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GIARDIA LAMBLIA By MEHTAB SHAH  B.S MLT  06
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>It is a intestinal single-celled parasite .  </li></ul><ul><li>Giardia lamblia  is a flagellate of wo...
MORPHOLOGY <ul><li>Two stages :  </li></ul><ul><li>Trophozoite  </li></ul><ul><li>cyst </li></ul>
Trophozoite   <ul><li>SHAPE </li></ul><ul><li>Pear shaped, </li></ul><ul><li>Tennis racked shape or heart shape(when viewe...
Contd ………. <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Bilaterally symmetrical having a peared structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Axostyles <...
Contd ……. <ul><li>Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>4 pairs helping in moving. </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking discs </li></ul><ul><li>...
CYST <ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Oval or ellipsoid </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Length: 12um </li></ul><ul...
Life cycle of  Giardia lamblia Trophozoites Trophozoites Cysts Mature Cysts Duodenum, upper ileum, gall bladder The lower ...
 
Trophozoites are attached to the mucosa  surface by sucker,  reproduced by binary fission Diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloati...
Habitat & transmission <ul><li>Trophozites </li></ul><ul><li>Definitive host: </li></ul><ul><li>Human intestine </li></ul>...
Transmission <ul><li>VIA FEACEL-ORAL ROUTE </li></ul>
Symptoms <ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea  </li></ul><ul><li>Gas or bloating </li></ul><ul><li>Headache  ...
How long after infection do symptoms appear? <ul><li>Symptoms of giardiasis normally begin 1 to 2 weeks (average 7 days) a...
Possible Complications <ul><li>Dehydration  </li></ul><ul><li>Malabsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss   </li></ul>
Diagnosis Pathogenic examination (1) Fecal examination Water-like feces: trophozoites Formed  feces: cysts (2) Duodenal fl...
Diagnosis ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosoebent assay IFA: indirect fluorescent antibody PCR: polymerase chain reaction
How can  prevent a Giardia infection? <ul><li>Avoid water that might be contaminated.  </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid food that m...
Treatment <ul><li>The most common treatment for giardiasis is  metronidazole  (Flagyl) for  5-10  days. It eradicates the ...
Thank you And KEEP SMILING
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Giardia M,S

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    1. 2. GIARDIA LAMBLIA By MEHTAB SHAH B.S MLT 06
    2. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>It is a intestinal single-celled parasite . </li></ul><ul><li>Giardia lamblia is a flagellate of world-wide distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce by binary fission. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a trophozoite and cyst phases. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>It has two nuclei and eight flagella. </li></ul><ul><li>Lives in duodenum and jejunum. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically found in lakes, streams, or ponds that have been contaminated by human and other animals. </li></ul><ul><li>It causes giardiasis. </li></ul>
    3. 4. MORPHOLOGY <ul><li>Two stages : </li></ul><ul><li>Trophozoite </li></ul><ul><li>cyst </li></ul>
    4. 5. Trophozoite <ul><li>SHAPE </li></ul><ul><li>Pear shaped, </li></ul><ul><li>Tennis racked shape or heart shape(when viewed flat). </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Length: 10-20um </li></ul><ul><li>Width: 5-15um </li></ul><ul><li>Thickness:2-4um </li></ul>
    5. 6. Contd ………. <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Bilaterally symmetrical having a peared structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Axostyles </li></ul><ul><li>Two in numbers, seen in midline as vertical lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Two or one on each side of body. </li></ul>
    6. 7. Contd ……. <ul><li>Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>4 pairs helping in moving. </li></ul><ul><li>Sucking discs </li></ul><ul><li>Circular in shape </li></ul><ul><li>Situated on ventral surfaces </li></ul>
    7. 8. CYST <ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Oval or ellipsoid </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Length: 12um </li></ul><ul><li>Width: 8um </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Two nuclei in immature cyst </li></ul><ul><li>Four nuclei in mature cyst. </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella &sucking discs </li></ul><ul><li>may be seen in cytoplasm. </li></ul>Mature cyst
    8. 9. Life cycle of Giardia lamblia Trophozoites Trophozoites Cysts Mature Cysts Duodenum, upper ileum, gall bladder The lower portion of ileum or colon Contaminate water and food Stool Outside Multiplied by binary fission Diarrhea Outside
    9. 11. Trophozoites are attached to the mucosa surface by sucker, reproduced by binary fission Diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting Mechanical blockage of the intestinal mucosa, competition for nutrients, inflammation Histology : shortening of microvilli, elongation of crypts, and damaging the brush border of the absorptive cells G. lamblia inhabits in the duodenum and upper ileum Pathogenesis
    10. 12. Habitat & transmission <ul><li>Trophozites </li></ul><ul><li>Definitive host: </li></ul><ul><li>Human intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Cyst </li></ul><ul><li>Human colon & contaminated material </li></ul>
    11. 13. Transmission <ul><li>VIA FEACEL-ORAL ROUTE </li></ul>
    12. 14. Symptoms <ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Gas or bloating </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Low-grade fever </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen or distended abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul>
    13. 15. How long after infection do symptoms appear? <ul><li>Symptoms of giardiasis normally begin 1 to 2 weeks (average 7 days) after becoming infected </li></ul>
    14. 16. Possible Complications <ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Malabsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul>
    15. 17. Diagnosis Pathogenic examination (1) Fecal examination Water-like feces: trophozoites Formed feces: cysts (2) Duodenal fluid or bile examination
    16. 18. Diagnosis ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosoebent assay IFA: indirect fluorescent antibody PCR: polymerase chain reaction
    17. 19. How can prevent a Giardia infection? <ul><li>Avoid water that might be contaminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid food that might be contaminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Boil water before drinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not brush teeth with tap water that may be contaminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use ice or drink beverages made from tap water that may be contaminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands before eating food etc. </li></ul>
    18. 20. Treatment <ul><li>The most common treatment for giardiasis is metronidazole (Flagyl) for 5-10 days. It eradicates the Giardia more than 85% of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Furoxone for 7-10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Quinacrine is very effective for treating giardiasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Combination therapy also may be effective (e.g., quinacrine and metronidazole). </li></ul>
    19. 21. Thank you And KEEP SMILING
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