A Peek at 5G

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Fang Xie
China Mobile Research Institute (CMRI)
Oct. 2012

Published in: Technology, Business
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A Peek at 5G

  1. 1. A Peek at 5G Fang Xie China Mobile Research Institute
  2. 2. Outline • Challenges and Requirements • TDD: An efficient transmission mode for 5G • C-RAN: Centralized/Cooperative/Cloud/Clean RAN • Beyond Cellular Generation • LTE-Hi: Small cell enhancement for Hotspot/indoor • Summary
  3. 3. 1. Traffic grows explosively but not the revenue Mobile data traffic will increase 1000 times in 10 years Profit per bit will continuously decrease in the future years
  4. 4. 2. Traffic distribution appears as unbalanced  Imbalance between the terminal type: in 2010, smart phone’s global penetration rate is 13%, while it contribute 78% traffic load from the terminal  Geographic imbalance: in 2009, more than 50% mobile service happened at home/office; while this percentage is 63% in China. Most of the data service happens in low mobility indoor and dense urban Home access Internet Office access Internet On-road access Internet USA 37.8% 19.6% 42.6% UK 45.6% 17.8% 36.6% Germany 43.4% 15.3% 41.3% France 33.1% 21.7% 45.2% Italy 39.6% 21.4% 39.0% South Africa 48.6% 21.4% 30.0% Mexico 28.2% 27.6% 44.2% Brazil 36.7% 24.7% 38.6% Korea 33.7% 31.7% 34.6% India 45.9% 30.4% 23.7% China 30.1% 32.7% 37.2%
  5. 5. 3. Spectrum has been fragmented and used up
  6. 6. Surging power consumption  The majority of power consumption from RAN  4. Power consumption plays an important role in OPEX High CAPEX/OPEX of RAN result  from BS equipment room 
  7. 7. Summary of Challenges and Requirements for future Explosive growth of mobile  data traffic Spectrum Fragmentation Unbalanced DL and UL  traffic low‐band spectrum used  up Higher date rate Higher Spectrum Efficiency Efficient utilization of un‐ paired spectrum Flexible adaptation of DL/  UL traffic More usable spectrum Huge power consumption Better energy saving Challenges Requirements
  8. 8. Outline • Challenges and Requirements • TDD: An efficient transmission mode for 5G • C-RAN: Centralized/Cooperative/Cloud/Clean RAN • Beyond Cellular Generation • LTE-Hi: Small cell enhancement for Hotspot/indoor • Summary
  9. 9. Promising Features of TDD • Channel Reciprocity – Advanced MIMO/Beamforming • Flexible allocation of DL/UL resource – Traffic adaptation – Energy saving • Unpaired frequency usage – Flexible deployment – Suitable for higher band and large bandwidth
  10. 10. TDD based downlink CoMP: Joint Transmission 1,9 2,54 2,47 5,46 2,81 6,15 3,01 6,58 0 2 4 6 8 2Tx(X)/2Rx 8Tx(XXXX)/2Rx Cell average spectrum efficiency 0,056 0,098 0,047 0,183 0,078 0,227 0,101 0,266 0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 2Tx(X)/2Rx 8Tx(XXXX)/2Rx Cell Edge spectrum efficiency 25%  SU-BF  MU-BF  Intra-SiteCoMP  3site/9cellsCoMP SU-BF MU-BF Intra-SiteCoMP 3site/9cellsCoMP
  11. 11. TDD based 3D-MIMO • High frequency lead to feasible antenna array size • Active antenna array technology makes it feasible to achieve cost effective implementation • TDD promises more accurate CSI by UL sounding to exploit the potential gains of CSIT Feasibility of TDD 3D-MIMO • System capacity improvement • Small intra-cell interference • High beamforming gain • High spatial multiplexing gain • Energy efficiency improvement What can be achieved? Example: 8*8 = 64 • Background – Current Systems are Interference- Limited – Interference Suppression by MIMO is limited to 2-Dimension – New AAS design facilitating the exploitation of elevation dimension
  12. 12. Promising Features of TDD • Channel Reciprocity – Advanced MIMO/beamforming • Flexible allocation of DL/UL resource – Traffic adaptation – Energy saving • Unpaired frequency usage – Flexible deployment – Suitable for higher band and large bandwidth
  13. 13. Dynamic TDD achieves better spectrum & energy efficiency Fast DL/UL switching Higher throughput by fast adaptation to instantaneous traffic Fast switching off of DL transmission to save energy • Semi-static TDD:DL/UL resource allocation based on TDM in the same carrier  Asymmetric DL/UL resource allocation adapts to asymmetric DL/UL traffic
  14. 14. Promising Features of TDD • Channel Reciprocity – Advanced MIMO/Beamforming • Flexible allocation of DL/UL resource – Traffic adaptation – Energy saving • Unpaired frequency usage – Flexible deployment – Suitable for higher band and large bandwidth
  15. 15. TDD becomes dominate for wide band allocation • Fragmented spectrum • Difficult to find wideband paired spectrum (low to medium frequency) • Future system is expected to be wideband Current situations • Use un-paired spectrum • Easy to allocate wideband, e.g. 100MHz • Better utilization of spectrum TDD: A better choice 
  16. 16. Outline • Challenges and Requirements • TDD: An efficient transmission mode for 5G • C-RAN: Centralized/Cooperative/Cloud/Clean RAN • Beyond Cellular Generation • LTE-Hi: Small cell enhancement for Hotspot/indoor • Summary
  17. 17. … RRU RRU RRU RRU RRU RRU RRU Virtual BS Pool Distributed RRU High bandwidth optical transport network Real-time Cloud for centralized processing … Centralized Control and/or Processing • Centralized processing resource pool that can support 10~1000 cells Collaborative Radio • Multi-cell Joint scheduling and processing Real-Time Cloud • Target to Open IT platform • Consolidate the processing resource into a Cloud • Flexible multi-standard operation and migration Clean System Target • Less power consuming • Lower OPEX • Fast system roll-out C-RAN Concept Soft base-station – seamlessly scalable and upgradable
  18. 18. C-RAN Benefits Lower CAPEX and OPEX Save up to 15% CAPEX and 50% OPEX compared to distributed BTS 3G network* 0 100 200 300 Faster system roll out Due to simpler remote radio site, system roll out can save up to 1/3 the time* Lower energy consumption Save up to 71% of power compared to traditional RAN system* *Source: Base on China Mobile research on commercial networks
  19. 19. • Traditional Cellular Network is coverage-based and is not energy efficient, especially when traffic is low • Data traffic growth densifies BS • Beyond cellular generation – On-off small cells (AP) – Signaling and data decoupling – Uplink and downlink decoupling Enhanced Macro BS Densed BS Ericsson soft-cell GreenTouch BCG2 Hetnet Beyond Cellular Generation 19 BCG structure signaling data downlink uplink downlink Zzzz… Zzzz…
  20. 20. LTE-Hi Motivations  Currently, 60% Voice Traffic & 70% Data Traffic Happen Indoor  In Future, 90% Indoor/Hotspot Traffic Estimated  To Accommodate Explosive Growth Of Data Traffic In Such Cases, The Followings Means Need To Be Considered: – Denser Network (But Difficult For Macro Layers) – Easy-to-deploy Low Power Node – Larger Bandwidth – New Techniques To Improve The Spectrum Efficiency & Throughput  These Motivates The So-called LTE-Hi (Hotspot & Indoor) To Ensure The Competitiveness Of 3GPP In Local Area
  21. 21. Characteristics • High Data Rate Needed • Low Mobility • Rich Scattering • Low Multi-Path Latency • Discontinuous Coverage • High Degree Of Isolation Between Cells EnhancementEnhancement • Physical Layer: • New transmission technology, e.g. NCT, dynamic TDD, 256QAM • Denser Network: • Hetnet, Multi-Type/Easy-to-deploy Nodes for Indoor/Hotspot • Larger Bandwidth: • Expand to higher spectrum for larger bandwidth. Characteristics & Possible Enhancements
  22. 22. Summary • Challenges and Requirements for 5G • Promising features of TDD makes it a most efficient transmission mode for Beyond 4G system – Channel Reciprocity makes it a sufficient way to utilize advanced MIMO/Beamforming – Dynamical TDD adapts to asymmetrical traffic and lead to higher capacity and energy efficiency – Unpaired frequency usage utilizes the limited spectrum in most efficient way and lead to flexible deployment • C-RAN: Centralized/Cooperative/Cloud/Clean RAN • Beyond Cellular Generation • LTE-Hi: Small cell enhancement for Hotspot/indoor
  23. 23. If you can imagine it You can achieve it Thank you
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