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Handset Antenna Design
 

Handset Antenna Design

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By Dr Sampson Hu, CTO & Co-founder, Smart Antenna Technologies

By Dr Sampson Hu, CTO & Co-founder, Smart Antenna Technologies

Presented in Cambridge Wireless

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    Handset Antenna Design Handset Antenna Design Presentation Transcript

    • Dr Sampson Hu CTO & Co-founder, Smart Antenna Technologies Sampson.Hu@smartantennatech.com
    • Antenna, also called aerial, is a conductor that can transmit, send and receive signals such as microwave, radio or satellite signals. Cellular Network: 2G, 3G,4G LTE WiFi/Bluetooth GPS 10/10/2013
    • for a proper working efficient antenna Length = Wavelength/2 Length = Wavelength/4 Operating: 800 MHz Full wavelength of 800 MHz: 37.5cm Wavelength/4: Dipole Antenna 9.4cm Monopole Antenna 10/10/2013
    • Harrington Limit Antenna gain vs antenna relative size • Decreasing the antenna size reduces the antenna gain; • Antenna Gain, G, is related to the directivity, D, and efficiency, η, by G= ·η • The directivity of a handset antenna does not change much with size, and hence the efficiency of the antenna falls by a similar amount to the size; Ref: Harrington R F, ‘On the gain and beamwidth of directional antennas’, IRE Transactions on Ant and Prop, vol AP-6, 1958, pp.219-225 10/10/2013
    • • The volume of the antenna is about a quarter of the phone size; • When the phone had to operate on a single band, i.e. GSM800, the antenna occupied a similar volume; • When additional bands were released by the regulators, such as GSM1800, the obvious solution is to incorporate two antennas, one for 800MHz, and one for 1800MHz; Nokia 6300 antenna • However, as the volume required by the antennas increases, the volume available for the other components reduces; • Decreasing the antenna size reduces the antenna gain;  Lower antenna efficiency means that higher transmit power is needed to maintain call  Higher transmit power results of higher SAR ( Specific Absorption Rate) and reduces the battery life. 10/10/2013
    • Analog 800 MHz 1G 1980s GSM 900 MHz, 1800 MHz GSM800 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, PCS 1900 MHz, UMTS 850 MHz, 2100 MHz Broadband Revolution 698-960 MHz 1710-2170 MHz 2300-2690 MHz *3GPP Released 8 Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) * Agilent Technologies 3GPP LTE Standards Update 2012 10/10/2013
    • 1983 1997 - 2003 2G Digital mobile phones GSM 900, 1800 MHz 2001 - 2010 3G mobile phones 800, 900, 1800, 2100 MHz Broadband Revolution 2011 - 4G LTE mobile phones 698-960 MHz 1710-2170 MHz 2300-2690 MHz *3GPP Released 8 Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) 1st commercial mobile phone: Motorola DynaTAC 8000x 1G Analog (First Generation) 800 MHz Mobile phones has become thinner but need to offer more functions! 10/10/2013
    • To design handset antennas with multi-bands, support multi-functions, but still occupy small volume 10/10/2013
    • How the handset antennas get evolved in the past 20 years? 10/10/2013
    • 1G (Analog) in 1980s 800 MHz 10/10/2013
    • For the Analog network (800 MHz) 1 G is operating at 800 MHz One antenna ! Full wavelength of 800 MHz: 37.5cm Wavelength/4: 9.4cm 10/10/2013
    • 2G (Digital) in 1990s GSM 900 and GSM1800 10/10/2013
    • 2G digital launched in early 1990s New services came – text messaging, multimedia messaging, internet access, etc Operated at GSM 900 MHz, later introduced at 1800 MHz Monopole-Plus-Helix Nokia 1011 10th/11/1992 1st GSM commercial mobile phone Only support GSM900 single band Motorola m300 1993 Only support GSM1800 single band Motorola whip antenna patent, filed on 26/09/1988 You need at least two phones to travel around the world! Advantages - High efficiency, less components effect, easy design and zero hand effect 10/10/2013
    • Helix-plus-Whip Motorola mr601 1st dual band GSM phone in 1997 Support both GSM900 and GSM1800 dual band One phone and being able to access networks in over 70 countries by the end of 1997 Patent: Antenna assembly EP0829106 A1 19th May 1995 10/10/2013
    • Dual – Band Antenna for 2G Handset 10/10/2013
    • • The external ‘stub’ antenna This antenna operates in a single band, 800 MHz  huge • To replacing the stub antenna , the PIFA (Planar Inverted F Antenna) was suggested by Tokio Taga as an ideal candidate, in 1987, one of the first published papers on the topic  Small Size  Easy for fabrication Ref: Taga, et al. ‘Performance of a built in planar inverted antenna for 800 MHz band portable radio units’, IEEE Jnl on Selected Areas in Communications, vol 5, no 5, 1987, pp 921-929 10/10/2013
    • First Dual Band PIFA working at GSM900 &GSM1800, invented by Prof. Peter Hall, University of Birmingham, U.K. in 1996 Using slot to create two frequency bands Hall, et al. ‘Dual Band Antennas for Hand Held Portable Telephones’, Electronics Letters, 28th March 1996, 32, No.7, pp. 609-610 10/10/2013
    • Lots of commercial patents and papers regarding internal dual band antennas Nokia patent US 6140966 in 2000 Filtronic Patent US6366243b1, 2002 Nokia patent US6392605B2 in 2002 Centurion Wireless Technologies Patent US6741214b1, 2004 Lucent Patent US 5926139 1999 AMC Centurion AB Patent EP1360738B1 2007 FCI Patent US7199755B2 2007 10/10/2013
    • • 1st mobile with fully internal dual band antenna in 1999 • Support both GSM900 and GSM1800 dual band Nokia 3210 • One of the most popular handset with over 160 million being sold 10/10/2013
    • Nokia 2760 Nokia 6120 Nokia 6210 Nokia 6220 10/10/2013
    • 3G in 2000s GSM 900, 1800, PCS 1900, UMTS 850 and 2100 Additional Services, GPS 1500 MHz, WiFi/Bluetooth, 2400 MHz 10/10/2013
    • Using two slots to create three frequency bands First Triple Band PIFA invented by Prof. Peter Hall, University of Birmingham, U.K. in 1999 Hall, et al. ‘Triple band planar inverted F antenna’, IEEE APS Symp, Orlando, July 1999, pp908-911 10/10/2013
    • Nokia Four Band PIFA, E-GSM900, GSM1800, PCS1900 and UMTS2100 Nokia patent US6476769B1 2002 Two PIFAs Asustek Computer Inc, Patent US716154B2, 2007 One PIFA & One Monopole RIM, Patent US7859468B2, 2010 One Folded Monopole Fraunhofer, Patent EP1576697B1 2006 Three IFAs 10/10/2013
    • The first commercial 3G network was launched by Hutchison Telecommunications branded as Three or ‘3’ in June 2003 The 2100MHz network – UMTS 2100. was introduced, later on 850MHz for 3.5G GSM900/1800/1900 PIFA • First mobile phones allows truly global roaming • 1st mobile with dualmode, tri-band, work on 2G GSM900/1800/1900 and UMTS 2100 UMTS 2100 PIFA Nokia 6630 Corbett, et al. ‘Mobile-Phone Antenna Design’, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol.54, No.4, Aug.2012 10/10/2013
    • PIFA Monopole iPhone 4 Samsung Galaxy SII Monopole 10/10/2013
    • Different Handset Antenna Types 10/10/2013