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LTE Evolution — Rel-12 and Beyond
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LTE Evolution — Rel-12 and Beyond

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  • 1. LTE Evolution— Rel-12 and Beyond Cui Chunfengcuichunfeng@chinamobile.comChina Mobile Research Institute 31 May 2012
  • 2. Mobile Data Traffic Grows Explosively  Explosive growth of mobile data traffic: Increasing Smartphone & Mobile-broadband penetration – Global mobile broadband subscribers grew 45% CAGR in the past 4 years – Smartphone has been becoming a key driver (Penetration: Global 10%, China 8%) – Global mobile data traffic grew 2.3-fold in 2011, higher than anticipated – China: over 10% of global mobile data traffic in 2016 (5% in 2011, estimated by Cisco) – CMCC’s Mobile data traffic increased 60 times in the past 5 years 300 200% 250 150% 200 150 100% Mobile Data Traffic (Billion MB) Mobile Data Growth Rate 100 50% 50 0 0% 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011(Jan-Oct)
  • 3. Imbalances Faced by Operators Imbalance Between Galloping Mobile Data Traffic Growth And Lagging Network Capability • Global mobile data traffic is estimated to increase 92% CAGR, while network capability only increases 60% CAGR. Imbalance Between fast Mobile Data Traffic Growth And slow increase of Operators’ Revenue Imbalance Of Traffic volume Generated by different terminals and from various locations • Smart phones count for only 12% of total handsets, but consume 82% of total data traffic • About 70% of mobile data traffic was generated indoor in 2011, with an anticipation to reach up to 90% or more in a few years
  • 4. How to Embrace the Challenges What We Meet What We Need• Explosive growth of mobile data traffic • Faster, more powerful network -Higher spectrum efficiency & peak data• Imbalance between increase speed of rate -New applications & ensure fairness mobile data traffic and network -Larger bandwidth capability -Denser network• Imbalance between fast growth of • Innovations for deployments mobile data traffic and slow increase -multiple type of nodes, easy to deploy in of operators’ revenue indoor and hotspot - low cost• Imbalance of traffic volume generated • Innovations for operation by different terminals and from -Smart network planning & optimization various locations -Easy to operate & maintain -Environment-friendly, high energy efficiency
  • 5. Deployment Considerations HetNet is a trend to Cope with Explosive Traffic Growth, especially in Core Areas – Different types of LTE Nodes, e.g. Macro, Micro, Pico, Femto, Relay stations deployed where appropriate – Denser macro cells combining with high-quality indoor coverage to satisfy Indoor & Hotspot data demand – Flexible & autonomous coordination between nodes for e.g. synchronization & interference coordination Remove the Bottleneck of Backhaul – The backhaul has been a bottleneck of LTE/LTE-A deployments – Sufficient backhauls are not always available in operators’ Network – Effective use of all available backhauls should be considered as complements to newly-built transport networks Possible Enhancements For LTE-WiFi Coordination – WiFI can be an effective way for data offloading in local areas, however, the lack of coordination between cellular and WiFi forces users to search and switch between networks manually, limiting the effectiveness of WiFi offloading – Coordination based on inter-working could be an effective solution
  • 6. What is Ongoing and To Be Done In 3GPP Autonomous, Low Smartphone & mobile Internet enh., Cost MTC, Energy New Services & Coordination With Saving Non-3GPP Technologies Heterogeneous Deployment Enhancements For Hotspot & Indoor Potential Rel-12 & Beyond Dynamic New Carrier High Spectrum 3D-MIMO Type Efficiency & Fairness TDD CoMP, HetNet Relay Related: Related: MDT & Energy LTE Rel-11 Further Enh., Mobile Relay & Backhaul Enh. Saving Mobility, SON FelCIC ePDCCH CoMP Coordination MTC With Non- 3GPP Related …… Dynamic Mobile NCT TDD Relay Smartphone MTC Related: Network Related: Low Cost & Energy Saving, eDDA, IDC Overload Control SON, eMDT
  • 7. Potential R12 & Beyond Enhancements LTE-Hi MDT & Energy Relay related: Saving CoMP Mobile Relay/Relay Backhaul Coordination With New Applications Related: M2M HetNet Non-3GPP 3D-MIMO Spectrum Related
  • 8. Motivations Of Enhancements To Indoor & Hotspot  Currently, 60% voice traffic & 70% data traffic happen indoor  In the future, indoor/hotspot traffic may count for 90%  To accommodate explosive growth of data traffic in such cases, the followings methods Need To Be Considered: – Denser Network of small nodes with proper coordination – Easy-to-deploy low-power nodes – Larger bandwidth – New technologies to improve the spectrum efficiency and throughput  These factors motivate the LTE-Hi (LTE evolution for Hotspot and Indoor) to ensure the competiveness of 3GPP in future
  • 9. Characteristics & Possible Enhancements Of Indoor/Hotspot Characteristics Enhancements • Physical Layer: • Large Bandwidth Needed • New transmission technology, e.g. • Low Mobility NCT, dynamic TDD, 256QAM • Denser Network: • Rich Scattering • HetNet, Multi-Type/Easy-to-deploy • Low Multi-Path Delay Nodes for Indoor/Hotspot, e.g. Pico Spread & Femto. • Larger Bandwidth: • Discontinuous Coverage • Expand to higher frequency bands • High Degree Of Isolation for larger bandwidth. Between Cells
  • 10. Considerations on LTE-Hi  Spectrum: Unified Global Planning For Expanding Economy of Scale and Decreasing The Cost – WRC07 has planned 3.5GHz band for mobile communication, with possibility to expand to other parts of C band, e.g. 3.8GHz~4.2GHz, in the future – UK Broadband Has Announced TD-LTE Deployment On 3.5GHz  Issue 1: Why LTE-Hi On 3.5GHz Or Higher Band?  Abundance of usable spectrum  More suitable for indoor and hotspot propagation conditions  Issue 2: LTE-Hi is better Implemented With TDD Mode  TDD is more suitable for asymmetric traffic happening in hotspot/indoor  The European allocation of Band 43 as TDD is a good start for global spectrum allocation  Deployment Scenarios: Support Both Operator Deployment And User Deployment Scenarios  Service Continuity: Support The Service Continuity Between Macro And LTE-Hi Node
  • 11. Possible Enhancements For LTE-Hi Higher Layer Architectural L1 Aspects Aspects Aspects • New Carrier Type • Signaling And • LIPA/SIPTO Procedure • Dynamic TDD Optimizations, e.g. Enhancements Access, Paging • Local Switch • New Multiple Access Procedure mode • Mobility • Network Architecture • Higher Order Enhancement, e.g. Flatting LTE-Hi Node Modulation Detection • SON Of LTE-Hi
  • 12. LTE-Hi — Carrier TypeNew Spectrum Allows Introduction Of New Carrier Type Type1: Standalone & Backward Compatible Pros: Accessible by legacy UE supporting new bands Cons: Limited room for optimization Type2: Standalone & non Backward Compatible Pros: Larger space for optimization Cons: Legacy UE cannot access LTE-Hi carriers Type3: Non Standalone & non Backward Compatible Pros: Largest space for optimization Cons: Legacy UE cannot access LTE-Hi carriers; cannot work without the coverage of legacy carrier R12 Terminals Type 2 LTE-Hi Carrier Assigned to LTE-Hi carrier R8~R11 Terminals eNB with legacy R12 Terminals R12 Terminals carrier Type 1 LTE-Hi Carrier Type 3 LTE-Hi Carrier
  • 13. LTE-Hi – Dynamic TDD Presence of Macro Energy Efficiency Spectrum Efficiency Flexible network deployment Macro Non-presence of Macro Maximize UE throughput AP/UE power consumptions Easy deployment Pico Pico
  • 14. LTE-Hi – Other Potential PHY Enhancements• 256QAM in LTE-Hi: – Increase efficiency from maximum 6bits per symbol to 8bits per symbol, leading to 33% gain; – Hotspot areas with high SINR can guarantee reliable demodulation• OFDMA in LTE-Hi UL: – Better performance and more flexible scheduling from frequency domain without DFT process – PAPR problem can be solved by: Frequency – Reduction of transmitting power in hot-spot /local area scenarios UEA Sub-carriers UEB – UE hardware development UEC – Potential cost reduction since the same multiple access method is applied for both DL&UL Time
  • 15. LTE-Hi – High Layer Signaling & Procedure  Access Point Selection – Selecting the most appropriate point for UE camping or accessing – Impacted by Macro parameter setting – Determined by camping/accessing duration, mobility etc.  Paging Optimization – Paging optimization based on UE location information – Some information, e.g. Last serving cell, could be applied for UE location information
  • 16. LTE-Hi — Tentative Roadmap R12(~2014) R13(~201x) R1x(~201y) LIPA/SIPTO Network Architecture Architecture Enhancements Flatting Local Switch Procedure Optimization Mobility Higher Layer SON Of LTE- LTE-Hi Node Hi Detection New Carrier Dynamic Transmission Type TDD Technology New Carrier Type For Multiple Access Higher Frequency Enhancements Higher Order Modulation & Advanced Coding
  • 17. Vision of 3D MIMO: Motivation Background Motivation Requirements for Current Cellular high data rate and Systems: Interference- high spectrum Limited efficiency Traditional 2D MIMO Systems: Interference No other Suppression Is Limited breakthroughs in To 2D PHY 3D MIMO Techniques: •Additional Degree of Current MIMO system Freedom (Vertical Dimension) Offers Extra exploiting only 2D Flexibility Of Interference degree of freedom Coordination/Suppression •One potential evolution to meet the future requirements of high date rate and excellent UE New antenna designs experiences facilitating the exploitation of vertical dimension
  • 18. Vision of 3D MIMO: Standardization Open Issues How To Model What Capability How Much Potential Channels For 3D Offered By Hardware Gain Brought By 3D MIMO System To Support 3D MIMO MIMO Basis For The Motivations To Foundation For 3D Evaluation Of 3D Promote 3D MIMO MIMO Operations MIMO Systems Research Roadmap Study The Deploy Scenarios/Channel Model(s) Study Item Starting From Rel-12 Verify The Feasibility Of 3D MIMO Systems Verify The Potential Gains Of 3D MIMO Techniques Specify The Mechanisms To Support 3D MIMO In Work Item (If Available) Starting 3GPP RAN WGs Form Rel-13 Or Rel-14
  • 19. Enhanced Comp And Intelligent HetNet Rel-11 Comp Operation Is Designed Assuming The Ideal Backhaul • Negligible Latency & Very High Capacity Rel-12 Should Enhance Coordinated Transmission For Realistic Scenarios • Non-ideal Backhaul: Limited Capacity, Large Latency • Other Typical Scenarios Besides Scenario 4 (Shared Cell ID) • Macro Cells • Macro Points With Low Power Nodes (Different Cell IDs) Other Issues To Investigate • HetNet Mobility & SON for HetNet Limited capacity or high latency backhaul Decentralized processing
  • 20. HetNet Mobility  Motivation For HetNet Mobility – Seamless And Robust Mobility Between Macro & Pico Layers To Enable Offload Benefits. – More Pico Layers And Multiple Carriers Means More Potential Error Cases • Additional Re-establishment Procedures Could Help To Improve The Overall System Robustness. – Ensure Efficient Offload From Macro To Small Cells • Efficient Small Cell Discovery Is Of Great Importance – Requirement On UE Mobility State Estimation • Current UE Mobility State Estimation Is Based On Number Of Cell Changes, But Without Explicitly Taken The Cell-size Into Account.  Main Issues – Small Cell Discovery – Mobility State Estimation – Impact Of DRX 집 Pico Core Network eNB 집
  • 21. HetNet SON  HetNet SON Consideration – Extending current SON features like MRO to low power nodes, e.g. Pico/Relay/HeNB – Considering mobility as the most significant issue – Self-checking and self-healing for low power nodes HetNet SON Relay OAM Pico Macro eNB Femto
  • 22. MDT & Energy Saving MDT Energy Saving QoS Verification: e.g. Measurements Of Continue The Work Of Rel-11, e.g. Non- Latency & Packet Loss Rate overlapping Energy Saving Scenario Location Information: Improve The Availability Tradeoff between energy saving gain and And Accuracy Of Location Information For Zones UE experience with considering e.g. UE Such As Indoor And Urban Canyon Traffic Requirement MDT enhancement Compensation Node Energy Saving Capable Node OAM Energy Saving applicable Report with precise location information Report with QoS Energy Saving verification not applicable
  • 23. Mobile Relay And Relay Backhaul Enhancement - Motivation  Scenarios: – Fixed Relay: Wired backhaul is not always available in operators’ networks. Relay nodes enables a quick and flexible deployment to improve outdoor & indoor coverage by wireless backhauls. – Mobile relay:fast development of high speed trains in some countries provides potential requirements for mobile relay deployment.  Challenges – Backhaul capacity is the bottleneck for relay transmission performance. – Backhaul link reliability is critical for terminals accessing In relay cells. – Seamless handover is important for user experience in high speed scenarios. Indoor coverage RN MME/ BS RN Backhaul BS BS SGW BS RN Access Mobile Microwave Relay fiber RN UE Access Loop RN RN Donor RN eNB Outdoor coverage High speed rail
  • 24. Mobile Relay And Relay Backhaul Enhancement – What To Do? Relay Backhaul Enhancement: – MU-MIMO: MU-MIMO on backhaul link can enhance the backhaul capacity and performance without additional standardization effort. – Carrier Aggregation: Introducing multiple component carriers (CCs) on backhaul & access link can effectively boost the backhaul capacity. Mobile Relay Enhancement: – Mobility Optimization Group Handover – Link Re-establishment Optimization – Terminal Access Optimization – Group Handover Optimization
  • 25. M2M The number of MTC devices is likely to be much larger than H2H devices in the future – ~13,200,000 MTC Devices In CMCC’s Network By Feb 2012 – Almost All of Them are GSM Devices and this Number is Still Increasing Requirements – Low Device Cost – Transition Of MTC Services From GERAN To EUTRAN – Low Power Consumption – Low Signaling Overhead
  • 26. Coordination With WiFi  Motivation – Offload cellular data traffic, WiFi offloading – Efficient utilization of WLAN 1. Acquire UE cell ID – Existing mechanisms are WLAN mainly based on static strategies and without knowledge of radio ANDSF condition 4. Select access NW LTE 2. Decide NW  Issues 3. Push strategy selection strategy – Appropriate NW discovery to UE & selection strategy – Precise UE positioning – Minimized UE intervention
  • 27. Spectrum Related: New Bands And CA Band Combinations New Bands For TDD • New work items for possible new bands for TDD, e.g. 1.5GHz New CA band combinations for TDD • Intra-band CA for TDD: Band 39, 700MHz, Band 42 (final band plan is not decided but Chinese government yet, strong preference of TDD for local area access optimizations) • Inter-band CA for TDD • Short-term: Band 39 + Band 38 or Band 39 + Band 41 • Long-term: 700MHz + Band 38/41, 700MHz + Band 42 700MHz Band 39 Band 34 Band 40 703 803 1880 1920 2010 2025 2300 2400 Band 38 Band 42 2570 2620 3400 3600
  • 28. Potential R12 & Beyond Enhancements LTE-Hi MDT & Energy Relay related: Saving CoMP Mobile Relay/Relay Backhaul Coordination With New Applications Related: M2M HetNet Non-3GPP 3D-MIMO Spectrum Related
  • 29. Thank youThank You