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eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE
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eMBMS: Broadcast and Multicast in LTE

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For more information see: http://blog.3g4g.co.uk/2013/05/embms-physical-layer-aspects-from-t.html

For more information see: http://blog.3g4g.co.uk/2013/05/embms-physical-layer-aspects-from-t.html

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  • 1. evolved MBMSbroadcast and multicast in LTEAndreas RoesslerTechnology ManagerRohde & Schwarz Americaandreas.roessler@rohde-schwarz.com
  • 2. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 2Outlinel History of MBMS.l eMBMS for LTE in 3GPP Release 8 and 9.l Test and measurement solutions from Rohde&Schwarz.l Terminal (receiver) testing.
  • 3. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 3Unicast, Broadcast, Multicastl Unicast.l Broadcast.l Multicast. What if users, that want toreceive the same content,are in different radio cells?What if users, that want toreceive the same content,are in different radio cells?
  • 4. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 4What is MBMS?l MBMS stands for Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Services.l MBMS has been initially defined in 3GPP Release 6 (HSUPA),and was/is continuously enhanced in the following releases.l MBMS initially defined for UMTS (UTRAN), but also in GSM (GERAN), andnow LTE (E-UTRAN).l Advantages over other traditional broadcast technologies such asDVB-H, DMB-H or former MediaFLO are:l No additional infrastructure required.l No need for additional spectrum.l User interaction is possible (uplink available).DVB-H – Digital Video Broadacst HandheldDMB-H – Digital Multimedia Broadcast HandheldMediaFLO – Media Forward Link Only
  • 5. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 5MBMS in different 3GPP Releasesl 3GPP Release 99/4 (UMTS/WCDMA) and Release 5 (HSDPA).– Flexible transmission of user-specific multimedia services and content; „TV on demand“.– Point-to-Point connection, only effective, if there is a small number of users.l 3GPP Release 6: Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS).– Possibility of Point-to-Multipoint connections.– Re-use of network architecture, but also some new network elements.– Minimal efforts on terminal side due to re-use of available transport and physicalchannels; new logical channels.3G Terminal(User Equipment, UE)Protocol (SW)changes)Basisstation(NodeB)MBMS control &traffic channelsRNC(Radio NetworkController)SGSN(Serving GPRSSupport Node)GGSN(Gateway GPRSSupport Node)Bearer Management,Service areadefinitions, countingBearer Management,Updated RNC signalingBM-SC(Broadcast and MulticastService Center)Bearer Management,New interface to BM-SC,Join and leave indicationsAuthentication,Charging, ServiceschedulingContentprovider
  • 6. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 6MBMS concept as of 3GPP Release 6Logical, Transport and Physical ChannelsFACH(Forward Access Channel Control Channel)FACH(Forward Access Channel Control Channel)MCCH(MBMS Control Channel)MTCH(MBMS Traffic Channel)MSCH(MBMS Scheduling Channel)LogicalChannelsTransportChannelsPhysicalChannelsFACH(Forward Access Channel Control Channel)MICH Type 1, Type 2(MBMS Notification Indicator Channel)S-CCPCH(Secondary Common Control Physical Channel)active MBMS services, theirconfiguration, MTCH Info,neighboring cell informationData; time multiplexfor different MBMSservices is possibleInformation about timemultiplexed servicesMCCH is multiplexed to FACH,BCCH contains relevant informationMTCH, MSCH will be multiplexed on different FACHs;MCCH contains the relevant information for devices (UE).FACH is multiplexed on S-CCPCH.Dedicated MBMS Paging ChannelWhat istransmitted?How is thedata transmitted?
  • 7. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 7MBMS offerings and availabilityl MBMS offers 6 mobile TV channels @ 128 kbps in 5 MHz (WCDMA).l Up to today no commercial MBMS deployments are known.– Not more than successful field trials, e.g.: http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/Jan2007/4173.htm
  • 8. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 8Outlinel History of MBMS.l eMBMS for LTE in 3GPP Release 8 and 9.l Test and measurement solutions from Rohde&Schwarz.l Terminal (receiver) testing.
  • 9. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 9What is evolved MBMS (eMBMS)?l Increasing spectral efficiency at cell edge up to 1 bps/Hz.l 20 mobile TV channels @ 256 kbps in 5 MHz channel (LTE).l Adaptation of signaling, e.g. for switch between different channels.l Good coverage, low power consumption.l Single Frequency Network (SFN).l Power-efficiency: reception of short, high-data rate burst, with long period of DRX.l eMBMS standardization has been segmented to not delay time tomarket and LTE introduction.l Physical layer aspects already in 3GPP Release 8.l Higher layer and network aspects with 3GPP Release 9.l Further enhancements in 3GPP Release 10 (LTE-Advanced) and beyond.l eMBMS scenarios:l Single-cell transmission: each cell is served individually.l Multi-cell transmission: multiple cells are synchronized and form a MBSFN area.
  • 10. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 10Multimedia Broadcast Single Frequency Network(MBSFN)l „Broadcasting effect“ – with proper synchronization of radio cells,transmitting the same content, the resulting signal will appear to aterminal as one transmission over a time-dispersive radio channel.l If signals reach the device within Cyclic Prefix (CP) Inter-Symbol Interference(ISI) is avoided. eMBMS uses of extended cyclic prefix (15 kHz, 7.5 kHz).OFDM Symbol DurationTimeCyclic Prefix
  • 11. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 11MBSFN areaMultimedia Broadcast Single Frequency Network (MBSFN)l Same content is transmitted to multiple users in a specific area isknown as MBSFN Area.l Each MBSFN area has an own identity (mbsfn-AreaId 0…255) and can consistsof multiple cells; a cell can belong to more than one MBSFN area.l “Once and for all” – MBSFN areas do not change dynamically over time.l A device is not required to receive more than one MBSFN area simultaneously.5213467911121310MBSFN area 014A cell can belong tomore than one MBSFNarea; in total up to 8.MBSFN area 1138MBSFN area 255MBSFN reserved cell.A cell within the MBSFNarea, that does not supportMBMS transmission.15
  • 12. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 12l MCE coordinates the use of same radio resources and transmissionparameters across all cells belonging to the MBSFN area.l The MCE can be physically part of the eNodeB to realize a flatter, efficientnetwork architecture. In most cases that would only require a SW upgrade.l Drawback: MBSFN area would be limited to cells controlled by that eNodeB.Network elementsAdditional elements compared to 3GPP Releases 6MCEMBMSGWM1M3User planeinterfaceControl planeinterface betweenE-UTRAN and EPCE-UTRAN internalcontrol interfaceMMEBM-SC – Broadcast/Multicast Service CenterMME – Mobility Management EntityMBMS GW – MBMS GatewayMCE – Multi-cell/Multicast Coordination EntityeNode B – LTE base stationBMSCContentProviderM2IP-MulticasteNodeBeNodeBeNodeB
  • 13. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 13New channelsDL-SCHPCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCHPCH BCH MCHPDCCH PBCH PDSCH PMCHPCFICHPHICHPhysicalchannelsTransportchannelsLogicalchannelsMAC LayerPHY LayerUser data,System and paginginformationBandwidth,SFN, PHICHconfiguration,# of antennasSchedulinginformationFeedbackfor uplink anytransmission(ACK/NACK)Resourcesused forPDCCHPHICH Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel PDCCH Physical Downlink Control ChannelPBCH Physical Broadcast Channel PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel PMCH Physical Multicast ChannelMasterInformationBlock (MIB)all other SystemInformation, e.g.SIB2, SIB13Multicast ControlChannel.Multicast TrafficChannel.Hen or Egg?
  • 14. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 14Physical Layer aspectseMBMS scenariosl Dedicated and mixed mode.l Dedicated: carrier is only for MBMS = Single-cell MBMS.l MBMS/Unicast mixed mode: MBMS and user data are transmitted using timedivision duplex. Certain subframes carry MBMS data.l Dedicated mode (single-cell scenario) offers use of new subcarrierspacing, longer cyclic prefix (CP), 3 OFDM symbols.2412Sub-carrier33.310243Extended CP∆f = 7.5 kHz16.75126Extended CP∆f = 15 kHz5.2 for 1st symbol4.7 for other symbols160 for 1st symbol144 for other symbols7Normal CP∆f = 15 kHzCyclic PrefixLength in µsCyclic Prefix Lengthin SamplesOFDMSymbolsConfigurationeMBMS(Single cell scenario)
  • 15. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 15…Subframe#1Subframe#0Subframe#9Subframe#8…Radio Frame n+1Radio Frame nRadio Frame n-1Subframe#2Subframe#1Subframe#3Subframe#0Subframe#4Subframe#5Subframe#8Subframe#7Subframe#9Subframe#61 Radio Frame = 10 Sub-frames = 10 msSubframe#0Physical Layer aspectsMBSFN subframe configurationNOT all subframes in a radioframe can be used for MBSFN.Subframes #0 und #5 are NOT available as MBSFN subframes…Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH), every 10 msP-/S-Synch, every 5 msSubframe#5…so are subframes #4 and #9.SFN mod radioframeAllocationPeriod =radioFrameAllocationOffset1 or 4 consecutiveRadio Frames?l System Information Block (SIB) Type 2 provides information whichradio frames contain MBSFN subframes that can be used by ALLMBSFN areas.Source: 3GPP TS 36.331 Radio Resource Protocol specificationSFN – System Frame Number
  • 16. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 16…… …… … … …… ……Physical Layer aspectsMBSFN subframe, cont’d.Subframe#2Subframe#1Subframe#3Subframe#0Subframe#4Subframe#5Subframe#8Subframe#7Subframe#9Subframe#61 Radio Frame = 10 Sub-frames = 10 ms…… …… … … …… ……SFN(System Frame Number)0123456912131417radioFrameAllocationOffsete.g. = 2radioFrameAllocationPeriode.g. = 8Allocation mode4 consecutive Radio Frames101118SFN mod 8 = 2Bitmap [24 bit], e.g.011010 011010 011010 011010HEX:69A69AMBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSMBMS MBMS; n1, n2 not allowedNote: The bitmap is interpretedfor TD-LTE in a different way.
  • 17. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 17Physical LayerMBSFN subframe, Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)l Consists always of a non-MBSFN and a MBSFN region.l Non-MBSFN region carries control information (PDCCH, PHICH, PCFICH).2 OFDM symbols, using normal CP (see 3GPP TS 36.211, Table 6.7-1).l MBSFN region will use extended cyclic prefix (CP = 16.7 µs) only– Cover timing difference between the different cells belong to the MBSFN area.l PMCH, carrying MCH, can only be transmitted in MBSFN region.l (P)MCH configuration is provided by SIB Type 13.l Scrambling for PMCH is MBSFN ID dependent.l Scrambling is the same for all cells belonging to that MBSFN area.l MBSFN ID is provided by the network within SIB Type 13.  +⋅+⋅+⋅+⋅=PMCHfor22PDSCHfor2222MBSFNID9scellID9s1314RNTIinitNnNnqnc
  • 18. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 18Physical LayerMBSFN reference signalsl Reference signals are adopted compared to standard LTE aschannel estimation needs to be improved due to higher expecteddelay spread.l MBSFN reference signals for extended CP only.l Higher frequency domain density than cell-specific reference signals due tohighly frequency-selective or time dispersive channel characteristic.l Initialization sequence depends on MBSFN ID,which comes with SIB Type 13.l Sequence mapping depends on subcarrierspacing (15 kHz or 7.5 kHz).– See 3GPP TS 36.211 V9.1.0 for further details.Non-MBSFN region(PHICH, PCFICH, PDCCH, normal CP,cell-specific reference signals)MBSFN reference signalmapping for 15 kHz caseFrequency,kTime, l
  • 19. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 19SIB Type 13l Solves the “hen-and-egg” problem as it contains informationrequired to acquire the MBMS control information (= MCCH)associated with this MBSFN area.– UE mobility: Source and target cell broadcast same ID MBSFN area is continuous.l Periodicity is defined in TS 36.508 withinscheduling combination 16; periodicity isdependent on channel bandwidth:every 32 radio framesSIB Type 131)every 64 radio framesSIB Type 41)every 32 radio framesSIB Type 31)every 16 radio framesSIB Type 2Scheduling combination #161) 10 MHz, 50 RB caseSource: 3GPP TS 36.331 Radio Resource Protocol specification
  • 20. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 20SIB Type 13MBSFN area informationArea ID; there areup to 256 areaHow many symbols (1 or 2)are non-MBSFN region?Relevant for MCCHnotification changeIn which radio frames MCCH is scheduled?Interval for MCCH transmission?SFN mod mcch-Repetition Period= mcch-offsetWhich of the 6 possible MBSFN subframesin a radio frame contains the MCCH?…and what is the usedModulation and Coding Scheme(MCS; see following slide) for the MCCH?Source: 3GPP TS 36.331 Radio Resource Protocol specification
  • 21. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 21MCCH scheduling1 Radio Frame = 10 Sub-frames = 10 ms…… …… … … …… ……SFN(System Frame Number)012345…… …… … … …… ……101112131819…… …… … … …… ……202126272829…… …… … … …… ………… …… … … …… ……34353637…… …… … … …… ……424344455051MBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSmcch-RepetitionPeriod[32, 64, 128, 256]e.g. = 32mcch-Offset[0…10]e.g. = 5MBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSSFN mod 8 = 2SFN mod 32 = 5sf-AllocInfo-r9Bitmap [6 bit]010000MCCHMCCH…all other MBSFNresources might beused for MTCH.SFN #69 SFN #101
  • 22. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 22Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS),Transport Block Size (TBS)631 reserved………176 (64QAM)19………124 (16QAM)13………72 (QPSK)7………22 (QPSK)2121020TBS IndexModulation OrderMCS IndexSource: 3GPP TS 36.213 V9.3.0 (2010-09)173616081480138412881224112810641000904840776696632600552TBS31302928272625242322212019181716TBS Index488392336328296280256224208176144136120725640TBS1514131211109876543210TBS Index
  • 23. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 23What information is provided by the MCCH?l MCCH carries a single message: MBSFNAreaConfiguration message.l One MCCH defines one MBSFN area.l Basis for scheduling MBMS services, provides information on CommonSubframe Allocation (CSA) and MCH Scheduling Period (MSP).Configuration of all PMCH for this MBSFN area.The information provided for an individual PMCHincludes the configuration parameters of the sessionsthat are carried by the concerned PMCH.Common Subframe Allocation (CSA).Source: 3GPP TS 36.331 Radio Resource Protocol specification
  • 24. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 24pmch-InfoList-r9In total 15.Up to 29 = 29 MTCH.MCS used on PMCH,corresponds to Table 7.1.7.1-1in TS 36.213; see slide 24Indicates the MCH Scheduling Period i.e. the periodicityused for providing MCH scheduling information at lowerlayers (MAC) applicable for an MCH.Source: 3GPP TS 36.331 Radio Resource Protocol specification
  • 25. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 25Scheduling of MBMS services1 Radio Frame = 10 Sub-frames = 10 ms…… …… … … …… ……SFN(System Frame Number)012345…… …… … … …… ……101112131819…… …… … … …… ……202126272829…… …… … … …… ………… …… … … …… ……34353637…… …… … … …… ……424344455051 MBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSMTCH-1MTCH-1MTCH-1MTCH-1MTCH-1MTCH-1MTCH-1MTCH-3MTCH-2MTCH-2MTCH-3MTCH-2MTCH-2MTCH-3MTCH-2MTCH-1MTCH-3 MTCH-3MTCH-1Common SubframeAllocation (CSA) Period[4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256]e.g. 16 radio frames24 MBSFN subframes per CSAMBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSMSP1MSI-1MBMS MBMSMBMS MBMSMCCHMTCH-1MCCHMSI-2MSI-3MSP2MSI-2MSP3MSI-1MSI-0
  • 26. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 26MCCH and MTCH multiplexing on MAC layerMAC Packet Data Unit (PDU)NOTE: If there is no MCCH on MCH, anMTCH could use this value.Padding11111MCH Scheduling Information11110Reserved11101MTCH00001-11100MCCH (see note)00000LCID values for MCHIndexLCID – Logical Channel ID [5 bit]MAC header MAC payloadMAC Packet Data Unit (PDU)R/R/E/LCIDsub-headerR/R/E/LCID/F/Lsub-headerR/R/E/LCID paddingsub-headerMAC ControlElement 1MAC ControlElement 2R/R/E/LCID/F/Lsub-header…MAC SDU … Padding(optinal)MAC SDU
  • 27. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 27SummaryHow does a terminal receive MBMS service?l Receive SIB Type 2 to identify MBSFN subframe configuration forALL MBSFN areas.l Receive SIB Type 13 for MCCH configuration for THIS MBSFN area.l Receive, decode MCCH to gain knowledge about CommonSubframe Allocation (CSA) period, CSA pattern, and MCHScheduling Period (MSP) for the service of interest.l Receive MCH Scheduling Information (MSI) at beginning of eachMSP to obtain information which subframes contain the service ofinterest.
  • 28. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 28Outlinel History of MBMS.l eMBMS for LTE in 3GPP Release 8 and 9.l Test and measurement solutions from Rohde&Schwarz.l Terminal (receiver) testing.
  • 29. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 29MBSFN supportPHY testing w/ R&S®SMU200A Vector Signal Generator…define numberof Radio Frames
  • 30. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 30MBSFN supportPHY testing w/ R&S®SMU200A Vector Signal Generator
  • 31. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 31MBSFN supportMBFSN signal generation with R&S®SMU200A…left out first 2 radio frames (= 20 subframes) …looking at two consecutive Radio Frames
  • 32. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 32MBSFN supportTesting examplesl Test your receivers ability to simultaneously receive MBSFN and user datal Verify your receivers ability to receive MBSFN data from various cells atthe same time with different delaysl In SMU simulation of one LTE cell is sufficientl Network is simulated by fadercell 1 cell 2 cell 3cell 1cell 2cell 3UEsamebroadcastsignal
  • 33. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 33User Equipment (device) testingStatus: July 2011l Basis for eMBMS device testing is R&S®CMW500 Wideband RadioCommunication Tester from Rohde&Schwarz.l Protocol conformance (TS 36.523-1 V9.5.0).l Section 17 deals with MBMS in LTE. Test casesfocus on MCCH information acquisition for:– UE is switched ON.– Cell reselection to a cell that belongs to a new MBSFN area.– UE handover to a cell that belongs to another MBSFN area.l RF conformance (TS 36.521-1 V9.5.0).l Section 10 deals with MBMS performance in LTE.l Tests are based on 15 kHz subcarrier spacing and mixed mode(MBSFN/unicast).l Annex B defines a channel profile for MBSFN being used for test, alreadysupported by R&S®SMU200A Vector Signal Generator and R&S®AMU200ABaseband Signal Generator and Fading Simulator.R&S®CMW500 Wideband Radio CommunicationTester configured as Multi-RAT protocol tester.
  • 34. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 34Thank you foryour attention!
  • 35. eMBMS – Broadcast and Multicast in LTEAndreas Roessler | August 2011 | Slide 35References[01] 3GPP TS 36.211 V9.1.0 (2011-03) Physical Channels and Modulation.[02] 3GPP TS 36.212 V9.3.0 (2010-09) Mulitplexing and Channel coding.[03] 3GPP TS 36.213 V9.3.0 (2010-09) Physical Layer procedures.[04] 3GPP TS 36.300 V10.3.0 (2011-03) Overall description; Stage 2.[05] 3GPP TS 36.321 V9.3.0 (2010-06) Medium Access Control (MAC)protocol specification.[06] 3GPP TS 36.331 V9.3.0 (2010-06) Radio Resource Control (RRC)protocol specification.

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