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Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access
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Examining the fronthaul opportunities for future radio access

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Nov. 5th, 2013 …

Nov. 5th, 2013
Shigeru Kuwano
NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories
NTT Corporation

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • 1. Cellular Backhaul Summit Examining the fronthaul opportunities pp for future radio access Nov. 5th, 2013 Shigeru Kuwano NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories, Laboratories NTT Corporation 1
  • 2. Agenda Introduction of NTT Mobile Fronthaul Future Radio Access Enhancement of Mobile Fronthaul Summary Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 2
  • 3. Agenda Introduction of NTT Mobile Fronthaul Future Radio Access Enhancement of Mobile Fronthaul Summary Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 3
  • 4. NTT Group NTT R&D section Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (Holding Company) Planning and decision of Staff R&D Section NTT group’s business management strategies NTT NTT NTT NTT NTT EAST WEST Communications docomo DATA Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories Dimension Data D t 4
  • 5. R&D Section Organization of NTT Labs Service Innovation Laboratory Group Information navigation, xICT xICT technology/UX*, navigation xICT, Service Evolution Laboratories Media Intelligence Laboratories Speech language media, Visual media, Cloud technology, Open source S/W, Software engineering, Cryptography/Security Software Innovation Laboratories Secure Platform Laboratories S Pl tf L b t i *User experience Information Network Laboratory Group Convergence network, Network Architecture, Environment/Energy, Network operation, Traffic/QoS, Network Technology Laboratories Network Service System Laboratories Access Network Service System Laboratories Energy and Environment System Laboratories Network technology Science and Core Technology Laboratory Group Broadband/Ubiquitous technology Electronics/Photonics technology Network Innovation Laboratories Microsystem Integration Laboratories Photonics Laboratories , Communication science, Material science Communication Science Laboratories Nov. 5th, 2013 Basic Research Laboratories NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 5
  • 6. Agenda Introduction of NTT Mobile Fronthaul Future Radio Access Enhancement of Mobile Fronthaul Summary Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 6
  • 7. Mobile Backhaul and Fronthaul Mobile Backhaul : Network between mobile core network (EPC) and base stations (eNB) – IP or Ethernet based network Mobile Fronthaul : Network between baseband unit (BBU) and remote radio head (RRH) – CPRI over Dedicated Fiber Mobile Core Network BBU S-GW Mobile Backhaul eNB eNB BBU Mobile Fronthaul RRH Small Cell Nov. 5th, 2013 RRH Macro Cell RRH RRH(RRU) REC (Radio Equipment ( Control) RE (Radio ( Equipment) BDE (Base station Digital processing Equipment) MME RRE (Remote Radio Equipment) DU (Digital Unit) RU (Radio Unit) Small Cell NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 7
  • 8. Cloud/Centralized RAN (C-RAN) Cooperation between BBUs and RRHs – CoMP (Network MIMO) – HetNet – CPRI BBU virtualization BBU Pooling Optical Fiber (CPRI) ( ) RRH RRH RRH RRH RRH Nov. 5th, 2013 RRH HetNet RRH CoMP 8
  • 9. CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) Widely used for current base stations Various data rate (radio bandwidth, number of antennas) – 614.4 Mb/s ~ 9.83 Gb/s Original frame structure Use of low cost optical transceivers (SFP, SFP+) Management channel i h d fi ld M t h l in header field ORI (Open Radio Interface) in ETSI Nov. 5th, 2013 User Plane : Digitized RoF (IQ data) C&M Plane : Ethernet Synchronization : High accuracy (2 ppb) NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 9
  • 10. MFH Requirement for Optical Access (CPRI) Low Latency – HARQ of mobile system requires low latency << 1 ms for optical transmission – Network size (fiber length) and signal processing for optical transmission is limited. Large Bandwidth – 20 MHz RF bandwidth requires 1Gb/s data bandwidth for IQ data transmission – Bandwidth is proportional to the number of frequency bands and antennas HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest) Operation 8 ms eNB (Tx) Data ( ) (Re)transmission Data transmission UE (Rx) UE (Tx) HARQ processing ACK/NACK eNB (Rx) Nov. 5th, 2013 MFH Latency HARQ processing 10
  • 11. Current MFH Configuration Point-to-Point (P2P) CPRI transmission Data rate ~ 2.5 Gb/s (In some case 10 Gb/s) – 2x2 MIMO of 20 MHz RF bandwidth Dedicated fiber (Dark Fiber) – Low OPEX ( ~ 25 Euro/fiber/month) in Japan –M Many fib fibers are already d l l d deployed i J d in Japan (Fib Rich E i (Fiber Ri h Environment) t) Nov. 5th, 2013 From docomo news release NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 11
  • 12. LTE Advanced Advanced C-RAN Many RRHs Connected to BBU Multiple Frequency Bands in a Cell Add on Cells Cooperation between cells Nov. 5th, 2013 From docomo news release NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 12
  • 13. Agenda Introduction of NTT Mobile Fronthaul Future Radio Access Enhancement of Mobile Fronthaul Summary Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 13
  • 14. Small Cell Enhancement (3GPP Rel.12~) Cooperation between macro and small cells New carrier type (> 3 GHz) Separation of control plane (C Plane) and user data plane (U (C-Plane) (UPlane) Stand Alone Dense With Macro cell Sparse Small cells cluster Outdoor Indoor MFH is defined as “Ideal Backhaul” in 3GPP Rel-12. Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 14
  • 15. Separation of C-Plane and U-Plane C-Plane – Macro cell – High connectivity U-Plane – Macro and small cell – Higher frequency New RAT with high capacity Inter eNB communication (X2, Xn Interfaces) Dual connectivity X2, Xn Interface Macro Cell Small Cells UE Nov. 5th, 2013 U-Plane NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 15
  • 16. 5G (Future Radio Access) 2020 ~ – Higher bandwidth ~ 10 Gb/s/user – High user experience for cell edge users – Lower latency Future Radio Access – Enhanced RAT • NOMA – New RAT • Massive MIMO • Higher frequency (> 10 GHz) – Cooperation of wireless and optical networks – etc. Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 16
  • 17. Enhanced & New RAT NOMA (Enhancement of LTE) – Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access – High accuracy MFH transmission Higher Frequency Band – Millimeter wave (> 10 GHz) – Smaller cell size – Gb/s data rate with wider bandwidth (> 100 MHz) and low spectral efficiency Massive MIMO – Large number of antennas ~ 100 – Not suitable for MFH NOMA Massive MIMO OFDM Signals Frequency Superposition at BBU Interference cancellation at UE Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 17
  • 18. Agenda Introduction of NTT Mobile Fronthaul Future Radio Access Enhancement of Mobile Fronthaul Summary Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 18
  • 19. Enhance Number of Connections Needs too many fibers >> Multiplexing – Required bandwidth ~ 100 Gb/s WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) or TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) Densely deployed small cells -> P2MP connection for Lower Cost RAN RRH BBU Too many fibers RRH TP TP TP Nov. 5th, 2013 λ1 λ1 λ2 λΝ MUX/DEMUX WDM connection ti TP λ2 λΝ MUX/DEMUX TP BBU TP TP: Transponder 19
  • 20. WDM and TDM Technique for P2P WDM – CWDM or DWDM – Higher Cost (CAPEX) • WDM Transceiver • WDM MUX/DEMUX – OA&M for WDM transmission • Wavelength Management g g TDM – CPRI over OTN • OAM function • OTN chip cost is HIGH • Latency for multiplexing and FEC – New framing for CPRI? Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 20
  • 21. PON System PON : Passive Optical Network Gigabit class TDM-PON is widely used in FTTH system – Full duplex transmission – Down stream: TDM – Up stream: TDMA (Optical burst) Sharing network equipment and fib Sh i t k i t d fiber 10 Gigabit class TDM-PON is available ONU OL LT ONU Up stream Down stream ONU Nov. 5th, 2013 Optical splitter NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories OLT : Optical Line Terminal ONU: Optical Network Unit 21
  • 22. PON Architecture for small cell Shared Fiber – Small Area Service WDM-PON and TDM-PON Splitter or WDM MUX/DEMUX Point-to-Multi Point Connection ONU ONU Splitter or WDM MUX/DEMUX ONU ONU Shared Fiber ONU 100~200 m BB BU/ OSU(OLT) RRH 5~10 km OLT : Optical Line Terminal OSU : Optical Subscriber Unit ONU: Optical Network Unit Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 22
  • 23. WDM-PON Overlay of TDM-PON(10G-EPON, XG-PON, NG-PON2) system – Reduce fiber deployment cost P2P connection on wavelength level – Low latency Cost of WDM Transceiver – Fi d wavelength TR Fixed l th TRx • Repair parts should be stocked for all wavelengths – Tunable TRx is preferable for smaller number of repair parts • Too expensive RRH λ1 TP λ1 λ2 TP λ2 TP TP λΝ TP Nov. 5th, 2013 Splitter or MUX/DEMUX BBU λΝ TP NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 23
  • 24. TDM-PON Challenge Merit of TDM-PON – Sharing of network equipment – Lower cost transceivers Target : Densely deployed small cells – Metropolitan area, building, or stadium O U ONU ONU Splitter ONU ONU Shared Fiber ONU 100~200 m 100 200 Nov. 5th, 2013 TDMA BBU/ OS SU(OLT T) TDM RRH Shared Network Equipment 5 10 5~10 km NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 24
  • 25. TDM-PON Challenge Current TDM-PON is NOT suitable for MFH requirement – Latency • DBA (Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation) b (D i B d idth All ti ) based scheduling > 1 d h d li ms – Bandwidth • 1 Gb/s MFH bandwidth for 20 MHz RF bandwidth transmission DBA based scheduling MFH bandwidth BBU PON Scheduling OLT Request ONU UE Nov. 5th, 2013 Sampling Rate Grant Wireless Data RRH Wireless Data High Latency Wireless Signal Time Number of Quantized Bit Number of Frequency Band Number of Antennas Example: p 20 MHz bandwidth 2x2 MIMO Fs = 30.72 MSa/s Nq = 30 (15 bit x 2(IQ)) ( ( )) NB = 1 NANT= 2 B~2 Gb/s 25
  • 26. TDM-PON Challenge Low latency DBA technique based on Wireless Scheduling – Mobile DBA Broadband TDM-PON TDM PON Wireless Data Compression RRH ONU RRH ONU Wireless S h d li Wi l Scheduling Information Mobile DBA Nov. 5th, 2013 B BBU ONU OLT RRH Broadband TDM-PON Data Compression NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 26
  • 27. Broadband TDM-PON NG-PON2 – TWDM-PON – ~ 40 Gb/s Digital coherent technique – Higher Modulation Scheme (QPSK, QAM, etc.) – ~ 100 Gb/s/wavelength – Higher transceiver cost TWDM 1 time TDMA 1 2… 3 ONU 2 time ti time (Time & Wavelength division multiplexing) … Time … … λ Central Office C l Offi OLT ONU 3 time ONU ONU ONU OLT ONU ONU ONU Nov. 5th, 2013 ONU OLT 27
  • 28. Data Compression IQ Data Compression – Lossless compression • • • • ADPCM and Entropy Coding Transparent transmission Low compression ratio (> 1/2) High latency – Lossy compression • • • • • Decimation (Sampling rate reduction) Bit bandwidth reduction (Nonlinear re-quantization, block floating point) g p ( ) High compression ratio (< 1/2) Waveform distortion (EVM degradation < 1 %) Low latency (Trade off between the compression ratio and latency) Change of splitting p g p g point of BBU and RRH • Smaller bandwidth (< 1/10) Downlink PHY schematic Channel Coding Channel g Coding Scrambling Scrambling Modulation Mapper Modulation pp Mapper Smaller bandwidth Layer Mapper Precoding Resource Element Mapper IFFT Resource Element Mapper M IFFT Larger bandwidth CPRI 28
  • 29. Agenda Introduction of NTT Mobile Fronthaul Future Radio Access Enhancement of Mobile Fronthaul Summary Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 29
  • 30. Summary MFH for FRA – Need for large number of DRoF connections – Larger bandwidth (~ 100 Gb/s) per connection Requirement – Low cost fibers – C t (CAPEX & OPEX) effective WDM or TDM Cost ff ti techniques – Technical challenge g • TDM-PON based system • MFH data rate reduction • High speed transmission Nov. 5th, 2013 NTT Access Network Service Systems Laboratories 30

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