is an argument that satisfies the relevant critical thinking standards that apply in a particular context. The most important critical thinking standards are: 1) Accuracy – Are all the premises true? 2) Logical Correctness – Is the reasoning correct? Is the argument deductively valid or inductively strong? 3) Also, other critical thinking standards must be taken into account, including clarity, precision, relevance, consistency, completeness and fairness . 7. Evaluating Arguments