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RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
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RF Pattern Matching Location Methods

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Discussion Document on "RF Pattern Matching Location Methods" by Polaris Wireless …

Discussion Document on "RF Pattern Matching Location Methods" by Polaris Wireless

Available to download from:
http://ftp.3gpp.org/ftp/tsg_ran/TSG_RAN/TSGR_46/Docs/RP-091216.zip

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  • 1. TSG-RAN Meeting #46 Sanya, PRC 1-4 December 2009 RP- 091217 Discussion Document: RF Pattern Matching Location Methods
  • 2. Outline <ul><li>Motivation for Additional Work on Location Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of RF Pattern Matching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations and Gaps with Current Location Technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RF Pattern Matching Location Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance, Hybrid with Handset-Based Technologies and Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions from “Path Loss Location Technologies” Study Item </li></ul><ul><li>RF Pattern Matching Technology Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectures, Call Flows, Anticipated Change Requests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  • 3. RF Pattern Matching Location Technology Advantages <ul><li>Complementary to existing handset-based (satellite) location methods </li></ul><ul><li>Uses existing measurements for location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent of UE configuration and capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low latency, even in challenging indoor environments </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements from neighboring networks can be used to improve location capability in border areas </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses 2G, 3G and 4G, as well as complementary technologies like WiFi and Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location support can be shared across radio access technology networks (e.g. GSM and UMTS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roadmap of improvements makes technology future proof </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional measurements improve accuracy and consistency </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. RF Pattern Matching Is Different Than ECID Therefore, RF Pattern Matching needs an independent PCAP group to allow for the full development of its inherent advantages over ECID
  • 5. Location Technology Gap: Urban and Indoor Location technology delivers high accuracy that meets emergency call (E911/112) requirements in the given environment Location technology delivers medium to low accuracy that does NOT meet emergency call (E911/112) in given environment and does NOT address future indoor requirements * Other technologies include Cell ID, Cell ID/Timing, etc. RF Pattern Matching Fills the Gap of Urban and Indoor Performance RF Patter Matching Hybrid Solution Current Hybrid Solutions Environment Type % Call Volume % Coverage Primary Location Technology Fallback Location Technology Primary Location Technology Fallback Location Technology Dense Urban & Indoors 55 5 RF Pattern Matching ECID/ Other* ECID/ Other* Cell ID Urban 20 20 RF Pattern Matching ECID/ Other* ECID/ Other* Cell ID Suburban 15 35 A-GPS WLS A-GPS ECID/ Other* Rural 10 40 A-GPS WLS A-GPS ECID/ Other*
  • 6. Location Technologies: Current Challenges <ul><li>Handset-Based (Satellite) Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS/A-GPS (and future GLONASS, Galileo, GNSS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy, Time to Fix and Yield Challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-Building, Dense Urban, Dense Forest, Terrain, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy handsets without satellite capability not supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not meet use-case for Lawful Interception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite technologies alone do not meet requirements of applications such as emergency call svc (E911/112) </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. A-GPS Accuracy: Helios Tokyo, Japan Tests Rural Example Urban Example Source: A. Sage, Helios Technologies presentation, EENA Conference, Brussels, Dec. 2, 2004
  • 8. A-GPS Latency: Helios Tokyo, Japan Tests Urban Example Source: A. Sage, Helios Technologies presentation, EENA Conference, Brussels, Dec. 2, 2004
  • 9. Location Technologies: Current Challenges <ul><li>Network Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UTDOA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Requirements (Network RF Hardware Overlay) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LMUs are needed at most (or all) Node-Bs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network Transport Requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LMUs require an independent backhaul network to a central server </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronization Requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronization (through local GPS reference clock) is needed at every LMU (i.e. most Node-Bs) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Location Technologies: Current Challenges <ul><li>Network Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EOTD, OTDOA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Viability Concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EOTD lacks history of successful deployments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The technology remains unproven after many years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy issues with US E911 Phase II mandate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Discussion Document R4-092455 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handset/Network Hardware Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LMUs must be established in Node-Bs or as handset augmentations (for “Matrix”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be used for LI applications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. RF Pattern Matching Location Technology <ul><li>Network Solution Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RF Pattern Matching does not require RF network hardware overlay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No backhaul network requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No base station synchronization requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RF Pattern Matching does not require handset changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The technology has been widely deployed for 5 years and has proven accuracy and reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handset Solution Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RF Pattern Matching technologies have extremely high location yield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-building, Dense Urban, Dense Vegetation, Terrain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RF Pattern Matching’s complimentary performance to A-GPS makes it an ideal candidate for Hybridization </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. RF Pattern Matching Gives Wireless Service Providers a Key Advantage <ul><li>Carrier Bypass Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrier Networks can be “commoditized” by many location-based service approaches which totally bypass Wireless Service Provider control, typically with lower accuracy methods (e.g. Cell-ID, ECID) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example is “open” Internet applications not using 3GPP control plane LCS or OMA secure user plane location (SUPL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another example is SUPL applications using SUPL servers external to, and possibly independent from Wireless Service Providers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In particular, handset-based technologies can potentially provide location fixes independently from Carrier Networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services can be launched and managed independently from the Carrier, with Wireless Service Provider only providing data transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing list of examples: Google, Navizon, Skyhook, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RF Pattern Matching works within the carrier network and helps maintain Carrier Control of high performance location methods enabling better and more demanding applications and services </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. RF Pattern Matching Performance WLS Urban Accuracy iDEN <50m, 74% of cases <150m, 99% of cases New York City WLS Urban Accuracy UMTS <50m, 69% of cases <150m, 96% of cases Toronto WLS Indoor Accuracy UMTS <60m, 67% of cases 5 second fix time Tokyo WLS Urban Accuracy GSM <44m, 67% of cases <135m, 95% of cases San Francisco
  • 14. Indoor Performance Comparison – RF Pattern Matching (WLS) Versus A-GPS Indoor Performance Comparison for Urban Area Pattern Matching Has Much Better Accuracy and Time To Fix in These Tokyo Indoor Tests
  • 15. Pattern Matching (WLS) Versus ECID
  • 16. “ Path Loss Location Technologies” Study Item Overview and Results <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study Item was conducted within the RAN4 Working Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed between March 2008 and June 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus was on RF Pattern Matching as the most promising near-term Path Loss technology for inclusion in UTRAN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations were completed by 3 participating companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RF Pattern Matching was compared with ECID+RTT as a baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared in: Dense Urban, Suburban, Rural, Mountain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average performance improvement across all environments was 47.33% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. “ Path Loss Location Technologies” Study Item Conclusions <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ RF Pattern Matching provides a significant improvement in performance to Cell-ID with RTT” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The potential benefits of RF Pattern Matching and the relative ease with which this location method can be adopted in the UTRAN would indicate that it is appropriate that the technology be included in the UTRAN” </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. RF Pattern Matching & A-GPS Hybrid Combination <ul><li>RF Pattern Matching (PM) </li></ul><ul><li>PM performance best in high cell density areas (heavy urban, light urban) </li></ul><ul><li>PM performs well indoors </li></ul><ul><li>A-GPS </li></ul><ul><li>A-GPS performs best in open sky areas (rural, suburban) </li></ul><ul><li>A-GPS does not perform as well indoors </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid combination provides more consistent accuracy across all environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be implemented as fallback (pick A-GPS or Pattern Matching) or joint location estimate (combine information from both) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports both UE-based and UE-assisted A-GPS modes </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. RF Pattern Matching Hybrid Improvement Note: improvements are based on “net” improvement of RF Pattern Matching as A-GPS hybrid compared to currently envisioned technologies.
  • 20. Implementation of RF Pattern Matching <ul><li>Modifications to TS 25.305 (Stage 2 positioning in UTRAN) include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of a RF Pattern Matching Technology description section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion of “RF Pattern Matching” in the defined procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modifications to TS 25.453 (PCAP) include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion of RF Pattern Matching and hybrid related Information Elements (IE) into the existing PCAP messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position Calculation Request and Response messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information Exchange series of messages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 21. RF Pattern Matching RAN/GERAN Architecture Note: Architecture shown is the currently approved 3GPP LCS architecture (no architecture changes are needed for RF Pattern Matching)
  • 22. 23.271 LTE and LCS Architecture Note: Architecture shown is the currently approved 3GPP LCS architecture (no architecture changes are needed for RF Pattern Matching)
  • 23. E-911 Call Flow IMS Emergency Service & Location Information GMLC E-SMLC LOCATION NETWORK FLOWS…. Step 2 – Location request generated in RAN Step 5/10 – LRF generated request (like MT-LR) Note: Message Flows are the currently approved 3GPP message flows (no call flow changes are needed for RF Pattern Matching)
  • 24. MME LTE-RAN generated location E911 request… MME UE eNode B eSMLC IMS GMLC S-GW RRC setup S1AP procs SLs - Position Initiation Request Bearer Procedures SLs – Position Initiation Response Invite for 911 SLg – Loc Report RRC measurement procs SLs - Position Activation Request S1AP Location Reporting Control procedures SLs - Position Activation Response Note: Message Flows are the currently approved 3GPP message flows (no call flow changes are needed for RF Pattern Matching)
  • 25. Implementation of RF Pattern Matching <ul><li>Modifications to TS 25.331 (RRC Protocol Specification) include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of a RF Pattern Matching to UE Positioning description section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion of RF Pattern Matching in the defined procedures </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Anticipated Change Requests <ul><li>Inter-RAT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access measurements from both UMTS and underlying GSM networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase measurements used for location estimation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IPDL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase pilot Ec measurement diversity due to reduction of near-far effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absolute Ec (Sector TX Power) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional measurement to allow absolute Ec calculation from measured Ec/No ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Round Trip Time (RTT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased ability to use RTT in location estimation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides additional temporal measurements to increase location accuracy </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Conclusions: <ul><li>RF Pattern Matching support should be enhanced in UMTS and added to LTE in order to provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for growing number of government mandates and recommendations for emergency call public safety E911/112 systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To meet the growing market requirement for Lawful Intercept Applications which include location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These markets cannot have UE dependencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not applicable for A-GPS, GNSS, OTDOA, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-yield, high-accuracy location support across a range of environments (74% under 50m in dense urban) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward migration path for existing commercial GSM/GPRS “Wireless Location Signatures” systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 10,000 GSM cell sites equipped in over 20 operator markets, covering approx 2.8M km 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid location system, (i.e. A-GPS hybridized with RF Pattern Matching) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location support to legacy devices and Roamers </li></ul></ul>

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