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Available to download from http://www.gisfi.org/wg_documents/GISFI_SeON_201109145.pdf

Available to download from http://www.gisfi.org/wg_documents/GISFI_SeON_201109145.pdf

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Summary of QoS Requirements Presentation Transcript

  • 1. QoS SIG PresentationSummary of QoS Requirements Dr. Parag Pruthi NIKSUN Dr. Ashutosh Dutta NIKSUN Date: September 27-29, 2011 © Copyright 2010 GISFI. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Objective Develop QoS framework and requirements to support Service Oriented Network in rural environment Network Characteristics Ad hoc type networks – scattered groups of users Lossy links Fluctuating traffic demand Low bandwidth Network heterogeneity (e.g., LTE and WiFi) User mobility pattern (e.g., cell mobility, subnet mobility) Application characteristics Current Application Cellular voice, File transfer (e.g., non-real-time), SMS Future NGN Application Real-time streaming (e.g., IPTV) Interactive (e.g., VoIP) – Delay sensitive Distance learning, conferencing, Mobile banking (Priority) Services need QoS reservation © GISFI Slide 2
  • 3. QoE Metrics QoE => Perceived Quality of Service Network Metrics Bit rate, delay, jitter, packet loss rate Power consumption Application Metrics Call setup delay Failed calls, dropped calls, retransmission MOS (Mean Opinion Score) Several standards groups … ITU-T SG12 ITU X.902 (IP Telephony) IETF – IPPM, DIFFSERV 3GPP – 3GPP TS 32.409 (IMS performance) © GISFI Slide 3
  • 4. QoS in a Service Oriented Network HSS S-CSCF DNS/E S-CSCF Invite NUM OK ACK RTP P-CSCF diameter P-CSCF GETS- SIP Application Server I-CSCF DNS PCRF Monitoring PCRF Agent IMS Layer 3 control Network/ IMS-layer controlApplicationFeedback Layer 2 control Multi-layer Managed IP SON (Multi-Provider Network) Controller (EPC) GW GW Wireless GETS Call Access Wireless RAN Wireline UMTS Access Access RAN Wireline Access RAN EvDO WiMAX RAN UMTS EvDO IP CAN Cable DSL Cable IP CAN LTE WiMAX Fiber DSL Caller Satellite LTE Ethernet Fiber (UE1) Satellite Called Ethernet 4 (UE2) 4
  • 5. KPIs (AirTel Presentation) Performance Standards Terminal, Customer Service, Tarriff, application contents KPIs, KQI (Key Quality Indicators) Data Performance, KPI, KQI, SLA Operator control, non-operator control Availability, Retainability, Accessibility, Integrity, Mobility IRAT success rate Global Metrics © GISFI Slide 5
  • 6. 3G KPI/KQI benchmarking Call setup time Call setup success rate Call completion success rate MOS Retainability Accessibility Latency Jitter Throughput © GISFI Slide 6
  • 7. 3G Services FTP, Context, Performance benchmarking © GISFI Slide 7
  • 8. QoE Requirements QoE is driven by measurements Which layer, which application, how often Require Multi-timescale Measurements Require Multi-Layer Measurements Network layer, application layer Require Session-based Measurements E.g., SIP-based multimedia application Require DPI for Application Classification Classification and Marking Policing and Markdown Queuing and Dropping © GISFI Slide 8
  • 9. QoE Requirements Require mechanisms to provide priority services for signaling and transport of voice services in case of emergency. e.g., SIP signaling for VoIP use Resource Priority Header (RPH) e.g., Diffserv mechanisms to take care of associated media (e.g., RTP) traffic. QoS measurements should consider KPIs at several layers including Data link Layer– MAC layer retransmission Network Layer - thruput, goodput, network delay, network retransmission, utilization, packet loss, jitter Transport Layer - TCP connections and RTT Application layers – Set up delay, dropped calls, failed calls, retransmission of INVITEs © GISFI Slide 9
  • 10. QoE Requirements Future NGN application requires cross-layer feedback in order to provide desired QoS during handover and due to bandwidth fluctuation IEEE 802.21 Interoperability with Mobility protocols SIP, Mobile IP, Mobile IPv6 Tightly coupled or loosely coupled Require correlation between signaling and media (e.g., EPC and IMS) Require Open API to dynamically control the network element in the network © GISFI Slide 10
  • 11. KPIs for RTP
  • 12. KPIs for RTPType of KPIs KPIs RemarksPerformance Mos Average MOS score for all VoIP calls on the networkPerformance Jitter Average Jitter for all VoIP calls on the networkPerformance packetDelay Average Packet Delay for all VoIP calls on the networkPerformance packetLoss Average Packet Loss for all VoIP calls on the networkPerformance dataVolume Total of all VoIP data traffic on the networkPerformance releaseCauseCode Release Cause Code distribution for all VoIP callsPerformance cdrTable List of VoIP CDRs for a given period of timePerformance faxTable List of Fax(T.38) Records for a given period of timePerfromance rasTable List of RAS Records for a given period of timePerformance callVolumeLeaders Top N VoIP Call volume leaders
  • 13. KPIs for RTP (cont.)Type of KPIs KPIs RemarksPerformance callDistribution Total of all VoIP calls per given time periodPerformance networkVolume Total of all data traffic on the networkSecurity Abnormally Total of Abnormally Terminated Calls per time period Terminated CallsSecurity Initiated vs. Rejected Total of Initiated vs. Rejected calls per time period CallsSecurity Codec Distribution List of all codecs utilized by VoIP callsPerformance Total Duration Time Total aggregated Call Duration Time of VoIP Calls per given time periodPerformance Simultaneous Calls The number of simultaneous calls on the networkPerformance Total Setup Time Total aggregated Setup Time per given time periodSecurity errorDist Error Distribution for VoIP callsPerformance TopApps Top N VoIP protocols on the network, i.e. SIP, H.323, MGCP/NCS, MEGACO, SCCP, T.38, etc.
  • 14. KPIs RTP (contd.)Type of KPIs KPIs RemarksPerformance mediaStream List of media streams utilized by a VoIP sessionPerformance faxStream List of media streams utilized by a Fax(T.38) sessionSecurity bounceFlow Message Flow(bounce diagram contents) for a given VoIP sessionSecurity packetTree List of all packets in the context of a VoIP sessionPerformance callMos Average MOS score for a given VoIP sessionPerformance callJitter Average Jitter for a given VoIP sessionPerformance callPacket Average Packet Delay for a given VoIP session DelayPerformance callPacket Average Packet Loss for a given VoIP session Loss
  • 15. KPIs for IMS
  • 16. KPI NAMES DESCRIPTION LOGICAL WHY INTERFAC FORMULA INTERESTING? EList of all SIP SIP message Shows the list all Basic Gmmethods flows with SIP messages. functionality for same Call-ID session view.Aggregate IMS Sums all the Ratio of total Dos Attack Gmsignaling methods and count and all IMSpackets responses. messagesAggregate total Total number of Sum of all SIP System Load Gmattempted initial registrations Registers from all indication, VZWregistration b/w UE to PCSCF Req, Dos AttackUEs and P-CSCFAggregate Count the Count 200 Ok in Informative Gmsuccessful successful response toinitial registrations of Register fromregistration b/w UEs. PCSCF.UE & CSCF
  • 17. Aggregate Count the Count SIP 401 Password Gmfailed initial number of errors from PCSCF guessingauthenticatio failed in response to attackn b/w UE & authenticatio Register fromCSCF n of UEs. PCSCF.Aggregate Count the Count SIP 4XX Informative Gmfailed initial number of (except 401) errorsregistration failed from PCSCF inb/w UE & registrations response toCSCF of UEs. Register.Mean IMS Time taken Total time of getting System Gminitial between an response after Performancregistration register and the registration e indicationset-up time 200 OK request is sent.Aggregate Identify the Count Registers Security Gmunauthenticat unauthenticat without nonces that risk, allowsed initial ed get 200(2XX) impersonatiregistration registrations responses without on attack,b/w UE & P- 401(4XX) VZW req.CSCF challenges.
  • 18. Aggregate Registers with Counts the total System Gmtotal previously number of re- Loadattempted re- seen Call-IDs. registered IDs. Indicationregistrationbetween UE &P-CSCFAggregate Registers with Counts the total Informative Gmsuccessful re- previously seen number of 200 Ok’s toregistration Call-IDs.between UE &P-CSCFAggregate SIP 4xx errors Count SIP 4XX errors Password GmFailed re- in response to guessingregistration registration attackbetween UE & request.P-CSCFMean IMS re- Time to set-up Time between register System Gmregistration set- the registration and 200 OK performanceup time. indication
  • 19. Aggregate Failed Calculate the Count SIP 401 Total Gmre-authentication failed number errors in unauthenticatedbetween UE & P- of re- response to REGsCSCF authentication. RegisterAggregate Total number of Count re-register Security risk, Gmunauthenticated unauthenticated msgs without allowsre-registration registrations. nonces that get impersonationbetween UE & P- 200 without 401 attackCSCF challengesAggregate Successful de- Count Register System load Gmsuccessful de- registrations. with expiry==0 or indicationregistration contact: expiry==0between UE & P-CSCFAggregate Failed All the failed de- Count SIP 4XX Informative Gmde-registration registration. errors in responsebetween UE to above register.&PCSCF
  • 20. Aggregate total Total of SIP Password Gmattempted de- attempted de- guessing attackregistration b/w registrationUE & PCSCFMean IMS de- Mean of de- Mean of the time. System Gmregistration time registration time performance indicationAggregate failed Total number of Count SIP 401 Total Gmauthentication for failed errors in response unauthenticatedde-registration authentication to register REGs de-registrationsAggregate Total number of Count de register Security risk, allows Gmunauthenticated unauthenticated msgs with 200 and impersonationde-registration de-registration without 401 challenges.Attempted session How many #initial Invite System load Gmestablishments attempts have sessions with indication, VZW been made to #INV==1 req. establish the session.
  • 21. Successful Tracking all Count #180 System load Gmsession successful ringing, not #200 indicationestablishments sessions we OK, when have. #INV==1Answered session Tracking all Count #2XX System load Gmestablishment successful ringing, should be indication answered 200 but 2XX is fine sessions we when #INV==1 have.Failed session All the failed Count 4XX System Gmestablishments session messages performance establishments. indicationMean time for Time taken to Time b/w INVITE System Gmsuccessful session have a success and 180 response. performanceestablishment in establishment. indicationAttempted session Number of #INVITE where a System tuning aid Gmre-establishment. attempts to have 180 has already re-established been seen, or session #INV > 1
  • 22. Aggregate Total de- Count BYEs. Security risk, Gmsession de- establishments. allowsestablishments impersonation attack, VZW req.Number of Number of PCSCF receives a System load Gmattempted attempted SIP subscribe indication, VZWsubscription procedures Req.procedures requests.Number of Number of PCSCF sends a System Gmsuccessful successful 200 OK performancesubscription procedures for indicationprocedures subscription.Number of failed Number of failed PCSCF send a System Gmsubscription subscription 4XX performanceprocedures procedures indicationNumber of Total number of Number of Security risk, allows Gmunauthenticated unauthenticated subscribers impersonationsubscribers subscribers without 401 attack, VZW req. challenges.
  • 23. Number of Total count of PCSCF sends a System load Gmemitted notify SIP notify SIP Notify indication, VZWprocedures messages. req.Number of Total count of PCSCF receives a System load Gmsuccessful notify SIP notify SIP 200 OK indication.procedures messages with OK response.Number of failed Total count of PCSCF receives a System Gmnotify procedures SIP notify SIP 4XX performance messages. indication.Number of Total count of Number of Notify Security risk, allows Gmunauthenticated SIP notify without a 401 impersonationNotify’s messages. Challenge attack, VZW req.Number of Total count of Count notifys from System load Gmspoofed notify Spoofed notify src!=PCSCF indication, VZWprocedures messages. req.
  • 24. Attempted Procedures PCSCF System load Gmimmediate attempted to have receives a indicationMessaging immediate SIP messageprocedures messaging.Successful Successful PCSCF System load Gmimmediate procedures attempted sends a SIP indicationMessaging to have immediate 200 OKprocedures messaging. messageFailed immediate Failed procedures PCSCF System load GmMessaging attempted to have sends a SIP indicationprocedures immediate 4XX message messaging. in responseNumber of Number of all Messages Security risk , Gmunauthenticated unauthenticated without 401 allowsmessages messages . challenges impersonation attackNAIs of top 5 Display associated From: and System load Gmoriginators of IMS packets, bytes, #bytes indication, Dossignaling traffic exclude CSCF as attack originator.
  • 25. NAIs of top 5 Display associated To: and System load Gmreceivers of IMS packets, bytes, #bytes indicationsignaling traffic exclude CSCF as receiver.NAIs of top 5 Display associated #bytes System load Gmsenders of Instant packets, bytes, indication, Dosmessages exclude CSCF as attack originator.NAIs of top 5 Display associated #bytes System load Gmreceivers of 4XX packets, bytes, indicationerrors exclude CSCF as receiver.Top 5 visited n/w Display associated #bytes System load GmIDs in IMS packets and bytes indicationsignaling trafficTop 5 access n/w Display associated #bytes System load GmInfos in IMS packets and bytes indicationsignaling traffic
  • 26. Top 5 sender Display associated #bytes System load Gmdomains in IMS packets and bytes indicationsignaling trafficReceiver domains Display associated #bytes System load Gmin IMS signaling packets and bytes indicationtrafficNAI of top 5 Display associated #bytes System load Gmoriginators of packets ,bytes indicationregister request exclude CSCF as originator(PCSCF callee)NAI of top 5 Display associated #bytes System load Gmoriginators of packets ,bytes indicationINVITE request exclude CSCF as originatorNAI of top 5 Display associated #bytes System load Gmoriginators of packets ,bytes indicationINSTANT exclude CSCF asmessage request originator(DUP)
  • 27. NAI of top 5 originators Display associated #bytes System Gmof subscribe requests packets ,bytes exclude load CSCF as originator indicationIP Addresses of top 5 Display associated #bytes System load Gmoriginators of register packets, bytes exclude indicationrequests PCSCF as originator.IP Addresses of top 5 Display associated #bytes System load Gmoriginators of INVITE packets, bytes exclude indicationrequests PCSCF as originator.IP Addresses of top 5 Display associated #bytes System load Gmoriginators of INSTANT packets, bytes exclude indicationmessage requests PCSCF as originator.IP Addresses of top 5 Display associated #bytes System load Gmoriginators of subscribe packets, bytes exclude indicationrequests PCSCF as originator.Top methods & response Calculate the number of Rate Informative Gmtypes sent. Drill down to UEs and totalsend UE. counts for UE
  • 28. KPIs FOR LTE
  • 29. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why interesting? Interfa object ceAttempted Provides the Sum of all attempts Valid for Receipt of “ATTACHEPS attach number of at attach EPS. PS REQUEST” messageprocedures attempted EPS with “ATTACH TYPE” attach procedure information element within the MME. indicating EPS attach from the MS.Successful Number of Sum of all Valid for Transmission of aEPS attach successfully successful attaches. PS "ATTACH ACCEPT"procedures performed EPS message to the MS attach within MME. but retransmission doesn’t increase the counter.Failed EPS Number of failed Sum of all failed Valid for Transmission by theattach EPS attach attach procedures. PS SGSN of the ATTACHprocedures procedures . It is REJECT message to split into sub counters per the the MS, in response reject cause. to a "ATTACH REQUEST"
  • 30. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interf object interesting? aceAttempted Number of Receipt of “DETACH Valid for Gives the totalEPS detach attempted EPS REQUEST” PS number ofprocedure detach procedures message with attempted initiated by UE “detach type” detaches. within the MME. information element from UESuccessful Number of Transmission of Valid for Gives the totalEPS detach successful EPS “DETACH ACCEPT” PS numberprocedure detach procedures from MME successfully of initiated by UE attempted within the MME. detaches.Attempted Number of Transmission of Valid for All the attemptsEPS detach attempted detach “DETACH PS of detach toprocedure procedures by REQUEST” calculateby MME MME. message by UE success from the MME.
  • 31. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interf object interesting? aceSuccessful Number of Receipt of “DETACH Valid for CalculateEPS detach successful detach ACCEPT” message PS success rateprocedure procedures by by UE from theby MME MME. MME.Attempted Number of Receipt of Valid for All the attemptsEPS detach attempted detach “CANCEL PS of detach byprocedure procedures by LOCATION ” HSS and usesby HSS HSS. message by MME RADIUS. from the HSS with “cancel type” information element indicating ”delete user”.Successful Number of Receipt of Valid for All theEPS detach successful detach “CANCEL PS successfulprocedure procedures by LOCATION ACK” attempts toby HSS HSS. message from MME detach by MME. by HSS.
  • 32. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interf object interesting? aceAttempted Number of Receipt of “TRACKING Valid for Calculate AREAtracking attempted AREA UPDATE PS UPDATEarea update tracking area REQUEST” message attempts.procedure update from the MS, with lastwith SGW procedure with registered TAIchange SGW change information element initiated with indicating to the MME MME. that it wishes to be served by new SGW.Successful Successful Transmission of Valid for Success rate oftracking number of “TRACKING AREA PS Area updates.area update attempted UPDATE ACCEPT”procedure tracking area message from the MS,with SGW update with last registered TAIchange procedure with information element SGW change indicating to the MME initiated with that it wishes to be MME. served by new SGW
  • 33. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interf object interesting ace ?Failed Number of Transmission of “TRACKING Valid for Causes oftracking failed AREA UPDATE REJECT” PS failure.area update tracking area message from the MS, withprocedure update last registered TAIwith SGW procedure information elementchange with SGW indicating to the MME that it change wishes to be served by new initiated with SGW. Causes are also MME. defined in the message.Attempted Number of Receipt of “TRACKING Valid for Calculatetracking attempted AREA UPDATE REQUEST” PS AREAarea update tracking area message from the MS, with UPDATEprocedure update last registered TAI attempts.without procedure information element WithoutSGW without SGW indicating to the MME that it SGWchange change wishes to be served by same change. initiated with SGW. MME.
  • 34. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interf object interesti ace ng?Successful Successful Transmission of “TRACKING Valid for Successtracking number of AREA UPDATE ACCEPT” PS rate ofarea update attempted message from the MS, with Areaprocedure tracking area last registered TAI updates.without update information elementSGW procedure indicating to the MME that itchange without SGW wishes to be served by same change SGW initiated with MME.Failed Number of Transmission of “TRACKING Valid for Causestracking failed tracking AREA UPDATE REJECT” PS of failurearea update area update message from the MS, with in case ofprocedure procedure last registered TAI samewithout without SGW information element SGW.SGW change indicating to the MME that itchange initiated with wishes to be served by same MME. SGW. Causes are also defined in the message.
  • 35. KPI Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interf Names object interesti ace ng?Attempted Number of Incremented when an EPS Valid for Initial asEPS attempted PS paging procedure is started i.e. PS. well aspaging paging at the transmission of first repeatedprocedures procedures “Paging ” message from MME paging initiated at the to the eNodeB, which are are MME. counted when paging area is counted smaller than or equal to one TA.Successful Number of Receipt of “SERVICE Valid for Initial andEPS successful PS REQUEST” message with PS repeatedpaging paging Service Type = Paging are bothprocedures procedures Response from the UE. counted. initiated at the MME.Failed EPS Number of Increments when an EPS PS Valid for Initial andpaging failed PS paging procedure times out, PS repeatedprocedures paging which are counted when paging are both procedures area is smaller than or equal to counted. initiated at the one TA. MME.
  • 36. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interfa object interesting? ceNumber of Mean Sampling at a pre-defined Valid The totaldedicated number of interval, sum of dedicated for activeEPS bearers dedicated EPS bearer established by PS modein active EPS MME in active mode and bearersmode(Mean) bearers. then taking the arithmetic would give mean. the load.Number of Maximum Sampling at a pre-defined Valid The totaldedicated number of interval, sum of dedicated for activeEPS bearers dedicated EPS bearer established by PS modein active EPS MME in active mode and bearersmode(Maxim bearers. then taking the maximum. would giveum) the maximum load.
  • 37. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interfa object interestin ce g?Dedicated Valid time per Obtained by accumulating the time Valid for This wouldbearer set-up dedicated intervals for every successful PS let ustime by bearer set-up dedicated bearer setup by MME B/W calculateMME(Mean) procedure by “ACTIVATE DEDICATED EPS the mean MME. BEARER CONTEXT REQUEST” and of set-up corresponding “ ACTIVATE time. DEDICATED EPS BEARER CONTEXT ACCEPT” message receipt by the MME. This time when divide by the total number of successful dedicated bearer gives the mean.Attempted Number of Transmission of “ACTIVATE Valid Totaldedicated attempted DEDICATED EPS BEARER FOR PS number ofbearer dedicated CONTEXT REQUEST” message by attempts.activation bearer MME.procedure by activationMME procedure by MME.
  • 38. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI object Why Interfa interesting ce ?Successful Number of Receipt of “ACTIVATE Valid FOR Totaldedicated successful DEDICATED EPS BEARER PS number ofbearer dedicated bearer CONTEXT ACCEPT” successfulactivation activation procedure message by MME. attempts.procedure by by MME.MMEFailed Number of failed Transmission of “ACTIVATE Valid FOR Failurededicated dedicated bearer DEDICATED EPS BEARER PS detection.bearer activation procedure CONTEXT REJECT”activation by MME. message by MME from UEprocedure by with “ESM cause” indicatingMME the cause of failure..Attempted Number of Transmission of “ Valid FOR Totaldedicated attempted dedicated DEACTIVATE EPS BEARER PS number ofbearer de bearer deactivation CONTEXT REQUEST” attempts toactivation procedure by MME. message by MME. de activateprocedure byMME
  • 39. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interf obje interesting ace ct ?Successful Number of Receipt of Valid Totaldedicated successful “DEACTIVATE EPS FOR number ofbearer de dedicated bearer de BEARER CONTEXT PS successfulactivation activation procedure ACCEPT” message by attempts toprocedure by by MME. MME. deactivate.MMEAttempted Number of Transmission of “ Valid TotalEPS bearer attempted bearer MODIFY EPS BEARER FOR number ofmodification modification CONTEXT REQUEST” PS attempts toprocedure by procedure by MME. message by MME. modifyMMESuccessful Number of Receipt of “MODIFY Valid TotalEPS bearer successful EPS EPS BEARER FOR number ofmodification bearer modification CONTEXT ACCEPT” PS successfulprocedure by procedure by MME. message by MME. attempts toMME MODIFY.
  • 40. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Interf obje interesti ace ct ng?Failed EPS Number of failed Receipt of “MODIFY Valid Used tobearer EPS bearer EPS BEARER for calculatemodification modification CONTEXT REJECT” PS. theprocedures by procedure by MME. message by MME successMME from UE. With “ESM rate. Cause”.Attempted Number of Total Number of Valid Successnumber of attempted PDN-GW PDNGW created. for ratePDNGW initiated containing multiple PS calculatiodedicated bearer bearer IDs, each n.creation cumulated to the counter.Successful Number of Total Number of Valid Successnumber of successful PDN-GW PDNGW created. for ratePDNGW initiated containing multiple PS calculatiodedicated bearer bearer IDs, each n.creation cumulated to the counter.
  • 41. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Inte objec interestin rfac t g? eFailed number of Failed PDN-GW Total Number of PDNGW Valid FailurePDNGW initiated containing multiple created. for PS rate anddedicated bearer bearer IDs, each cause ofcreation cumulated to the failure. counter.Attempted number Number of Transmission of “Delete Valid Attemptsof PDNGW attempted PDN- Bearer REQUEST” for PS of numberinitiated dedicated GW initiated message may contain of deletion.bearer deletion. Dedicated Bearer multiple bearer ID, each Deletion. bearer shall be cumulated to the counter.Successful Number of Receipt of “Delete Bearer Valid Successnumber of successfully PDN- Response” message by for PS ratePDNGW GW initiated PDNGW where cause and calculationDedicated bearer Dedicated bearer receives a n .deletion deletion. “ACCEPTNCE RESPONSE”
  • 42. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Inte objec interestin rfac t g? eFailed number Failed PDN-GW Receipt of “Deletion Valid Failureof PDNGW initiated dedicated Bearer response” for rate andinitiated bearer deletion. MESSAGE where PS cause ofdedicated Split into sub “cause” is indicated. failure.bearer deletion counters per reject cause.Attempted Number of Transmission of Valid Attemptnumber of attempted PDN- “Update Bearer for s ofPDNGW GW initiated Request” message PS numberinitiated Dedicated Bearer from PDNGW with of QoSmodification modification with “Bearer Level QoS” updationwith QoS QoS update containing all bearer .update. IDs.Successful Successfully Response to the Valid Successnumber of PDN-GW initiated request sent. for ratePDNGW Dedicated bearer PS calculatiDedicated modification with on.bearer QoS update.modificationwith QoSupdate
  • 43. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Inte objec interestin rfac t g? eFailed PDNGW Failed PDN-GW Receipt of “Update Valid Failureinitiated initiated dedicated Bearer response” for rate anddedicated bearer modification MESSAGE where PS cause ofbearer with with QoS. Split into “cause” is failure.QoS update sub counters per indicated. reject cause.Attempted Number of attempted Transmission of Valid Attemptnumber of PDN-GW initiated "Update Bearer for s ofPDN-GW Dedicated Bearer REQUEST" PS numberinitiated Modification without message From ofDedicated QoS update. PDN-GW without updationBearer “Bearer Level withoutModification QoS” IE, this QoS ..without QoS message mayupdate. contains multiple Bearer IDs
  • 44. KPI Names Description Logical Formulae KPI Why Inte object interes rfac ting? eSuccessful number Number of successfully Response to the request Valid for Succesof PDN-GW initiated performed PDN-GW sent. PS s rateDedicated Bearer initiated Dedicated Bearer calculaModification Modification without QoS tion.without QoS update. update.Failed number of Number of failed PDN-GW Receipt of “Update Bearer Valid for FailurePDN-GW initiated initiated Dedicated Bearer Response” message by PS rateDedicated Bearer Modification without QoS PDN-GW without “Bearer andModification without update. The measurement Level QoS” IE in the cause.QoS update is split into sub counters “Update per the reject cause Bearer Request” message which contains the same EPS Bearer ID and where “Cause” IE identifies a failed bearer handling with “Rejection Response
  • 45. Feedback-assisted DynamicNetwork Provisioning
  • 46. Motivation and application scenario Use of monitoring agent to provide feedback about the network condition and dynamically control the router and assign priority to application traffic under network congestion EF BE NetDetector controller
  • 47. System architecture of testbed
  • 48. Automatic configuration of routerEDI: enhanced device interfaceProvides a comprehensive management interface for variousCisco devices with a standard programmatic interface Two diffserv queues: Expedited forwarding (EF) match DSCP 46 assured minimum bandwidth - Best effort match DSCP 0 set maximum bandwidth usage Commands can be read in the form of CLI and are encapsulated in XML format when issuing edit-config operation of NETCONF
  • 49. Query NetDetector and mark traffic Controller polls NetDetector periodically (~ 20 sec) Alternatively, Netdetector can send alarms Two kinds of query in form of NIKSUN URI API Check application type - /ngen/srvc/dashboardData?recorder=<recorder>&iface=<iface>&startTime=- 2%20min&endTime=now&layer=Application&dataType=application&customDT=dataFields - trigger Marking traffic to EF class once application appears Get application bit rate - /ngen/srvc/dashboardData?recorder=<recorder>&iface=<iface>&startTime=- 2%20min&endTime=now&layer=Application&dataType=time,bitRate&customDT=dataField s&window=10 - Trigger router configuration when cross traffic exceeds upper threshold Traffic marking is done by issuing “iptables” command at application source host Before marking After marking
  • 50. Packet Classification Before marking After marking 50
  • 51. Deliver streaming media and generate cross traffic VLC media player works as both streaming media server and client Server: RTP unicast is delivered to destination host address using port 1234 (MPEG2) Client: receive the RTP stream and save it as MPEG2 file in local host Iperf is used to generate cross traffic Client: sends UDP packets at 10Mb/s Server: receives the UDP packets and provides statistics on bandwidth, loss rate, and time jitter
  • 52. Experiment results (1) Snapshots of video During CongestionBefore congestion After Dynamic Control
  • 53. Experiment results (2) Change of quality of video & audio over time Priority Queue (E/F) No cross traffic cross traffic MOS No cross traffic Priority Queue (E/F) Packet loss
  • 54. Experiment results (3) Change of traffic received at destination host Black: streaming media traffic Red: cross traffic bytes time Change of bandwidth and time jitter for cross traffic Response time: ~ 40s
  • 55. Experiment results (4) Effect of polling time interval 20s interval: ~ 40s response time 10s interval: ~ 30s response time
  • 56. Future work Integrating the controlling program into NetDetector Reducing the response time Depends on polling interval and time spent in configuring the router Using interruption/alarms rather than polling can further reduce response time Being more adaptive to various scenarios Many prerequisite information such as IP address of streaming media server and client is assumed Change of the configuration of the router should not block other normal traffic in practical situation, AF class is necessary to deal with these traffic (control traffic)
  • 57. QoE Metrics Require Session- based Measurements © GISFI Slide 57
  • 58. QoE metrics – Driven by measurements What To Measure? Which Layer? Which Application? Which User? Hop-by-hop or End-to-end? Etc? © GISFI Slide 58
  • 59. QoE Metrics Require Multi- timescale Measurements © GISFI Slide 59
  • 60. QoE Metrics What is Frequency of Measurement? Duration of Flow? Minutes? Seconds? Sub-seconds? Per-packet? © GISFI Slide 60
  • 61. QoE Metrics – Time Effect © GISFI Slide 61
  • 62. QoE Metrics Require Multi- Layer Measurements © GISFI Slide 62
  • 63. QoE Metrics – Network/Transport Layer IP Layer UDP Layer © GISFI Slide 63
  • 64. QoE Metrics – Application Specific Application HTTP Application SSH © GISFI Slide 64
  • 65. QoE Metrics – User centric User 1 User 2 © GISFI Slide 65
  • 66. QoE Metrics - Application All Traffic Except Facebook Facebook Only © GISFI Slide 66
  • 67. QoE Metrics Require DPI for Application Classification © GISFI Slide 67
  • 68. QoE Metrics • Require DPI for Application Classification • Classification and Marking • Policing and Markdown • Queuing and Dropping © GISFI Slide 68
  • 69. Priority QoS Treatment (Diffserv approach) in the Core IPTransport DSCP classification and marking at the edge, and class-based priority queuing and assured bandwidth scheduling at the edge and core routers EF Treatment: For Emergency SIP signaling and SIP Register transport (Strict-priority forwarding for bounded bandwidth) AF Treatment: For Emergency VoIP and Video/IP RTP media (Weighted shared bandwidth scheduling of remaining bandwidth among AF classes) BE Treatment: Best-effort traffic forwarding only when bandwidth not in use by higher priority traffic; Drop otherwise 69
  • 70. Experiencing Quality of Services under congestion Audio Quality Video Quality Increase Traffic Congestion 7 Mbps Cross Traffic 8 Mbps Cross Traffic 9 Mbps Cross Traffic 9.5 Mbps Cross Traffic 70 70
  • 71. Applying Diffserv-based QoS to VoIP VoIP Call (10 Mb/s One-way Cross Traffic) Priority VoIP– 10 Mb/s cross traffic (packet size 1440 bytes)Non Priority VoIP – 10 Mb/s cross traffic (packet size 1440 bytes) Non Priority VoIP – 10 Mb/s cross traffic (packet size 71 400 bytes)
  • 72. Measurements - IMS Top N Reports – Clients based on SIP Registrations/Re-Registrations/De-Registrations Number of INVITE/NOTIFY/ SUBSCRIBE messages Failed/Successful authentications at P-CSCF/S-CSCF/I-CSCF depending on Authentication type (SIP Digest, IMS AKA) Message type (INVITE, NOTIFY, BYE) Malformed messages (SIP, RTP, H.248) identified using protocol grammar, rules Unauthenticated/Un-authorized messages Spoofed messages Session ‘minutes’ (service usage) Slide 72
  • 73. Measurements – IMS (Contd.) Top N Reports – Servers based on Excessive Registrations/subscriptions from a given client/proxy Setup requests (e.g., SIP INVITE) Unauthenticated/spoofed messages (e.g, SIP BYE/NOTIFY) Number of data sessions Incoming message/packet rates Number of authentication challenges/failure messages Malformed signaling/media messages Key exchanges during IMS AKA authentication Ability to drill down into data sessions - e.g., for given P-CSCF, find all the messages from client X between time T1 to T2. Slide 73
  • 74. Measurements - LTE Insight into signaling and user data volumes Data volume distribution by Top SGW Top MME Top eNodeB Top IMSI Volume distribution available by Data Sessions Packets Bytes Setup time Session duration .. etc
  • 75. QoE Metrics – QoS due to Mobility • Minimize the interruption in QoS during handover • Interoperability with Mobility protocols © GISFI Slide 75
  • 76. QoE Metrics Interoperability with Mobility protocols © GISFI Slide 76
  • 77. What affects QoE for Rural Users Network Characteristics Ad hoc type networks – scattered group of users Lossy links, Fluctuating Traffic demand Delay tolerant networks (DTN) - not suitable for interactive traffic Low bandwidth –> Network congestion Network heterogeneity (e.g., WiMAX and WiFi) Frequent user mobility (e.g., cell mobility, subnet mobility) Application characteristics Current Types of Application Cellular voice, File transfer (e.g., non-real-time), SMS Future NGN Application requires QoS support from lower layers Real-time streaming (e.g., IPTV) Interactive (e.g., VoIP) – Delay sensitive Distance learning, Mobile banking Group-based conferencing (e.g., Multicast) (Priority) Services need QoS reservation © GISFI Slide 77
  • 78. Next Steps Baseline Document (June ) Define a set of requirements that is application specific and applicable to Indian rural environment Define a set of methodologies to define end-to- end QoS parameters Multi-layer QOS Network, Application Layer Multi-time-scale measurements Granularity of measurement Define a set of APIs to control the network based on measurement © GISFI Slide 78
  • 79. KPIs FOR LTE
  • 80. 80