Shalimar garden
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Shalimar garden






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Shalimar garden Shalimar garden Presentation Transcript

    • Martina Zahornacka
    Shalimar Garden in Jammu & Kashmir, India Lake Dal
  • Arial photo of Shalimar Bagh in Kashmir 1 Public Garden 2 Emperor’s Garden 3 Zenana Garden 4 Black Pavilion
  • Genius Loci
    • History
    • Place of annual summer pilgrimage of Mughal emperors
    • Conquered by Akbar in 1586, who relaxed here after 6 weeks journey from Agra, went water-fowling on Lake Dal, watched shaffron harvest in autumn, called it his private garden
    • His son Salim (Jahangir) inherited an obsessive love for Kashmir and built no less than 700 superlative gardens around Lake Dal, made his permanent summer homes
    • Genius Loci
    • Mountains of Himalayas form a stunning, dramatic backdrop (Mahadeo with snowcap)
    • Height of 1,730 metres above sea level creates ideal climate to elevated Jahangir’s asthma in summer
    • Lake Dal is shallow, edged with thick beds of reeds, lotuses – floating gardens
    • Constant torrent of water from hills supplies channel, pools and powers fountain jets
    Lahore Agra
    • Genius Loci
    • Lush meadows, sound of water, rivers, springs, lakes and rice paddies dominated in the valley of Kashmir – Jahangir calls it a garden of eternal spring
    • Abundance of water inspired the layout of local gardens - narrow watercourses were widened to shallow canals and central axis elongated, the heart of garden shifted to the uphill end
  • Firmitas
    • Zenana garden (Bagh-I-Faiz Bakhsh):
    • Upper terrace built by Jahangir in 1619-20
    • Emperors garden (Bagh-I-Farah Bakhsh):
    • Middle terrace built by Shah Jahan around 1630
    Black marble pavilion (built by Shah Jahan) Entrance to Zenana (ladies’) garden Hall of Private Audiance (Diwan- i- Khas) destroyed
    • Public Garden:
    • The lowest terrace; now cut by road and shortened
    Hall of Public Audience (Diwan-i-Am) Canal leads to Lake Dal
    • Central channel:
    • Central axis of the garden
    • 6 meters wide
    • Polished stone
    • Cross-axial channel on the uppermost terrace take on classical Persian chahar bagh form
    • Water from mountain stream dammed up
    • Square pools below pavilions recall the broadening of rivers into lakes
    • Water jets and cascades:
    • Gravitation
    • Jets used to have solid plumes of water
    • Cascades of smooth sheet of water falling from retaining walls
    • Black pavilion is sourrounded by 3 cascades
    • Now water runs only in spring (deforestation lowered water table)
    • Pathways:
    • Slightly offset from channel on both sides
    • Stepping stones to reach Diwan-I-Am with a shaded marble throne of emperor in the center of canal above cascade
    • Causeways to reach Diwan-I-Khas
    • Narrow stones bridges among fountains reach Black Pavilion
    • Now:
    • Regular avenues of chinar trees (Platanus orientalis) 25 meters tall shading the walks and 19 th century bedding plants
    • Irrigated meadows in charbaghs– grass, flowers, fruit trees in more informal way
    Firmitas - Planting design:
    • Originally:
    • 1665 Francois Bernier describes fruit trees, regular trellised walks, surrounded by the large-leafed aspen (Populus tremuloides) in interval of 2 feet
    • Cherry, apricot, apple, plum
    • Meadows were geometrical
  • Firmitas
    • Pavilions:
    • Stone, marble, mortar
    • Used the talar and ivan (arched talar)
    • Originally flat-roofed
    • Native wooden Kashmiri roofs were added in later centuries
    • Recesses ( chini kanas ) under cascades are filled with flowers on special occasions or oil lamps at night
    • Abode of Love – gift to Jahangir’s wife Nur-Jahan
    • One of many paradise or pleasure gardens
    • Ideal background for self-indulgent Jahangir suffering from alcoholism and opium dependancy
    • Place for contemplation, perfect peace , sitting cross-legged on carpets by the waterside or on a low stone bench astride one of cascades
  • Utilitas
    • Function of each section of garden changes with ascending level from 1) public through 2) courtly to 3) private zone
    • The Zenana Garden could be accessed only by Emperor and used by his court ladies
  • Utilitas
    • Shalimar Bagh recalls Mughal’s annual pilgrimage to Kashmir:
      • approached from outside world by boat shikara from Lake Dal full of pink lotuses
      • the crossing into an enclosed domain of fields and flowers, fruit trees
      • the ascent to a cool refuge by the water and …the eventual return to the lowlands of their capitals
  • Venustas & Belief
    • Jahangir’s talents directed towards arts – inspired by Akbar and Babur and helped by wife Nur Jahan
    • Diaries illustrated by artists with pictures of plants, animals, natural world
    • Supported portraiture of Mughal school of painting
  • Venustas & Belief
    • Garden designer from times as a prince, ordered to built over 700 gardens in Vale of Kashmir,
    • Nur Jahan continued to build her gardens and buried husband in one of them
    • His son Shah Jahan perfected Shalimar Bagh and showed his genius for architecture in Agra – back to Persian tradition of chahar bagh
    • Islam – way of life guided by Quran
    • Garden (Bagh) = Paradise
    • Citated 30-times; ‘Gardens underneath which rivers flow’
    • Fruit trees, water and rich pavilions with a shade for friends to relax in private enclosure
    • Image of garden = a reflection of God ; used by poets
    • All artists used references to gardens
  • Belief Persian chahar bagh transformed, adapted to local landscape and tradition with water as a unifying element
    • Hinduism
    • Idealism, visionary, abstract, enclosed mystic temple with a secred chamber, irregular, symbiotic, social system
    • Islam
    • Realism, material, concrete, clarity of mosque, open-air courts, mathematical, continuous decoration, writing as an art
    Arches, pilasters, perforated marble screens, pavilions with arabesques, inscriptions, flowers in relief or inlay of Kashmir , turquoise, white marble of Gujarat, fonatains and expanded canals Mughal design Muslim ideology Hindu craftsmenship Indo-islamic art
  • Literature:
    • Moore, Mitchell, Turnbull – The poetics of gardens, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993.
    • Ruggles, F. – Islamic gardens and landscapes, University of pennsylvania Press, 2008.
    • Moynihan, E.B.- Paradise as a garden in Persia and Mughal India, Scolar Press, London, 1979.
    • Brooks, J. – Gardens of paradise, London, 1987.