Blood Components


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Blood Components

  1. 2. Blood components & Indications By Mehtab Hussain Shah B.S MLT 06
  2. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Blood component therapy allows several patients to benefit from one unit of donated whole blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole blood is the source of component production. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood can be separated into various components by different speed centrifugation technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood components include RBCs ,Platelets,FFP etc. </li></ul>
  3. 5. PRINCIPLE <ul><li>Different blood components are separated from whole blood by different speed of centrifugation technique. </li></ul>
  4. 6. PREPARATION <ul><li>Prepared by two methods; </li></ul><ul><li>Open System </li></ul><ul><li>less safe </li></ul><ul><li>shorter life </li></ul><ul><li>Closed system </li></ul><ul><li>maintain internal sterility </li></ul><ul><li>maintain original out date </li></ul>
  5. 7. Blood Components Description <ul><li>Packed cells </li></ul><ul><li>Random platelets concentration </li></ul><ul><li>FFP </li></ul><ul><li>Cryoprecipitate </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Granulocyte </li></ul><ul><li>CMV negative blood </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiated blood </li></ul><ul><li>Washed blood </li></ul><ul><li>Leukocyte reduced cells </li></ul>
  6. 9. Red blood cells <ul><li>One unit of packed cells contain. approximately 200 ml red cells and 10-40 ml of plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>Hct should be < 80%. </li></ul><ul><li>Self life = 35 days in CPDA-1 1-6 ° c. </li></ul><ul><li>Shelf life in 24 hours in open system. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Indication <ul><li>For patient with symptomatic anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Also used for new born exchange. transfusion. </li></ul><ul><li>One unit should raise Hb 1 g/dl and Hct by 3-4 % in average adult. </li></ul>
  8. 11. Leukocyte Reduced <ul><li>Prepared by in line filtration or concentration of leukocyte reduction filter. </li></ul><ul><li>Leukocyte reduced RBCs should contain <5x10*6 WBCs and retain 85% of original red cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Shelf life is 35 days in CPDA-1 and 24 hours in an open system. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Indication <ul><li>To reduced the febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduced and remove micro aggregates. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduced risk of all immunization. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of CMV infection. </li></ul><ul><li>To induce an immunosuppressive effect in transplant patients. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Platelets <ul><li>Prepared from whole blood with in 8 hours by centrifugation process. </li></ul><ul><li>Each unit contains approximately 5x10*10 platelets in 50-70ml plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>Store at room temperature (20-24 ° c) on continuous agitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Shelf life is 24 hours to 5 days depending on collection system. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Indications <ul><li>Adult dose 4-6 units of random donor platelets. </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets count < 5x10*9 /L for minors surgeries and normal deliveries. </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets count < 100 x 10*9 /L For major surgeries. </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets count <10x10*9/L to prevent spontaneous bleeding. </li></ul>
  12. 15. FFP <ul><li>Prepared from whole blood by centrifugation and frozen at -18 c or below within 8 hours of collection. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains both labile and non-labile factors in a volume of 250 ml. </li></ul><ul><li>Thawed unit can be stored 1-6 ° c upto 5 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Shelf life is 12 months at -18 ° c and can be stored up to 7 years at -65 ° c . </li></ul>
  13. 16. Indications <ul><li>As a replacement of isolated factor deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>To reserve the effect of sodium warfarin. </li></ul><ul><li>In massive case transfusion. </li></ul><ul><li>In antithrombin iii deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>For treatment of immuno deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>For treatment of thrombocytopenia purpura. </li></ul><ul><li>In coagulopathy. </li></ul>
  14. 17. Cryoprecipitate <ul><li>Also called antihemophilic factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared from plasma by freezing technique. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains >80 IU factor viii (AHF) >150 mg of fibrinogen and most of the factor xiii and von willibrand factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen within 1 hour of preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>Store at -18 ° c or below for up to 1 year. </li></ul>
  15. 18. Indications <ul><li>I/V supplement of fibrinogen e.g. in DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation). </li></ul><ul><li>Von willibrand diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Factor xiii deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrin sealant also called fibrin glue. </li></ul><ul><li>In hemophilia A. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Granulocytes <ul><li>Prepared by Buffy coat harvest form fresh whole blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Store at 20-24 ° c without agitation for 24 hours. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Indications <ul><li>Neonatal sepsis. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cell grafting. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutropenia. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>Blood transfusion is an effect form of therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Component therapy allows transfusion of specific portion of blood that the patients requires. </li></ul><ul><li>Administration of unwanted component is avoided allowing several patients to benefit from one donation. </li></ul>