3–2AttitudesEvaluativestatements orjudgmentsconcerningobjects,people, orevents.Affective ComponentThe emotional or feeling segmentof an attitude.Cognitive componentThe opinion or belief segmentof an attitude.Behavioral ComponentAn intention to behave in a certainway toward someone or something.
3–3Desire to reduce dissonance• Importance of elements creating dissonance• Degree of individual influence over elements• Rewards involved in dissonanceDesire to reduce dissonance• Importance of elements creating dissonance• Degree of individual influence over elements• Rewards involved in dissonanceCognitive DissonanceAny incompatibility between two or more attitudesor between behavior and attitudes.
4Attitude Object: EMPLOYEECOGNITIONSMy pay is low.My supervisor is unfair.AFFECTSI am angry over how little I’m paid.I dislike my supervisor.BEHAVIORSI am going to look for another job thatpays better.I am looking for another job.
Recent research indicates that attitudes (A)significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderatingvariables are taken into account.3–5Moderating Variables• Importance of the attitude• Specificity of the attitude• Accessibility of the attitude• Social pressures on the individual• Direct experience with the attitudeModerating Variables• Importance of the attitude• Specificity of the attitude• Accessibility of the attitude• Social pressures on the individual• Direct experience with the attitude
3–6Attitudes are used after the fact to make senseout of an action that has already occurred.
3–8Job InvolvementIdentifying with the job, actively participating in it, andconsidering performance important to self-worth.Organizational CommitmentIdentifying with a particular organization and itsgoals, and wishing to maintain membership in theorganization.Job SatisfactionA collection of positive and/or negative feelings that anindividual holds toward his or her job.
Determinants of Job SatisfactionDeterminants of Job Satisfaction
3–10Employee EngagementAn individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, andenthusiasm for the organization.Perceived Organizational Support (POS)Degree to which employees feel the organization caresabout their well-being.
11Do Attitudes cause Behavior?Answer: Not very well!Attitudes have a stronger affect onbehavior if they areimportantspecificaccessiblesocial pressure reinforces the attitudeyou have experience with the attitude.
3–12Attitude SurveysEliciting responses from employees throughquestionnaires about how they feel about their jobs,work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
Conclusions Attitudes do not predict single behaviours Attitudes are related to multiplebehaviours (behavioural patterns) Attitudes influence behaviour throughinfluencing intention Intention is the better predictor ofbehaviour In order to understand intentions andbehaviours, need to know about beliefs andattitudesThis is essential in relation to attitude change
Training activities that can reshape employeeattitudes concerning diversity:◦ Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions.◦ Volunteer work in community and social servecenters with individuals of diverse backgrounds.◦ Exploring print and visual media that recount andportray diversity issues.3–15
Measuring Job Satisfaction◦ Single global rating◦ Summation score How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?◦ Job satisfaction declined to 50.4% in 2002◦ Decline attributed to: Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighterdeadlines Less control over work3–16
3–17ExitBehavior directed towardleaving the organization.VoiceActive and constructiveattempts to improveconditions.NeglectAllowing conditions toworsen.LoyaltyPassively waiting forconditions to improve.
Satisfaction and Productivity◦ Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive.◦ Worker productivity is higher in organizations withmore satisfied workers. Satisfaction and Absenteeism◦ Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Satisfaction and Turnover◦ Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.◦ Organizations take actions to retain high performersand to weed out lower performers.3–19
Satisfaction and Organizational CitizenshipBehavior (OCB)◦ Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and aretrusting of the organization are more willing to engage inbehaviors that go beyond the normal expectations oftheir job.3–20
Satisfied employees increase customersatisfaction because:◦ They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive.◦ They are less likely to turnover which helps build long-term customer relationships.◦ They are experienced. Dissatisfied customers increase employee jobdissatisfaction.3–21
Enjoying the work itself is almost always thefacet most strongly correlated with high level ofoverall job satisfaction. Pay （ Exhibit 3-3 ） Personality also plays a role.22
Job satisfaction and job performance• “Myth or Science ？”- Organizations with more satisfied employees tend to bemore effective than organizations with fewer satisfiedemployees. Job satisfaction and OCB• Job satisfaction should be a major determinant of anemployee’s organizational citizenship behavior（ OCB ） .• But satisfaction is unrelated to OCB when fairness iscontrolled.23
Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction• Satisfied employees increase customer satisfactionand loyalty.• Dissatified customers can increase an employee’sjob dissatisfaction.- Service-oriented bussiness obsess about pleasingtheir customers. Job satisfaction and absenteeism• There is consistent negtive relationship betweensatisfaction and obsenteeism.-The relation is moderate to weak ： organizations thatprovide liberal sick leave benefits.24
Job satisfaction and turnover• Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover.-Some factors are important constrains on the actualdecision to leave one’s current job. Job satisfaction and workplace deviance• Job dissatisfaction predicts a lot of specificbehaviors.• The key is that if employees don’t like their workenvironment, they’ll respond somehow.-It is not always easy to forecast exactly how they’llrespond.25