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Dna Replication

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Blood components & Indications By Mehtab Hussain Shah B.S MLT 06
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • Blood component therapy allows several patients to benefit from one unit of donated whole blood.
    • Whole blood is the source of component production.
    • Blood can be separated into various components by different speed centrifugation technique.
    • Blood components include RBCs ,Platelets,FFP etc.
  • 4. PRINCIPLE
    • Different blood components are separated from whole blood by different speed of centrifugation technique.
  • 5. PREPARATION
    • Prepared by two methods;
    • Open System
    • less safe
    • shorter life
    • Closed system
    • maintain internal sterility
    • maintain original out date
  • 6. Blood Components Description
    • Packed cells
    • Random platelets concentration
    • FFP
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • Plasma
    • Granulocyte
    • CMV negative blood
    • Irradiated blood
    • Washed blood
    • Leukocyte reduced cells
  • 7. Red blood cells
    • One unit of packed cells contain. approximately 200 ml red cells and 10-40 ml of plasma.
    • Hct should be < 80%.
    • Self life = 35 days in CPDA-1 1-6 ° c.
    • Shelf life in 24 hours in open system.
  • 8. Indication
    • For patient with symptomatic anemia.
    • Also used for new born exchange. transfusion.
    • One unit should raise Hb 1 g/dl and Hct by 3-4 % in average adult.
  • 9. Leukocyte Reduced
    • Prepared by in line filtration or concentration of leukocyte reduction filter.
    • Leukocyte reduced RBCs should contain <5x10*6 WBCs and retain 85% of original red cells.
    • Shelf life is 35 days in CPDA-1 and 24 hours in an open system.
  • 10. Indication
    • To reduced the febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction.
    • To reduced and remove micro aggregates.
    • To reduced risk of all immunization.
    • Prevention of CMV infection.
    • To induce an immunosuppressive effect in transplant patients.
  • 11. Platelets
    • Prepared from whole blood with in 8 hours by centrifugation process.
    • Each unit contains approximately 5x10*10 platelets in 50-70ml plasma.
    • Store at room temperature (20-24 ° c) on continuous agitation.
    • Shelf life is 24 hours to 5 days depending on collection system.
  • 12. Indications
    • Adult dose 4-6 units of random donor platelets.
    • Platelets count < 5x10*9 /L for minors surgeries and normal deliveries.
    • Platelets count < 100 x 10*9 /L For major surgeries.
    • Platelets count <10x10*9/L to prevent spontaneous bleeding.
  • 13. FFP
    • Prepared from whole blood by centrifugation and frozen at -18 c or below within 8 hours of collection.
    • It contains both labile and non-labile factors in a volume of 250 ml.
    • Thawed unit can be stored 1-6 ° c upto 5 days.
    • Shelf life is 12 months at -18 ° c and can be stored up to 7 years at -65 ° c .
  • 14. Indications
    • As a replacement of isolated factor deficiencies.
    • To reserve the effect of sodium warfarin.
    • In massive case transfusion.
    • In antithrombin iii deficiencies.
    • For treatment of immuno deficiencies.
    • For treatment of thrombocytopenia purpura.
    • In coagulopathy.
  • 15. Cryoprecipitate
    • Also called antihemophilic factor.
    • Prepared from plasma by freezing technique.
    • It contains >80 IU factor viii (AHF) >150 mg of fibrinogen and most of the factor xiii and von willibrand factor.
    • Frozen within 1 hour of preparation.
    • Store at -18 ° c or below for up to 1 year.
  • 16. Indications
    • I/V supplement of fibrinogen e.g. in DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation).
    • Von willibrand diseases.
    • Factor xiii deficiencies.
    • Fibrin sealant also called fibrin glue.
    • In hemophilia A.
  • 17. Granulocytes
    • Prepared by Buffy coat harvest form fresh whole blood.
    • Store at 20-24 ° c without agitation for 24 hours.
  • 18. Indications
    • Neonatal sepsis.
    • Stem cell grafting.
    • Neutropenia.
  • 19. Conclusion
    • Blood transfusion is an effect form of therapy.
    • Component therapy allows transfusion of specific portion of blood that the patients requires.
    • Administration of unwanted component is avoided allowing several patients to benefit from one donation.
  • 20.