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Small cell deployment: It’s not just the cells


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  • 1. Small cell deployment: It’s not just the cells For Cambridge Wireless Smallcell SIG meeting#2 2012.03.29 Simon Fletcher Future Systems Architecture MVCE Green Radio Industrial Chairman NEC Telecom MODUS Ltd. V1.1
  • 2. Overview▐ Market drivers for smallcells▐ Early HetNet▐ Backhaul and integration into networks▐ Green Radio for smallcell © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 3. Convergence of Computing and Communications OTT Underpinned by a high density, heterogeneousAkinobu Kanasugi, In the 1950s Kobayashi instilled NECs "computing and communication"—or C&C—vision, NEC connectivityannounced its C&C vision to the public in 1977. © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 4. The perfect capacity storm………..hardware platforms proliferation Business insider chart of the day 6th March 2012 LTE Coverage Layer 2G/3G /LTE LTE Capacity Layer Rapid increase in platforms Densification of networks that can LTE pico/micro LTE pico/micro generate and consume Enterprise Residential Public Femtocell/WiFi Femtocell/WiFi Femtocell Page 4 © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 5. Drivers of Deployment Evolution - TCO reduction Network - Complexity management Management Automation CO2/GHG Backhauling - Connecting the Intensity unconnected Principles Sustainability and Agnostic of Resilience of Radio systems Access Technology Energy Security Efficiency TCO reduction Heterogeneous DeploymentNot covered in this -cell size presentation -spectrum selection © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 6. Early HetNet realisation In mature markets very few Operators remain that operate a single access HetNet technology HetNet Network sharing is common place The merging of wifi into the traditional All roads will lead to HetNet…… eventually Carrier networks offering is ongoing. Cutting edge standards development is addressing optimal spectrum sharing techniques in a heterogeneous platforms environment. Signal processing architectures offering flexibility in configuration of L1/L2 basestation processing are growing in popularity, “SDR”. © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 7. Variant smaller cell coverage platformsHeterogeneity of backhauling options Small Cell Backhaul 2012 The year the number of smallcells exceeds macro Conventional microwave backhaul AOR Type I 3G 4G NEC winner of Social vision – promoting femtocells for social, economic, environmental development. Proof of viable service provision over satellite AOR Type II connectivity in India, Indonesia, Japan. Small-cell Backhaul wireless node •Short-reach high capacity packet radio •All-outdoor radio (AOR) design with all-in- one integrated antenna •Compact, low weight and adaptable as street furniture •Fully capable all-outdoor L3/L2 router/switch • Enables nodal aggregation and ring & mesh topologies © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 8. Create linkage between 3G & LTE Femto Architectures 4. 2. 1. Single C-Plane & 3. Combined Single Combine U-Plane security management IPSec gateway system © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 9. LTE and 3G HetNet – Commonality of System approaches 4G Specific • Better Automatic power control 3G Specific coverage PCI Assignment Automatic code allocation • Improved Dynamic ICIC spectral efficiency • Reduced Common HetNet Functions unnecessary handovers Auto Authentication Automatic Neighbour Relations Cell Outage CompensationAuto download of Configuration • Reduced RACH Optimization Automatic coverage optimization signalling Coverage & Capacity Measurements using network load Plug-and-play Optimization listening techniques and UEAutomatic download of Software Network Energy Saving • Lower TCO Automatic carrier selectionOptimized access point selection Idle mode and mobility load distribution Automatic power control • Lower churn Common Performance Management Tool Common Network Management Systems © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 10. Features that benefit from inter-WAN to smallcell connectivity Interference Management Multi-Vendor HetNet SON Cell Optimization HetNet X2 Other vendor’s macrocell eNB NEC’s small cell Interfered Mobile eNB Multi-vendor SON (NEC’s unique algorithms + standardised information) Energy Saving – Green Radio Traffic Offload Core Network Non off-load Internet traffic Peak Hours Off-load traffic Off-peak Hours eNodeB Backhaul Sleeping eNBs © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 11. Maximise HetNet performance gain Macro only HetNet: Small cell over Macro (Up to Micro/Macro ratio =10 ) Macro eNB 3 Sector Macro Cell Micro eNB Micro Cell 1 Sector (Omni) System Throughput User Data Rate CAPEX and OPEX for Similar Capacity 1 1 1.0 10.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 Downlink 9x 4x Uplink CAPEX0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 6x 7x Downlink OPEX 4x0.4 0.4 0.4 Uplink 0.4 © NEC Corporation © NEC Corporation © NEC Corporation0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0 0 0.0 0 Macro Only Micro/Macro Micro/Macro Micro/Macro Macro Only Micro/Macro Micro/Macro Micro/Macro Macro Only Micro/Macro Micro/Macro Micro/Macro ratio =2 ratio =5 ratio =10 ratio =2 ratio =5 ratio =10 ratio =2 ratio =5 ratio =10 up to 6-7 times system throughput up to 4 times downlink and 9 times up to 75% less CAPEX compared to increased by Het-Net uplink user data rate improvement traditional Macro only approach Page 11 © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 12. Enhancements to performance ongoing in 3GPP R11 HetNet▐ Cell Range Expansion, optimal interference management techniques▐ Dynamic range of systems emerging as a critical issue in future HetNet▐ RRM and SON techniques for “Ping-Pong” avoidance for mobile users is essential © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 13. The Motivation for Green Radio Research MXT Traffic 20% Diverging expectations for traffic andD C ata entre revenue growth Costs 6% RBS Voice Data Core 57% Revenue 15% Retail 2% Consortium © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 14. UK Collaborative Research core……. with Global reach and perspective © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 15. Connectivity - Design for SustainabilityPortability of GreenTech Innovations Energy Consumed J BringingECR = = Off Grid Data Bits Communicated bit connectivity to all Quantified as RF, Operational, and Total (includes embodied energy) On Grid Hybrid Grid and Priority1 communications Business interdependence Drivers CO2 per revenue or CO2 per bit © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 16. Green Radio Market Characteristicsdifferent CAPEX and OPEX Ratios….. Developed Regions Developed Infrastructure Network OPEX: Example of an European operator Saturated Markets Other costs 18% Quality of Service Key Office 8% 44% Drive to Reduce Costs Leased lines Leases & Rentals 20% Maintenance 10% 0% Energy & other Emerging Regions Less Established Infrastructure Network OPEX: Example of an Indian operator Rapidly Expanding Markets Large Geographical Areas Often no mains power supply – power consumption a major issue © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 17. Economic Study of Green RadioIntegration of Architecture and Technique Principles Max. Saving at High Load and High Electricity Prices. LTE Reference LTE Green RAN 22 20 Total Cost (excl. rent), k$/km2/year 18 16 14 12 Min. Saving at Low 10 Load and Low 120 Managed appropriately smallcells Electricity Prices. 8 0 80 100 0.1 0.2 will improve J/bit metric 0.3 40 60 0.4 0.5 20 Traffic Load, Mbit/s/km2 Electricity Price, $/kWh © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 18. Dynamic intra-operator cross-band spectrum management 2G Super 3G WiFi LTE-A LTE Spectrum Sharing/ WiFi Whitespac e Protocols to enable co-existence• power down selected radio equipment.• take advantage of band with superior propagation characteristics,• increase channel bandwidths• Improve the hierarchical spectrum management. © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 19. Store-Carry Forward (SCF) or Mechanical Relay Delay tolerant networkingFor some services reductions in energyconsumption can be achieved by delayingcommunication for preferable transmit locations. Interesting ideas..… what are the signalling overheads? Which applications can tolerate traffic delays? The Times: 13.03.2012 © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 20. Candidates for Innovations Pipeline Proof of System Friendly Proof of Principle Io(D)T Launch Concept Customer Trials ▐ Protocols to enable spectrally coexisting systems ▐ A roadmap of interference management techniques for capacity density ▐ High numbers of bands per sector, aggregated carriers. ▐ SON and RRM interaction optimisation for various UE mobility scenarios ▐ Intelligent transport and storage of “big data” through distributed networks (DTN) ▐ Joules per useful bit transported ▐ Signalling reduction ▐ Control and User Plane separation ▐ Deployment for sustainability of systems ▐ Resilient and hardened ▐ TCO engineering – full cradle to grave cycle ▐ Energy consumption optimised © NEC Corporation 2012
  • 21. © NEC Corporation 2012