Nosocomial infection comes from Greek words “ nosus ” meaning disease and “ komeion ” meaning to take care of
Also called as HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTION
Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48hrs or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge.
Crowded hospital conditions
Increasing number of people with compromised immune system
Increasing Bacterial resistance
Rise in nosocomial infection as a result of four factor
Nosocomial infections can be exogenous (external organism) and endogenous (opportunist normal flora)
Host susceptibility Is an important factor in the development of nosocomial infection.
Medical equipments and procedures (surgery) are often responsible for infections
MODES OF TRANSMISSION
There are five main modes of transmission
Droplet generated by sneezing
Coughing or respiratory tract procedures
like Broncoscopy or suction
Transmitted through insects and
Other invertebrates animals
such as mosquitoes and fleas.
AIR BORNE TRANSMISSION
Tiny droplet nuclei that remain (<5)
suspended in air.
COMMON VEHICLE TRANSMISSION
Transmitted indirectly by materials
contaminated with the infections.
Most important and frequent mode of transmission of nosocomial infections, is divided into two subgroups :
Involves a direct body surface-to-body surface contact and physical transfer of microorganisms between a susceptible host and an infected or colonized person, such as occurs when a person turns a patient, gives a patient a bath
Involves contact of a susceptible host with a contaminated intermediate object, usually inanimate, such as contaminated instruments, needles , or dressings, or contaminated gloves that are not changed between patients
AGENTS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS VIRUS BACTERIA FUNGI
COMMON SITES OF INFECTION
Following are the most common nosocomial infections:
Urinary tract infection
Catheter associated infection
Blood stream infections
PROBLEMS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS
Nosocomial infections will become more important as public health problems as it causes,
Prolonged hospital stay
Increase the cost of care
SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS
They are also frequent
The definition is mainly clinical
(purulent discharge around wounds
or the insertion site of drain, or
spreading cellulites from wounds)
The infections can be exogenously
The most important are patients
on ventilators in ICU.
Recent and progressive
radiological opacities of the
purulent sputum and recent
Most commonly caused by acinetobacter.
The incidence is increasing particularly for certain organisms such as multi resistance coagulase negative staphylococcus and candida.
Infections may occurs at the skin entry site of the IV device or in the sub cutaneous path of catheter.
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
It is the most common cause of nosocomial infections
80% of the infections are associated with indwelling catheters.
PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Prevention and control of nosocomial infections can be done by the following ways,
Designed to prevent transmission of microorganisms by common routes in hospitals. Because agent and host factors are more difficult to control, interruption of transfer of microorganisms is directed primarily at transmission.
Sterilization of all reusable equipments
such as ventilator, humidifier and
any device that come in contact
with the respiratory tract.
They re worn for two reasons:
Provide a protective barrier and prevent
contamination of hands
Reduce the liklihood that microorganism present on the
hands will be transmitted to the
patients during invasive and
other patient care procedure.
Tell your doctor everything
Other alternative treatment
Other over the counter
Wearing an apron during patient
care reduces the risk of infections.
Apron is must for preventing
yourself from getting disease.
Learn about your conditions and
treatment is the best way to
prevent an error.
Be assertive about your rights
To be a part of the decision
Process for your medical care
There is no official national approach and no real managerial support from authorities for nosocomial infection
Only thing is proper asepsis, proper hand washing and sterilization.