Protected by a four-digit PIN (Personal Identification Number)
SIM card contains a unique IMSI to identify
the subscriber to the system.
(b) Mobile equipment/terminal (ME):
Fixed Terminals –
mainly installed in cars (Max. Output power is 20W)
Portable Terminals –
can be installed in vehicles (Max. Output power is 08W)
Handheld Terminals –
Maximum allowed output power is 0.1W
016 - Interface between the MS and the NSS - In charge of the transmission and reception It can be divided into two parts: (a) Base Station Controller (BSC) (b) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
016 Base Station Subsystem (BSS) (a) Base Station Controller (BSC): (b) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station:
Controls a group of BTSs
Manages their radio resources
Exchange functions & power
for each managed BTSs.
In charge of handoffs
Defines a cell and handles the radio-link protocols
with the Mobile Station.
Its transmitting power defines the size of a cell.
Contains necessary information from a subscriber's HLR
to provide the subscribed services to visiting users.
Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) (c) Home Location Register (HLR): (d) Visitor Location Register (VLR):
The VLR is always integrated with the MSC.
Stores permanent data about subscribers,
including a subscriber's
016 - Provides an interface to various networks for data communications.
Serves the security purposes such as validity of subscriber
Provides the parameters needed for authentication
(e) Authentication Center (AUC): Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS)
Stores security-sensitive information about the mobile equipments
Maintains a list of all valid terminals IMEI.
The EIR allows to forbid calls from stolen or unauthorized terminals.
(f) Equipment Identity Register (EIR): (g) GSM Internetworking Unit (GIWU):
016 - OSS is connected to components of the NSS and the BSC to control and monitor the GSM system. - OSS is In charge of controlling the traffic load of the BSS. Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS)
016 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) - Speed: Up to 115 kilobits per second - It is a standard for wireless communications GPRS Basics - Compared with current GSM systems' 9.6 kilobits. - GPRS supports a wide range of bandwidths - Particularly suited for sending and receiving small bursts of data, such as e-mail and Web browsing, as well as large volumes of data.
016 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) The GPRS Capability Classes Class A
Can be connected to GPRS service and GSM service (voice, SMS),
using both at the same time. Such devices are known to be
016 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) The GPRS Capability Classes Class B
- Can be connected to GPRS service and GSM service (voice, SMS),
but using only one or the other at a given time.
During GSM service (voice call or SMS), GPRS service is suspended,
and then resumed automatically after the GSM service (voice call or
SMS) has concluded.
- Most GPRS mobile devices are Class B.
016 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) The GPRS Capability Classes Class C
Are connected to either GPRS service or GSM service
(voice, SMS) at the same time.
- Must be switched manually between one or the other service.
016 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) GPRS Multislot Classes are: Class 2 Minimal GPRS implementation Class 4 Modest GPRS implementation, 50% faster download than Class 2 Class 6 Modest implementation, but with better uploading than Class 4 Class 8 Better implementation, 33% faster download than Classes 4 & 6 Class 10 Better implementation, and with better uploading than Class 8, seen in better cell phones and PC Cards Class 12 Best implementation, with maximum upload performance, typically seen only in high-end PC Cards
016 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) GPRS Service s
Point to point (PTP) service:
internetworking with the Internet (IP protocols) and X.25 networks.
Point to multi point (PT2MP) service: point-to-multipoint multicast
and point-to-multipoint group calls.
Short Message Service(SMS): bearer for SMS.
Anonymous service: anonymous access to predefined services.
Future enhancements: flexible to add new functions, Such as more
capacity, more users, new accesses, new protocols, new radio networks.
Send and receive MMS (pictures, sounds, video clips, text)
Download games, animations, wallpapers, video and audio
clips, polyphonic tones, true tones, themes, color logos etc.
EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) Up to 8 Times Faster Than GPRS
016 Acronyms GSM : Global System For Mobile Communications GPRS : General Packet Radio Service EDGE : Enhanced Data Rates For Global Evolution OSS : Operation and Support Subsystem NSS : Network and Switching Subsystem BSS : Base Station Subsystem AUC : Authentication Center VLR : Visitor Location Resister HLR : Home Location Resister EIR : Equipment Identity Register MSC : Mobile Switching Center BSC : Base Station Controller BTS : Base Transceiver Station ME : Mobile Equipment MS : Mobile Station SIM : Subscriber Identity Module IMSI : International Mobile Subscriber Identity PSDN : Packet Switched Data Network ISDN : Integrated Services Digital Network PSTN : Public Switched Telephone Network PLMN : Public Land Mobile Network
016 Thanks for your patience Prepared By : Zahid Been Aziz