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  1. 1. HISPTORY <ul><li>1960s: Data collection, database creation, IMS and network DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>1970s: Relational data model, relational DBMS implementation </li></ul><ul><li>1980s: RDBMS, advanced data models (extended-relational, OO, deductive, etc.) and application-oriented DBMS (spatial, scientific, engineering, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>1990s—2000s: Data mining and data warehousing, multimedia databases, and Web databases </li></ul>
  2. 2. GIS Architecture Evolution
  3. 3. File Application Output Traditional File System Student Course Faculty Student Scheduling Payroll Individual Student Class Lists Pay Checks
  4. 4. Database Application Output DBMS Student Data Course Data Faculty Data Student Scheduling Payroll Individual Student Class Lists Pay Checks DBMS Online User
  5. 5. “ A store of large amount of information especially in a form that can be handled by computer. OR “ The collection of data usually referred to as the database, contain information about particular enterprise.” Database
  6. 6. “ A shared collection of logically related data designed to meet the information of the multiple users in an organization.” OR “ A database consist of some collection of Persistent data that are used by the application program of some given enterprise.” Database
  7. 7. <ul><li>“ A database management system is essentially nothing more than a computerized record keeping system.” </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>“ A database management system consist of collection of interrelated data and the set of programs to access the data.” </li></ul>Database Management System
  8. 8. “ All access to database is controlled by sophisticated software package called the DBMS.” OR “ A database management system provides a centralized control of its operational data.” Database Management System
  9. 9. Application Program DBMS Operating System Database
  10. 10. Database DBMS On-line Queries Prewritten Programs Programs in Various Languages App Prg DBA Commands for Database End User Native Casual
  11. 11. <ul><li>“ Any database management system that follows relational model that was proposed by Dr. E.F Codd in 1970 is said to be RDBMS.” </li></ul>Relational DBMS
  12. 12. In a 1985 article, Codd published rules or principles that a DBMS must use to be considered “fully relational” Continue Criteria for a RDBMS
  13. 13. The relational database model is made up of many tables, called RELATIONS , in which related data elements are stored. The data elements are in rows , called TUPLES and columns, called ATTRIBUTES . Terminology's Related to RDBMS
  14. 14. The main objective of the relational database model is to allow complex logical relationships between records to be expressed in a simple fashion. Main Objective
  15. 15. There is no standard definition of what capabilities or attributes define either an Extended Relational Database Management System or an Object-Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS). Here, both are referred to as &quot;Extended Relational.&quot; EXTENDED RDBMS
  16. 16. ERDBMSs have characteristics of both an RDBMS and an ODBMS (thus, the loose application of the ORDBMS label). ERDBMS products provide a relational data model and query language that have been extended to include many of the features that are typical of ODBMSs. OVERVIEW OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  17. 17. Extending the query language allows for the integration of well-understood query optimization techniques. Typically, programming capabilities are embedded in the query language. This capability is not to be confused with stored procedures that are provided by a number of relational vendors. With the ERDBMSs, programmers are able to write functions in conventional languages as well as in SQL. These functions can then be embedded in standard SQL statements in exactly the same manner as a DBMS vendor function (e.g., the Sybase getdate() function). FEATURE OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  18. 18. <ul><li>Most significantly, these DBMSs have been extended to handle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>complex data types, which include user defined abstract data types, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-tabular structures, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>automatically generated, logical object identifiers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tables within tables, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a type hierarchy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple inheritance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compound objects, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schema evolution, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transitive closure operations. </li></ul></ul>FEATURE OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  19. 19. <ul><li>In our experience, applications developed using the extended relational database are far less difficult to build, and are easier to understand conceptually than those built using a traditional RDBMS (cf. Rolodex™ card example). Typically, developers using the IBM U2 extended RDBMS as the foundation of their application can easily transfer the business model (banking transaction, point of sale, etc) directly into extended relational table(s). This allows for rapid application development, maintenance and customization. Traditional RDBMS developers must first transform the business model into a normalized set of tables. Using the IBM U2 extended relational database, the developer is not required to have knowledge of SQL, and the more complex C programming language. However, both styles of development are supported, if required </li></ul>CHRACTRICITRCS OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  20. 20. <ul><li>For server-based application logic, the IBM U2 extended relational database uses BASIC for its stored procedure language. Thus, adopting the use of the IBM U2 extended relational database technology is straightforward and does not require an Engineer level programmer to either understand the database, or develop the applications. On the client-side, the IBM U2 extended relational database supports industry standard tools such as Microsoft® Visual Studio, Studio and WebSphere® Application Developer, via JDBC, ODBC, OLE DB provider, and native C, Java™ and .NET APIs. Most client tools today support one or more of these technologies. </li></ul>CHRACTRICITRCS OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  21. 21. <ul><li>The extended relational database uses the predominant standards associated with UNIX®, Linux™ and Windows™-based systems for its networking layer. The IBM U2 extended RDBMS provides homogeneous distributed database capabilities. Additionally, using its database gateway interface (BCI), it can update heterogeneous databases such as Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, Sybase, etc. using standard ODBC interfaces. The latest release of UniData provides a tightly coupled I/O level interface to IBM DB2® UDB via its External Database Access (EDA) technology. </li></ul>CHRACTRICITRCS OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  22. 22. <ul><li>IBM U2 supports row level locking facilities, either through implicit SQL usage, or through explicit control from within its stored procedure language. Page level locks, common to other RDBMS products, do not hamper the IBM U2 extended RDBMS. It provides many levels of lock granularity. Within this same environment, the IBM U2 extended RDBMS implements all ANSI 1992 Isolation levels, for ACID-compliant transaction processing. Due to its lock granularity, the IBM U2 extended relational database can support very large database installations, with high accessibility, data integrity, and large numbers of concurrent users. </li></ul>CHRACTRICITRCS OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  23. 23. <ul><li>The extended RDBMS files (tables) have an automatic table space allocation capability, which dynamically adjusts for optimal size, and hence performance, without fragmentation. Each file can grow to a size dictated by the available operating file system. Coupled with its inherently self tuning architecture, and low memory requirement, extended relational databases do not require intensive monitoring, continual tuning and time consuming maintenance tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>The extended RDBMS provides all the industry standard capabilities for database integrity, including transaction logging, warm-start recovery and check pointing. These features prevent database corruption from occurring in the event of a hardware failure. In addition, the IBM U2 extended RDBMS works with all levels of RAID disk arrays to provide additional database robustness. </li></ul>CHRACTRICITRCS OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  24. 24. <ul><li>The mapping of the object model can, in some cases, be greatly simplified (e.g., indentured parts list) with ERDBMS products. But, mapping is still required at both the model and the language level. This raises risk and development cost considerations similar to those of an RDBMS. </li></ul>RISK OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  25. 25. <ul><li>The cost of having to actually implement the mapping software can be mitigated through the ODBC interface, which most of these products support. However, some of the extended features of the ERDBMS are not visible through an ODBC interface. Thus, custom interface code is frequently required to fully utilize the services provided. Again, risk and development costs must be considered. </li></ul>RISK OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  26. 26. <ul><li>Third party or vendor tools are available to handle the processing of some of the more common complex data types (e.g., time series, spatial, text, image, sound). But if such software is not available for a required data type, the good news is that it can be written. The bad news is that this custom code is frequently non-trivial to write. Writing complex custom code can add significant risk and development costs to the project. Also consider the question of the instability that can be introduced to the ERDBMS through these custom software components. </li></ul>RISK OF EXTENDED RDBMS
  27. 27. THANKS