Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Iron phase diagram by zahid
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Iron phase diagram by zahid

328

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
328
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Material Technology
  • 2. What is metal?  In chemistry, a metal is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds.  Metals are sometimes described as a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a cloud of delocalized electrons.  The metals are one of the three groups of elements as distinguished by their ionization and bonding properties, along with the metalloids and nonmetals or  Metals are generally defined as being solid elements which share certain physical, chemical and mechanical properties that differentiate them. Apart from their shine, malleability, ductility, hardness, resilience and elasticity, they are good conductors of heat and electricity, and have a high light reflection capacity.
  • 3. Ferrous Metals The following are ferrous metals and the kind of uses to which they are usually put: Mild Steel – Carbon content of 0.1 to 0.3% and Iron content of 99.7 – 99.9%. Used for engineering purposes and in general, none specialised metal products. Carbon steel – Carbon content of 0.6 to 1.4% and Iron content of 98.6 to 99.4 %. Used to make cutting tools such as drill bits. Stainless Steel – Made up of Iron, nickel and chromium. Resists staining and corrosion and is therefore used for the likes of cutlery and surgical instrumentation. See our infographic celebrating 100 years of stainless steel usage in buildings or the different types of stainless steel. Cast Iron – carbon 2 – 6% and Iron at 94 to 98%. Very strong but brittle. Used to manufacture items such as engine blocks and manhole covers. Wrought Iron – Composed of almost 100% iron. Used to make items such as ornamental gates and fencing. Has fallen out of use somewhat
  • 4. Non Ferrous Metals These are the non ferrous metals and their uses: Aluminium – An alloy of aluminium, copper and manganese. Very lightweight and easily worked. Used in aircraft manufacture, window frames and some kitchen ware. Copper – Copper is a natural occurring substance. The fact that it conducts heat and electricity means that it is used for wiring, tubing and pipe work. Brass – A combination of copper and zinc, usually in the proportions of 65% to 35% respectively. Is used for ornamental purposes and within electrical fittings. Silver – Mainly a natural substance, but mixing with copper creates sterling silver. Used for decorative impact in jewellery and ornaments, and also to solder different metals together.
  • 5. What is iron?  Iron is a chemical element with the symbol (Fe) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It by mass is the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core.  Iron, one of the most abundant metals on Earth, is essential to most life forms and to normal human physiology. Iron is an integral part of many proteins and enzymes that maintain good health. In humans, iron is an essential component of proteins involved in oxygen transport. It is also essential for the regulation of cell growth and differentiation
  • 6. What is steel? Steel is an alloy of iron, with carbon being the primary alloying element. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight. Too little carbon content leaves (pure) iron quite soft, ductile, and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make an alloy commonly called pig iron that is brittle and not malleable.  Additional elements may be present in steel: manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and traces of oxygen, nitrogen and aluminium.  Alloy steel is steel to which additional alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel. Common alloying elements include: manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium and niobium
  • 7. IRON & STEEL Iron making in the Blast Furnace Plant
  • 8. Blast Furnace Top Gas Mains Top Bins Throat Armour Above Burden Probe Temperature Probe Refractory Lining Bustle Main Tuyeres Hearth Refractories Sub Burden Probe
  • 9. 10
  • 10. 1: Iron ore + Calcareous sinter 2: coke 3: conveyor belt 4: feeding opening, with a valve that prevents direct contact with the internal parts of the furnace 5: Layer of coke 6: Layers of sinter, iron oxide pellets, ore, 7: Hot air (around 1200°C) 8: Slag 9: Liquid pig iron 10: Mixers 11: Tap for pig iron 12: Dust cyclon for removing dust from exhaust gasses before burning them in 13 13: air heater 14: Smoke outlet (can be redirected to carbon capture & storage (CCS) tank) 15: feed air for Cowper air heaters 16: Powdered coal 17: cokes oven 18: cokes bin 19: pipes for blast furnace gas
  • 11. How is Steel made?
  • 12. Steel products Semi-finished products(continuous cast steel) Finished products (rolled steel)
  • 13. Iron-carbon Phase Diagram Iron-carbon phase diagram describes the iron-carbon system of alloys containing up to 6.67% of carbon, discloses the phases compositions and their transformations occurring with the alloys during their cooling or heating. Carbon content 6.67% corresponds to the fixed composition of the iron carbide Fe3C.

×