NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION Presented by, Saima fazal B.S(3 rd  year)
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Nosocomial infection comes from Greek words   “ nosus ”   meaning   disease  and  “   komeion ”  mean...
<ul><li>Crowded hospital conditions </li></ul><ul><li>New microorganism </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of people with...
EPIDEMIOLOGY <ul><li>Nosocomial infections can be exogenous (external organism) and endogenous (opportunist normal flora) ...
MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>There are five main modes of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Vector...
<ul><li>DROPLET TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Droplet generated by sneezing </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing or respiratory tra...
<ul><li>AIR BORNE TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny droplet nuclei that remain (<5) </li></ul><ul><li>suspended in air. ...
<ul><li>CONTACT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Most important and frequent mode of transmission of nosocomial infections, ...
<ul><li>Indirect-contact transmission   </li></ul><ul><li>Involves contact of a susceptible host with a contaminated inter...
AGENTS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS VIRUS BACTERIA FUNGI
 
COMMON SITES OF INFECTION
COMMON INFECTIONS <ul><li>Following are the most common nosocomial infections: </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary tract infection <...
PROBLEMS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS <ul><li>Nosocomial infections will become more important as public health problems as it...
SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS <ul><li>They are also frequent </li></ul><ul><li>The definition is mainly clinical </li></ul><ul>...
NOSOCOMIAL PNEUMONIA <ul><li>The most important are patients  </li></ul><ul><li>on ventilators in ICU. </li></ul><ul><li>R...
NOSOCOMIAL BACTERAEMIA <ul><li>The incidence is increasing particularly for certain organisms such as multi resistance coa...
 
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS <ul><li>It is the most common cause of nosocomial infections </li></ul><ul><li>80% of the infecti...
PREVENTION AND CONTROL <ul><li>Prevention and control of nosocomial infections can be done by the following ways, </li></u...
<ul><li>Sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Sterilization of all reusable equipments  </li></ul><ul><li>such as ventilator, hu...
 
<ul><li>Wear Gloves </li></ul><ul><li>They re worn for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a protective barrier and pre...
Tell your doctor everything <ul><li>All symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Previous disease </li></ul><ul><li>Other alternative tr...
Wear Aprons <ul><li>Wearing an apron during patient  </li></ul><ul><li>care reduces the risk of infections. </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Get educated </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about your conditions and  </li></ul><ul><li>treatment is the best way to </l...
<ul><li>There is no official national approach and no real managerial support from authorities for nosocomial infection </...
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Nosocomial Infection

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Nosocomial Infection

  1. 1. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION Presented by, Saima fazal B.S(3 rd year)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Nosocomial infection comes from Greek words “ nosus ” meaning disease and “ komeion ” meaning to take care of </li></ul><ul><li>Also called as HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTION </li></ul><ul><li>Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48hrs or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Crowded hospital conditions </li></ul><ul><li>New microorganism </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of people with compromised immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing Bacterial resistance </li></ul>Rise in nosocomial infection as a result of four factor
  4. 4. EPIDEMIOLOGY <ul><li>Nosocomial infections can be exogenous (external organism) and endogenous (opportunist normal flora) </li></ul><ul><li>Host susceptibility Is an important factor in the development of nosocomial infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Medical equipments and procedures (surgery) are often responsible for infections </li></ul>
  5. 5. MODES OF TRANSMISSION <ul><li>There are five main modes of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Vector borne </li></ul><ul><li>Air borne </li></ul><ul><li>Droplet </li></ul><ul><li>Common vehicle </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>DROPLET TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Droplet generated by sneezing </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing or respiratory tract procedures </li></ul><ul><li>like Broncoscopy or suction </li></ul><ul><li>VECTOR TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted through insects and </li></ul><ul><li>Other invertebrates animals </li></ul><ul><li>such as mosquitoes and fleas. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>AIR BORNE TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny droplet nuclei that remain (<5) </li></ul><ul><li>suspended in air. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON VEHICLE TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted indirectly by materials </li></ul><ul><li>contaminated with the infections. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>CONTACT TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Most important and frequent mode of transmission of nosocomial infections, is divided into two subgroups : </li></ul><ul><li>Direct-contact transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect-contact transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct-contact transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a direct body surface-to-body surface contact and physical transfer of microorganisms between a susceptible host and an infected or colonized person, such as occurs when a person turns a patient, gives a patient a bath </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Indirect-contact transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Involves contact of a susceptible host with a contaminated intermediate object, usually inanimate, such as contaminated instruments, needles , or dressings, or contaminated gloves that are not changed between patients </li></ul>
  10. 10. AGENTS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS VIRUS BACTERIA FUNGI
  11. 12. COMMON SITES OF INFECTION
  12. 13. COMMON INFECTIONS <ul><li>Following are the most common nosocomial infections: </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary tract infection </li></ul><ul><li>Catheter associated infection </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Blood stream infections </li></ul>
  13. 14. PROBLEMS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS <ul><li>Nosocomial infections will become more important as public health problems as it causes, </li></ul><ul><li>Nosocomial suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged hospital stay </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the cost of care </li></ul><ul><li>significantly </li></ul>
  14. 15. SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS <ul><li>They are also frequent </li></ul><ul><li>The definition is mainly clinical </li></ul><ul><li>(purulent discharge around wounds </li></ul><ul><li>or the insertion site of drain, or </li></ul><ul><li>spreading cellulites from wounds) </li></ul><ul><li>The infections can be exogenously </li></ul><ul><li>or endogenously </li></ul>
  15. 16. NOSOCOMIAL PNEUMONIA <ul><li>The most important are patients </li></ul><ul><li>on ventilators in ICU. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent and progressive </li></ul><ul><li>radiological opacities of the </li></ul><ul><li>pulmonary parenchyma, </li></ul><ul><li>purulent sputum and recent </li></ul><ul><li>onsite fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly caused by acinetobacter. </li></ul>
  16. 17. NOSOCOMIAL BACTERAEMIA <ul><li>The incidence is increasing particularly for certain organisms such as multi resistance coagulase negative staphylococcus and candida. </li></ul><ul><li>Infections may occurs at the skin entry site of the IV device or in the sub cutaneous path of catheter. </li></ul>
  17. 19. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS <ul><li>It is the most common cause of nosocomial infections </li></ul><ul><li>80% of the infections are associated with indwelling catheters. </li></ul>
  18. 20. PREVENTION AND CONTROL <ul><li>Prevention and control of nosocomial infections can be done by the following ways, </li></ul><ul><li>ISOLATION </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to prevent transmission of microorganisms by common routes in hospitals. Because agent and host factors are more difficult to control, interruption of transfer of microorganisms is directed primarily at transmission. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Sterilization of all reusable equipments </li></ul><ul><li>such as ventilator, humidifier and </li></ul><ul><li>any device that come in contact </li></ul><ul><li>with the respiratory tract. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Wear Gloves </li></ul><ul><li>They re worn for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a protective barrier and prevent </li></ul><ul><li>contamination of hands </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the liklihood that microorganism present on the </li></ul><ul><li>hands will be transmitted to the </li></ul><ul><li>patients during invasive and </li></ul><ul><li>other patient care procedure. </li></ul>
  21. 24. Tell your doctor everything <ul><li>All symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Previous disease </li></ul><ul><li>Other alternative treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Other over the counter </li></ul><ul><li>medication </li></ul>
  22. 25. Wear Aprons <ul><li>Wearing an apron during patient </li></ul><ul><li>care reduces the risk of infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Apron is must for preventing </li></ul><ul><li>yourself from getting disease. </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Get educated </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about your conditions and </li></ul><ul><li>treatment is the best way to </li></ul><ul><li>prevent an error. </li></ul><ul><li>Get involved </li></ul><ul><li>Be assertive about your rights </li></ul><ul><li>To be a part of the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Process for your medical care </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>There is no official national approach and no real managerial support from authorities for nosocomial infection </li></ul><ul><li>Only thing is proper asepsis, proper hand washing and sterilization. </li></ul>CONCLUSION
  25. 28. Thank you
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