Autologous Blood Donation And Transfusion


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Autologous Blood Donation And Transfusion

  1. 1. PRESENTATION ON AUTOLOGOUS TRANSFUSION Presented by Humaira Shafaq B-S Medical Technology Liaquat National Hospital
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages and Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Indications and contraindications </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperative Blood collection </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution </li></ul><ul><li>Intra and Post-operative Blood collection </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Autologous blood donation is the process of donating one's own blood prior to an elective surgical or medical procedure to avoid or reduce the need for an allogeneic blood transfusion (from a volunteer blood donor). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Autologous Blood donation Involve <ul><li>A pre-autologous interview will be conducted at the donor center prior to your first collection. </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure include : </li></ul><ul><li>donor consent. </li></ul><ul><li>informed consent. </li></ul><ul><li>donor declaration forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Screening bloods will be collected and the prescription of iron and vitamin tablets will normally be discussed. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Advantages <ul><li>The patient is assured that the blood is an exact match to his or her blood type, thereby avoiding transfusion reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no risk of inadvertently transmitting infectious agents . </li></ul><ul><li>Autologous blood donations supplement the community blood supply. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of donating blood promotes blood cell production by bone marrow . </li></ul><ul><li>The patient is often reassured by the knowledge that his or her own blood will be used if a blood transfusion becomes necessary. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Disadvantages <ul><li>Contamination of autologous blood with infectious agents is possible during the donation process. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a possibility that a patient's blood will be mislabeled or that allogeneic blood will be inadvertently transfused. </li></ul><ul><li>Autologous blood donation costs more to process and store. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood may be transfused unnecessarily because an autologous blood supply exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Unused units of autologous blood are usually disposed of; approximately 44% of autologous donations remain unused after surgery. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Person Qualified to be Autologous Donor <ul><li>Those who are not anemic. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who have no medical condition that could cause problems during or after the Blood donation process. </li></ul><ul><li>Children weighing over 65 pounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who are having planned surgery that routinely requires a transfusion (except in cases where long term storage is desired). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Side effect of Autologous Donation <ul><li>Some people feel light headed or dizzy during or after the donation; fainting can occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a bruise may appear around the place where the needle was inserted and the area may be sore to touch for some time. </li></ul><ul><li>Patient may feel fatigued for sometime. </li></ul><ul><li>vasovagal reaction. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Autologous Blood Donation <ul><li>Preoperative autologous Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Acute normo-volemic hemodilution (ANH) . </li></ul><ul><li>Intraoperative hemodilution. </li></ul><ul><li>Intraoperative Blood salvage . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Preoperative Autologous Blood <ul><li>Blood donation, transfusion and storage (PABD) units of Blood are drawn from a patient usually starting (in the short term case) three to five weeks before an elective surgical procedure and stored for transfusion at the time of the surgery. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Intra operative Blood salvage <ul><li>Blood is salvaged from the surgical area during the operation for re-infusion during or after the surgical procedure. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Postoperative Blood salvage <ul><li>Blood is collected after the surgical procedure is complete by drainage of the operative area and re-infused. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Acute normo-volemic hemodilution (ANH) . <ul><li>Blood is collected at the start of surgery and the fluid volume lost is replaced with appropriate IV solutions, and then finally, stored Blood is reinfused after surgery. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Indications for Autologous Transfusion <ul><li>Major Orthopedic surgeries. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular surgeries. </li></ul><ul><li>Obstetric surgeries (hysterectomy, ovarian tumour etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Radical prostectomy, mastectomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Gatro-surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood collected in thoracic or abdominal cavity due to organ rupture or surgical procedures. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Contraindications <ul><li>Evidence of infection and risk of bacteremia. </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable angina. </li></ul><ul><li>Active seizure disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial infarction or CV accidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant cardiac or pulmonary disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanotic heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant disease. </li></ul>
  16. 16. After care for Autologous Blood Donors <ul><li>Individuals who donate blood are generally given fluids and/or light refreshments to prevent possible side effects such as dizziness and nausea. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron supplements may be prescribed to prevent or treat anemia </li></ul>
  17. 17. Storage of blood <ul><li>ABO and Rh typing on labeled samples of patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Units should have ‘green label’ with patient name & number & marked ‘FOR AUTOLOGOUS USE ONLY’ </li></ul><ul><li>Longest possible shelf life for collected units increases flexibility for the patient and allows time for restoration of red cell mass, between collection and surgery. Liquid storage is feasible for 6 weeks. For longer duration, the red have to be frozen. </li></ul><ul><li>Special Autologous label may be used with numbering to ensure that oldest units are issued first . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Autologous Sticker
  19. 19. Morbidity and mortality rates <ul><li>One study found the risk of a complication requiring hospitalization to be one in approximately 17,000 among autologous blood donors . </li></ul><ul><li>There is a higher chance of a vasovagal reaction with autologous blood donation than with allogeneic blood donatio n. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Alternatives <ul><li>Allogeneic blood is a more commonly used alternative to autologous blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients may also choose to have blood donated by family or friends, a process called directed cdonation . </li></ul>