Mob definitions
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Mob definitions Mob definitions Document Transcript

  • 0 MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOURDEFENITIONS OF ALL THE TOPICS COVERED IN THE SYLLABUS PREPARED BY: SILIVERU SANDHYA [31] FANESA BEGUM [09] AFROSE BEGUM [] PRIYANKA [] MBA Regular I Semester – 2010 School of Management Studies Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Univerisity Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500 085.
  • 1 UNIT – IDECISION MAKING: The process of identifying and selecting a course of action to solvea specific problem {(or) take advantage of an opportunity – is an impact of everymanager’s job}.MANAGEMENT: The process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the workof organization members and of using all available organizational resources to statedorganizational goals.MANAGER: People responsible for directing the efforts aimed at helping organizationsachieve their goals.ORGANIZATION: Two or more people who work together in a structured way to achievea specific goal or set of goals.PLANNING: The process of establishing goals and a suitable course of action forachieving those goals.ORGANIZING: The process of engaging tow or more people working in together instructured way to achieve a specific goal on set of goals.LEADING: The process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of groupmembers or an entire organization.CONTROLLING: The process of ensuring that actual activities conform to plannedactivities.FIRST LINE MANAGERS: The lowest level in an organization at which individuals areresponsible for the work of others.MIDDLE MANAGERS: Middle managers direct the activities of lower level managers andsometimes those of operating employees as well. They are responsible for other managersand sometimes for some operating employees. They also report to more senior managers.TOP MANAGERS: Managers responsible for the over all management of theorganization; they establish operating policies and guide the organizations interactionwith its environment.FUNCTIONS: A classification referring to a group of similar activities in an organization,such as marketing or operations.STAFFING: It involves the process of filing positions in the organization structure.
  • 2PROGRAMMED DECISIONS: It is applied to structured/routine problems.NON PROGRAMMED DECISIONS: These decisions are used for unstructured novel andill defined situations of a nonrecurring nature. UNIT - IIORGANIZING: Identification and classification of required activities, the grouping ofactivities necessary to attain objectives; the assignment of each grouping to a managerwith the authority necessary to supervise it; the provision for co-ordination horizontally(similar organizational level) and vertically(i.e., corporate headquarters and department)ORGANIZATION: Formalized international structure of roles or positions. Sometimesdenotes an enterprise.FORMAL ORGANIZATION: The intentional structure of roles in a normally organizedenterprise. The structure must furnish an environment in which individual performanceboth present and future, contributes most effectively to group goals.INFORMAL ORGANIZATION: Network of personal and social relations not establishedor required by the formal organization but arising spontaneously as people associatedwith one another.DEPARTMENT: It designates a distinct area of division, or branch of an organizationover which a manager has authority for the performance of specified activities.SPAN OF MANAGEMENT: It states that there is a limit to the number of subordinates amanager can effectively supreme but the exact number will depend on the impact ofseveral underlying factors. 1. Subordinate training 2. clarity of delegation of authority 3. clarity of mans 4. use of objective standards 5. rate of changeENTREPRENEURSHIP: Innovation that is goal oriented change to utilize the enterprisespotential.ENTREPRENEUR: A person who focuses on innovation and creativity and whotransforms a dream or an idea into a profitable venture by operating within theorganizational environment.STRUCTURE OF ORGANIZING:
  • 3 1. Objectives – activities derived from them. 2. Authority available to an enterprise’s management. 3. Plan must reflect its environment 4. Grouping of activities and the authority relationship of an organization structure.DEPARTMENTATION: Grouping activities and people into departments.POWER: Is the ability of individuals or groups to induce or influence the beliefs oractions of the persons or groups.AUTHORITY: It is the right in a position to exercise discretion in making decisionsaffecting others.LINE FUNCTIONS: These have direct impact on the accomplishment of the objectives ofthe enterprise.SCALAR PRINCIPLE ORGANIZATION: The clearer the line of authority form theultimate management position in an enterprise to every subordinate position, the clearerwill be the responsibility for decision making and the more effective will be organizationcommunication.STAFF FUNCTIONS: These functions are those that help the line persons work mosteffectively in accomplishing the objectives.FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY: It is right which is delegated to an individual or adepartment to control specified processes, practices, policies by persons in otherdepartments.DECENTRALIZATION: It is the tendency to disperse decision making authority in anorganized structure.DELEGATION: Authority is delegated when a superior gives a subordinate discretion tomake decisions.STAFFING: It is defined as filling and keeping filled positions in the organizationstructure.GROUP DYNAMICS: Study of groups (>2 individuals) concerned with small groupbehavior. It implies continuously changing and adjusting relationships among groupmembers.GROUPS VS TEAMS: A group consists of two or more individuals, interacting andinterdependent who have come together to achieve a common goal.
  • 4 A team is a small group of people with complementary skills who work activelytogether to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectivelyaccountable.EMPOWERMENT: It is a process in which employees are given increasing amounts ofautonomy and discretion in connection with their work.ROLE AMBIGUITY: Occurs when the individual employee is unclear about the dictatesof a given situation or doesn’t know what he’s supposed to be doing. UNIT – IIIORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: “Organizational behavior is a field of study thatinvestigates the impact that individuals, groups and organizational structure have onbehavior within the organization, for the purpose of applying such knowledge towardsimproving an organizational effectiveness” Organizational behavior is the study and application of knowledge about humanbehavior related to other elements of an organization such as structure, technology andsocial systems (LM Prasad). “Organizational behavior as a field of study that investigates the impact onindividuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organization for the purpose ofapplying such knowledge towards improving organization effectiveness (Stephen PRobins defines).PERCEPTION: Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret theirsensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment (Robbins). Perception is the selection and organization of environmental stimuli to providemeaningful experiences for the perceiver. Perception implicates the search for, obtainingand processing of the information in the mind. It can also be referred to as a psychological process where people obtain (or take)information from the environment and make sense of their worlds. A process by which people attend to incoming stimuli, organize and interpret suchstimuli into behavior. A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impression inorder to give meaning to their environment.
  • 5ATTRIBUTION: Attribution refers to the tendency one develops to explain the ways inwhich one judges other people’s behavior. Attribution is the complex process in which we observe other’s behavioiur and tryto infer causes behind it from various areas. Attribution theory suggest that when we evaluate human behavior, it is eitherinternally caused or it is caused due to external factors as explained above. Thedetermination however depends on the following three factorsDistinctiveness, Consensus, Consistency.PERSONALITY: Personality is a dynamic organization within an individual of thosepsychological systems that determines his unique adjustment with the environment. It isa sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine thosecommonalities and differences in the psychological behavior (thoughts, feelings, andactions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood asthe sole result of the social and biological pressures of the momentATTITUDES: According to G.W. Allport, “Attitude is a mental and neutral state ofreadiness organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence uponindividual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related.” Krech and Crutchfield defined “attitude as an enduring organization ofmotivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive processes with respect to some aspectof the individual’s world” According to Katz and Scotland, “Attitude is a tendency or predisposition toevaluate an object or symbol of that object in a certain way”.BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION: Learning is essential for human resource development.Technical skills, motivational values and behavioral conduct are developed through thelearning process. Organizational behavioiur is instrumental in increasing productivityand effectiveness. Reflexive behavior, operant behavior and social learning behavior anddeveloped for the modification of organizational behavior. Technically speakingmodification of organizational behavior involves identification measurement, analysis,intervention and evaluation behavior. UNIT – IVMOTIVATION: Motivation is human psychological characteristic that contributes to aperson’s degree of commitment. It includes the factors that cause, channel, and sustainbehavior in a particular committed direction.
  • 6MOTIVATING: It is the management process of influencing people’s behavior based ontheir knowledge of ‘what makes people tick’. Motivation and motivating both deal with the range of conscious human behavior.LEADERSHIP: The process of directing and influencing the task related activities ofgroup members.NEED THEORY: Theory of motivation that addresses what people need or require to linefulfilling lives, particularly with regard to work.MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS: Theory of motivation that people are motivated tomeet five types of needs, which can be ranked in a hierarchy. They are 1. Self actualization needs 4. Safety and security needs 2. Esteem needs 5. Physiological needs. 3. Belongingness needsHERTZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY: Hertzberg’s theory that work dissatisfactionand satisfaction arise from two different sets of factors. 1. Dis-satisfiers 2. SatisfiersGOAL SETTING THEORY: A process theory of motivation that focuses on the process ofsetting goals.It is described in terms of four phases of a persons reasoning. 1. Establishment of a standard to be attained 2. Evaluation whether the standard can be achieved. 3. Evaluation of whether the standard matches personal goals. 4. The standard is accepted, the goal is thereby set., and behavior proceeds toward the goal.JOB DESIGN: The division of an organization’s work among its employees. Job design is a vehicle for systematically implementing the degree ofdecentralization that managers want and believe is necessary for pursuing organizationalgoals. It is there a way for mangers to communicate to employees the opportunities thatemployees will have the exercising power and authority.LEADERSHIP STYLES: These are various patterns of behavior favored by leaders duringthe process of directing and influencing workers. 1. Directive 7. Free-rein 2. Supportive 8. Task – oriented 3. Achievement – oriented 9. Structured 4. Participative 10. Managerial grid
  • 7 5. Positive and negative 11. Contingency leadership 6. AutocraticLEADERSHIP THEORIES: 1. TRAIT THEORY: The trait theory attempts to isolate the attributes of successful and unsuccessful leaders and using this list of traits, predict the success or failure of potential leaders. 2. BEHAVIORAL THEORY: It attempts to describe leadership in terms of what leaders do, while trait theory seeks to explain leadership on the basis of what leaders are 3. SITUATIONAL THEORIES: These theories take the position that the variables in each situation must be analyzed before an optimum leadership style can be selected. Leadership is a complex social and interpersonal process; and to understand it fully we need to see the situation in which a leader operates.TRANSACTIONAL LEADER: A transaction leader is given power to perform certaintasks and reward or punish for the teams performance. It gives the opportunity to themanager to lead the group and the group agrees to follow his lead to accomplish apredetermined goal in exchange for something else. Power is given to the leader toevaluate, correct and train subordinates when productivity is not up to the desired leveland reward effectiveness when expected outcome is reached.TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER: A transformational leader motivates its team to beeffective and efficient. Communication is the base for goal achievement focusing thegroup on the final desired outcome or goal attainment. This leader is highly visible anduses chain of command to get the job done. Transformational leaders focus on the bigpicture, needing to be surrounded by people who take care of the details. The leader isalways looking for ideas that move the organization to reach the companys vision.LEADING VS MANAGING: 1. RELATIONSHIP: Managing implies the existence of manager. It arises within the organization where as leading can occur anywhere. It does not have to originate in the organization context. 2. SOURCES OF INFLUENCE: Managers obtain authority from the organization where as leaders get power from his followers. 3. ROLE CONTINUANCE: A manager may continue in office as long as his performance is satisfactory and acceptable to organization where as a leader maintains his position only through the day-to-day wish of the followers. 4. REASONS FOR FOLLOWING: People follow managers because their job description, supported by a system of rewards and sanctions, requires them to follow where as people follow leaders on voluntary basis. 5. ACCOUNTABILITY: Manager-ship implies a clear-cut accountability relationship where as leadership implies no accountability relationship between himself and the followers and to organization.
  • 8EVALUATION: It is a systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance ofsomething or someone using criteria against a set of standards. Evaluation often is usedto characterize and appraise subjects of interest in a wide range of human enterprises,including the arts, criminal justice, foundations and non-profit organizations,government, health care, and other human services. UNIT - VCOMMUNICATION: The process by which people attempt to share meaning via thetransmission of symbolic messages.ENCODING: The translation of information into a series of symbols for communication.DECODING: The interpretation and translation of a message into meaningfulinformation.LATERAL COMMUNICATION: Communication between departments of anorganization that generally follows the work flow rather than the chain of command, andthus provides a direct channel for co-ordination and problem solving.INFORMAL COMMUNICATION: Communication within an organization that s notofficially sanctioned.CONFLICT: Disagreement about the allocation of scarce resources or clashes regardinggoals, values and so on can occur on the interpersonal or organizational level.INTEGRATIVE PROCESS: Negotiation process in which the prospects for both parties’gains are encouraging also known as a win-win situation.DISTRIBUTIVE PROCESS: Negotiation process n which each of the parties tends to seekmaximum gains and wants to impose maximum losses on the other; also known as a win-lose situation or zero sum.NEGOTIATION: The use of communication skills and bargaining to manage conflict andreach mutually satisfying outcomes.CONTROL: The process of ensuring that actual activities conform to planned activities.The central process is not automatic. It is deliberate.NOISE: Anything that confuses, disturbs, diminishes or interferes with communication.MESSAGE: The encoded information sent by the sender to the receiver.
  • 9CHANNEL: The formal medium of communication between a sender and a receiver.SENDER: The initiator of a communication.RECEIVER: The individual whose senses perceive the sender’s message.LATERAL COMMUNICATION: Communication between departments of anorganization that generally follows the work flow.CONTROL SYSTEM: Multi-step procedure applied to various types of control activities.