Giardia lamblia is a flagellate of world-wide distribution
Reproduce by binary fission.
Have a trophozoite and cyst phases.
Direct life cycle.
It has two nuclei and eight flagella.
Lives in duodenum and jejunum.
Typically found in lakes, streams, or ponds that have been contaminated by human and other animals.
It causes giardiasis.
Two stages :
Tennis racked shape or heart shape(when viewed flat).
Bilaterally symmetrical having a peared structure.
Two in numbers, seen in midline as vertical lines.
Two or one on each side of body.
4 pairs helping in moving.
Circular in shape
Situated on ventral surfaces
Oval or ellipsoid
Two nuclei in immature cyst
Four nuclei in mature cyst.
Flagella &sucking discs
may be seen in cytoplasm.
Life cycle of Giardia lamblia Trophozoites Trophozoites Cysts Mature Cysts Duodenum, upper ileum, gall bladder The lower portion of ileum or colon Contaminate water and food Stool Outside Multiplied by binary fission Diarrhea Outside
Trophozoites are attached to the mucosa surface by sucker, reproduced by binary fission Diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting Mechanical blockage of the intestinal mucosa, competition for nutrients, inflammation Histology : shortening of microvilli, elongation of crypts, and damaging the brush border of the absorptive cells G. lamblia inhabits in the duodenum and upper ileum Pathogenesis
Habitat & transmission
Human colon & contaminated material
VIA FEACEL-ORAL ROUTE
Gas or bloating
Loss of appetite
Swollen or distended abdomen
How long after infection do symptoms appear?
Symptoms of giardiasis normally begin 1 to 2 weeks (average 7 days) after becoming infected
Diagnosis Pathogenic examination (1) Fecal examination Water-like feces: trophozoites Formed feces: cysts (2) Duodenal fluid or bile examination