Leadership and Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Based on literature by Stephen R. Covey South Seattle Community College With Paul L. Gerhardt
“… the success of leadership can be measured by what kind of talent and structure one leaves behind.” Vartan Gregorian, former president New York Public Library
Introduction Some Basics:
Some people are consistently successful because of qualities and abilities they have developed in addition to their education and experience.
Value, as perceived by the customer, will determine your worth.
Genuine career happiness comes from achieving personal goals in harmony with organizational goals.
The objective of this presentation is to present some strategies that a professional can use to improve their chances of a productive career.
What are the qualities of a great leader?
Long-term success requires good leadership.
Understands the Big Picture.
Has vision and is a systems thinker
The ability to effectively empower, develop, and lead people/teams.
A great leader is able to see the context of the situation they are in -- whatever that is -- and react accordingly. They ADAPT to the situation and those they lead.
Personal Strategic Planning combines strategic planning and time management together.
Know where YOU fit in the organization and on your team.
Continuous improvement in all areas of life
Become a student of leadership and management styles
Find a one or two mentors
Read and take notes
Team Orientation / Learning Communities
Long-term success requires good leadership.
Effective and empowered teams responsible for problem solving and product development.
Core values and operating norms. Sense of community.
It is important for you to know the status of each so you can assess your future.
Four Levels of Leadership
Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
A. Inside Out
1. Be proactive
2. Begin with the end in mind
3. Put first things first
4. Think win-win
5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood
7. Sharpen the saw : physical, mental, emotional/social, spiritual
B. Inside Out Again
Examples of Defective Habits:
React -Blame all your problems on your friends, teachers, parents; take no responsibility for things that happen to you.
Begin with No End in Mind -Have no goal or plan and never think about tomorrow.
Put First Things Last -Always put off doing what’s important by talking on your mobile and surfing the net. Always put off your homework until tomorrow.
Examples of Defective Habits: (Continued)
Think Win-Lose -Don’t let anyone else succeed at anything because if they win, you lose.
Seek First to Talk, Then Pretend to Listen -If you want their opinion, give it to them.
Don’t Cooperate -Teamwork is for losers; be your own island.
Wear Yourself Out -Make being busy the only thing that matters; never exercise or improve yourself.
The 7 Successful Habits ... an overview. habit = knowledge + skill + desire 7 Sharpen saw Independence Interdependence PUBLIC VICTORY Think win-win 4 Understand 5 Synergize 6 Dependence 1 Be Proactive PRIVATE VICTORY 2 End in mind 3 1 st things 1 st
Developing Personal Potential
Covey’s first three habits deal with self-reliance and self-mastery. These are private victories; they only involve the follower
Habit 1: Be Proactive®
Be responsible, don’t blame others
Habit 2: Begin With The End In Mind®
Start with a clear mental image of your destination
Habit 3: Put First Things First®
Focus on preserving and enhancing relationships and on accomplishing results
The first three habits build a foundation on independence, from which one can move to interdependence—caring, productive relationships with others which Covey calls public victories
When a person moves to interdependence, he steps into a leadership role
Habit 4: Think Win-Win®
Implies understanding that without cooperation, the organization cannot succeed
Habit 5: Seek First To Understand, Then To Be Understood®
Requires a nonjudgmental attitude. Emphatic listening gets inside another person’s frame of reference
Habit 6: Synergize®
Synergy is the combined action that occurs when people work together to create new alternatives and solutions. The essence of synergy is to value and respect differences
Habit 7: Sharpen The Saw®
Process of using and continuously renewing the physical, mental, spiritual, and social aspects of life
Trust: Emotional Bank Account
Seeking first to understand
Win-Win or no deal thinking
Loyalty to the Absent
Receiving feedback and giving “I” messages
Seeking first to be understood
Win-Lose or Lose-Win Thinking
Pride, conceit, Arrogance
Not receiving feedback and giving “you” messages
7 Habits Stimulus Response Stimulus Response Proactive Freedom to Choose Reactive Self-awareness Imagination Conscience Independent Will
Habit One - Be Proactive
Proactivity vs. Reactivity
I am responsible for my life
My choices control my behavior
I stand for something
Factors beyond my control create my life
My conditions, conditioning, and feelings control my behavior
Habit 1: Be proactive. Not until you can say I am what I am today because of the choices I made yesterday. ... can you say I choose otherwise.
Examples of your reactive statements ... and your “proactive” counterparts.
What to do when frustrated? Discouraged? Imposter? What is your “fix routine”?
Why not be proactive? What is the risk? Are you willing to risk failure?
stimulus response the gap = our choice Victor Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning reactive (reverse acting, problem-bound, vague) I am not as smart as others in this company. People think I’m too heavy. I wish our Monday evenings were better. circle of influence circle of concern no concern proactive (forward acting, opportunity-focused, clear) I will read one book per month in my field. I will exercise and attend Weight Watchers weekly. I will cook dinners for my wife every Monday.
Risking failure ... a shining example! Less than one year of formal education. Ran for state legislature ... lost. Bought a store to make a living ... ended up with a huge debt. Interested in a girl ... she died. Interested in another girl ... she dumped him. Served four successive terms in the state general assembly. Became a lawyer. Engaged to be married ... engagement broke ... eventually got married. Had a son ... then another who died ... then another who died ... then another. Ran for Congress ... and lost ... and again, and lost ... and again, and lost ... ... then elected ...but was too unpopular to be re-elected. Became one of the leading lawyers in his state. Ran for Senate .. and lost. Ran for President ... and won. Presided successfully over a war. Re-elected President. Write your “failure resume”. Did you risk time, energy, money, or reputation? Why did you fail (see reasons above)? Innovate or Die , Jack Matson 1 outside of your circle of influence 2 failure of planning 3 failure of action more failures but more successes!
Disowning vs. Owning
“ There’s not enough time in the day”
“ I was never very good at public speaking”
“ I lost my temper”
“ Find out what the prof wants and do it”
“ I’ve overscheduled myself”
“ I’ve avoided public speaking because I’m uncomfortable with it”
“ I gave way to my feelings”
“ I decide what’s needed & get the system working on it”
Identify one issue in your circle of concern, but not in your circle of influence
Break this issue into areas of direct, indirect, and no control
Outline how you might recast your concern so that you release the “no control” area, and do something about the areas of “direct” and “indirect” control.
Seven Habits - Number Two
Habit Two: Begin with the end in mind
Meaning of this habit
All things are created twice
The two creations
Personal mission statements
Values at the center
Value of Habit Two
Stating why we exist & what we are about is difficult
Expression - putting into words - changes us
What lies behind us
and what lies before
us are tiny matters
what lies within us .
Henry David Thoreau
Habit 2: Begin with the end in mind.
Specifically … write what you want to reap. What do you HOPE for?
A prestigious job? A girlfriend or boyfriend? Money?
Write what you are willing to sow. Time? Personal energy? Money? Your friends?
Any books or movies or models that guide you?
The law of the farm: You reap what you sow. translated “sacrifice” vision = what you want to see mission = immediate next step(s) Both tend to focus priorities.
Begin With The End In Mind
Identify the Target!
“ To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you’re going so that you better understand where you are now, so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.” Stephen Covey, Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
Stages in the Backward Design Process Identify desired results . Determine acceptable evidence . Plan learning experiences and instruction. What should students know and be able to do? How will we know that they know? What activities, skills, information and resources will be best?
The stages are logical but they go against habits
We’re used to jumping to lesson and activity ideas before clarifying our performance goals for students
The change in lesson design does not necessarily mean that we throw out everything that we’ve done but it is a matter of being more selective,
It helps us modify and also helps us to decide what not to teach.
By thinking through the assessments upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals and means that teaching is focused on desired results
Identify desired results Stages in the Backward Design Process Stage 1 What should students know and be able to do? What should others know and be able to do?
Worth being familiar with Important to know and to do “ Enduring Understanding” Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe Understanding by Design ASCD, 1998. Curricular Priorities There is usually more content than can be reasonably addressed.
1. On Your Own…
Name a curricular topic that you will address
with students this year.
What enduring understandings about big ideas do you want students to leave with?
2. With a partner…
Share your topic and enduring understandings.
Partners ask questions and help clarify big ideas.
Stage 1 – Identify desired results
Key: Focus on Big ideas
Enduring Understandings : What specific insights about big ideas do we want clients to leave with?
What essential questions will frame the process of learning, pointing toward key issues and ideas, and suggest meaningful and provocative inquiry into content?
Short Assignment With your partner, brainstorm some possible essential questions that will help you clarify a possible final goal in your life or work life. Stop
Key: Focus on Big ideas
Enduring Understandings : What specific insights about big ideas do we want others to leave with?
Stages in the Backward Design Process Identify desired results . Determine acceptable evidence . What should others know? How will we know that they know?
Someone who understands… ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The Six Facets of Understanding
Facet #1 – Explanation:
Sophisticated and apt explanations and theories, which provide knowledgeable and justified accounts of events, action, and ideas.
Facet #2 – Interpretation: Narratives, translations, metaphors, images and artistry that provide meaning.
Facet #3 – Application: Ability to use knowledge effectively in new situations and diverse contexts.
Facet #4 – Perspective: Critical and insightful points of view.
Facet #5 – Empathy: The ability to get “inside” another person’s feelings and world view
Facet #6 – Self-Knowledge: The wisdom to know one’s ignorance and how one’s pattern of thought and action inform as well as prejudice understanding.
Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, 1998
Assessment of Understanding via the 6 facets
i.e. You really understand when you can:
explain, connect, systematize, predict it
show its meaning, importance
apply or adapt it to novel situations
see it as one plausible perspective among others, question its assumptions
see it as its author/speaker saw it
avoid and point out common misconceptions, biases, or simplistic views
What this habit means
Consider the end of your life
image, picture, or paradigm
criterion by which everything else is examined
Start with a clear destination
know where you are going
understand where you are now
take steps in the right direction
Habit 3: Put First Things First
Habit 3: Put first things first. urgent not urgent important not important I: necessity crises deadlines “maintaining” (25 - 25) II: opportunity PC activities planning & prevention commitment (65-15) III interruptions some meetings some reports (5-55) IV trivia busy work time wasters (5-5)
We want Quadrant II > Quadrant I.
Quadrant II comes from Quadrants III and IV.
Estimate how much time you spend in Quadrant II (and what IS Quad IV?) ... How do you plan your day? Datebook? Palm Pilot? How much is your time worth to you, in dollars/hour?
Habit 3 ... a demonstration. What is the lesson? 1 Identify big rocks (q2). 2 Schedule these FIRST! 3 Surround with other.
Time Management Systems
Describe the system you use to keep up with appointments, notes, tasks that need to be done, phone numbers and addresses
What is the best system for me?
Type of work you do (work with people vs. work with things)
Amount of discretionary time you use (how much time is under your control)
Nature of Work 100% 0% 0% 100% Work with People Work with Things Your work falls someplace on the diagonal line. The higher up the line you go, the more sophisticated your time management system needs to be.
Discretionary Time 0% 100% Amount of control you have over your time The higher up the line you go, the more sophisticated your time management system needs to be.
Time Management System
Below the mid-point on both graphs?
Use simple time management tools
Above the mid-point on either graph?
Use a more sophisticated system
Time Management Systems
PIM (Personal Information Managers) - Software
Running around putting out fires
Start on task a
resume on task b
jump to task c
Jump to Others
Wait for others to tell me what to do
First Come - First Served
Handle tasks in the order in which they arrive
Do all the same types of tasks at the same time (phone calls, writing letters, etc.)
Do whatever you feel like doing
Floating Pieces of Paper (including post-its, business cards, napkins)
Write notes on assorted pieces of paper
Sooner or later the paper floats
“ To Do” List
A “to do list is written on a notepad, business card, envelope, etc.
A variety of small calendars are used to record appointments
Calendar stays on desk, typically four days behind
A variety of devices are used to record addresses and phone numbers
Combination - typically a combination of simple devices are used
Paper Based Planners
Franklin Day Planner
Day at a Glance
Seven Habits Planner
Habit Four – Think Win/Win
The win-win approach is a set of principles, practices, and tools, which enable a set of interdependent stakeholders to work out a mutually satisfactory (win-win) set of shared commitments .
Habit 4: Think win-win. Are there times when paradigms others than “win-win” are appropriate? How do you develop “courage”? “Consideration”? Emotional bank account? What causes conflict? Tools for conflict resolution? Your “boundaries”? lose-win (you get hard feelings) win-win or no deal (abundance mentality; get P and PC) lose-lose (never pays) win-lose (other person gets hard feeling) courage consideration
Win-lose Generally Becomes Lose-lose Actually, nobody wins in these situations
Win Condition: objective which makes a stakeholder feel like a winner
Issue: conflict or constraint on a win condition
Option: A way of overcoming an issue
Agreement: mutual commitment to an option or win condition
Win/Win Negotiation Model Win Condition Agreement Option Issue involves addresses adopts covers WinWin Equilibrium State - All Win Conditions covered by Agreements - No outstanding Issues
Why Use Win/Win ?
The alternatives don’t work
Win-lose often leads to lose-lose
Avoids costly rework
100X cost to fix requirements after delivery
Builds trust and manages expectations
Looking out for other’s needs builds trust
Balancing needs leads to realistic expectations
Helps stakeholders adapt to change
Shared vision and the flexibility of quick re-negotiation
Win/Win Critical Success Factors
Appropriate staffing of stakeholder representatives, facilitator function
Facilitators: some understanding of stakeholder domains, collaboration management ability
Good facilitators can be participants also
Beginning of shared vision
Habit 5: First understand ... then be understood. 4 tips for dealing with people Do not criticize, condemn, or complain. Express sincere appreciation. Give them “emotional air” and learn their story. Focus on their interests (know your best alternative coming in).
What are some “stranglers” for emotional air?
What are some ways we can express sincere appreciation?
How often do you ask someone to a professional lunch?
How do you meet a person? How do you greet a person?
Dale Carnegie How to Win Friends and Influence People Fisher & Ury, Getting to Yes win-win area = L x h h = “understand” L = “be understood”
Actions for Success
Exhibit a winning work ethic
Discover additional responsibilities
What are Competencies?
Competencies have definitions and key actions. Your actions demonstrate competencies.
Initiative (An example) Definition Taking prompt action to accomplish objectives; taking action to achieve goals beyond what is required; being proactive. Key Actions Responds quickly --Takes immediate action when confronted with a problem or when made aware of a situation. Takes independent action --Implements new ideas or potential solutions without prompting; does not wait for others to take action or to request action. Goes above and beyond --Takes action that goes beyond job requirements in order to achieve objectives.
Habit 6: Synergize. “ Animal school” Once upon a time, the animals decided they must do something heroic to meet the problems of a “New World”, so they organized a school. They adopted an activity curriculum consisting of running, climbing, swimming, and flying. To make it easier to administer, all animals took all the subjects. In the end, the duck’s web feet were so badly worn that he couldn’t swim, the rabbit had a nervous breakdown and couldn’t run, the eagle was disciplined severely for getting to the top of the tree without climbing, and an abnormal eel ended up doing best overall and winning valedictorian. What are your unique gifts? What talents do you need from others? What qualities often seem like a disadvantage, but are necessary? How do you contact or talk with people, if you are shy? (Carnegie)
Principles of Creative Communication
The exercise of all the other habits prepares us for the habit of synergy.
Synergy. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Few people experience synergy in their lives because most people have been scripted into defensive or protective communications.
Synergy can be unnerving unless one has a high tolerance for ambiguity and gets security from integrity to principles and inner values.
Synergy in the Classroom
Many truly great classes teeter on the very edge of chaos.
Synergy is possible in the classroom when the group collectively agrees to subordinate old scripts and to write a new one.
Synergy in Business
To achieve synergy in business requires that people become open and authentic.
When we open ourselves up to the influence of others, we gain new insights and facilitate the generation of new options.
Synergy and Communication
The lowest level of communication coming out of low trust situations is characterized by defensiveness, protectiveness, and legalistic language which covers all the bases and spells out qualifiers and escape clauses in the event things go sour.
The middle level of communication is respectful communication -- where fairly mature people communicate.
The highest level of communication is synergistic (win/win) communication.
Most highly dependent people are trying to succeed in an interdependent reality.
Many people don't realize that the real strength of any relationship is having alternative points of view.
Valuing the Differences
Valuing the differences is the essence of synergy.
The truly effective person has the humility and reverence to recognize his own perceptual limitations and to realize the rich resources available through interaction with the hearts and minds of other people.
If two people have the same opinion, one person is unnecessary.
Force Field Analysis
Any current level of performance or being is a state of equilibrium between the driving forces that encourage upward movement and the restraining forces that discourage it.
Driving forces generally are positive, reasonable, logical, conscious, and economic.
Restraining forces are often negative, emotional, illogical, unconscious, and social/psychological.
Habit 7: Sharpen the saw. When will YOU sharpen your saw? What measures will you use in each category? Physical endurance, strength, flexibility, sleep, eating Mental reading, journaling, discussing, seminars, meetings Spiritual battle of good versus evil (atheism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism) Social family, friends, service (notes, phone calls, emails, visits)
Self-Management when an individual consciously controls the learning process of acquiring new behavior through the interplay of environmental cues, consequences and cognitive processes
Social Learning Model of Self-Management Person (Psychological Self)
Most non-productive endeavors fail with the first creation
The Two Creating Forces
Management’s main focus: How can I best accomplish certain things?
What are things that I want to accomplish?
Personal leadership: the first creation
Through self-awareness, discover ineffective scripts, deeply embedded habits that are incongruent with values
Personal Mission Statement
The most effective way to begin with the end in mind is to develop a personal mission statement
The key to the ability
to change is a
changeless sense of
who you are,
what you are about,
& what you value
Circle of Influence
To create a mission statement begin with the center
Principles & values: security, guidance, wisdom, & power
The Circle of Influence
What are you first things?
List those things that are most important in your life.
How effective are you at keeping those things first in your life? Why?
If you were to do one thing in your professional life that would have the most positive impact, what would that one thing be?
If you were to do one thing in your personal life that would have the most positive impact, what would that one thing be?
Record your personal mission statement, philosophy, or creed. Your mission statement is your personal “contribution” and represents the deepest and best within you.
Writing a Mission Statement
Your personal constitution
service/role in community
what you will achieve
how you will accomplish
Not something written overnight
Timeless. . . but review & revise
Whole Brain Activity
Self-awareness empowers examination of thoughts
Logical & verbal
Parts & specifics
Intuitive & creative
Wholes & relationships between parts
Simultaneous & holistic thinking
Identify Roles & Goals
Organize mission statement by specific role areas &
goals that you want to accomplish in these areas
Preparing for Turbulence
Focus on core values
Build for the future
Measure and evaluate progress
Build a team
Training and deploy as necessary
Establish and nurture partnerships
Establish support groups
Focus on people, not policies
Value diversity and inclusion
Develop your personal portfolio
Understand your power and influence
Communicate your vision
Have a plan
See the big picture
Focus on the organization
Foster a collaborative and cooperative environment
Enjoy the journey!
Homework … Establish your “big rocks” – the important changes, not just the urgent. 1 Decide that you CAN in fact change your life. 2 Get away one weekend with a pen and pad of paper. Write down what you HOPE for in life, and what you feel called towards (e.g., family, work, opera). If you don’t know … talk with friends or family. If you don’t know … try things! Athletics, service, camping, animal rights, politics, research. If you don’t know … read biographies and newspapers. If you don’t know … look at http:// www.dosomething.org/index.cfm . Plan toward your vision. 3 Record how you spend a typical week … then decide how well it matches your vision. Use a daily planner (e.g., a date book, a Palm) to plan by weeks, focusing on today. If in a rut, find a small victory and win it. Sharpen the saw. mental: Learn a hobby (e.g., chess, golf, piano), or about people (Mars & Venus, Dale Carnegie) physical: Exercise, eat right, sleep. social: Find friends with whom you can share your deepest struggles, biggest triumphs, most guarded weaknesses and fears. spiritual: Good versus evil questions are the biggest you’ll face.
Follower role includes responsibility, service, challenging authority, participating in change, knowing when its time to leave organization
Developing Personal Potential
Covey defines a habit as the intersection of knowledge, skill and desire
He arranges seven habits along a continuum from dependence to interdependence
When a person moves to interdependence, he steps into a leadership role
Seven Habits of Highly Successful People by Steven Covey
Habit 1 - Be Proactive
Habit 2 - Begin with the End in Mind
Habit 3 - Put First Things First
Habit 4 - Think Win/Win
Habit 5 - Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood
Habit 6 - Synergize
Habit 7 - Sharpen the Saw
Two leadership styles
Variables that influence style
Situational Leadership Model
Leadership Styles:2 Extremes
Accepting input from subordinates
Providing support, encouraging their efforts
Facilitating their involvement in decision-making and problem-solving
Telling what to do, how to do it, where to do it, when to do it
Continuum Democratic Autocratic What variables would determine which style to use?
Type of Job
Continuum Democratic Autocratic
The Hersey and Blanchard “Situational Leadership Model” is based on this lone variable… because if you tried to consider all variables before deciding, you’d become immobilized.
8 Leadership Styles Development Level of Followers The Hersey & Blanchard Situational Leadership Model S3 S1 S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (High) (Low ) S U P P O R T I V E B E H A V I O R D1 D4 D3 D2 D1
D4 D3 D2 D1 Development Level of Followers
New to job
“ Enthusiastic Beginner”
can do it
“ Disillusioned Learner”
key role is
“ Reluctant Contributor”
“ Peak Performer”
D1 S3 S1 S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (High) (Low ) S U P P O R T I V E B E H A V I O R D4 D3 D2 D1
New to job
roles of followers
D2 S3 S1 S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (High) (Low ) S U P P O R T I V E B E H A V I O R D4 D3 D2 D1
can do it
D3 S3 S1 S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (High) (Low ) S U P P O R T I V E B E H A V I O R D4 D3 D2 D1
key role is
D4 S3 S1 S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (High) (Low ) S U P P O R T I V E B E H A V I O R D4 D3 D2 D1
discuss & define
problem to be
Look at it this way…
It’s all about “matching” the style (of the leader) to the level (of the followers)
Think of leaders needing to fill in what’s missing… provide their people with what they can’t do for themselves at the moment
Mismatch results in…
Over-supervision (gets you frustrated followers)
Under-supervision (gets you insufficient results)
What about changing styles? When would you change styles? Would you… ever?
Yes! As the name implies, “Situational Leadership” is task-specific
Change it when warranted by change in task or change in personnel doing it
Build your follower’s development level so you can use less time-consuming styles (S3 and S4) and still get high quality results