The Circulatory System And ExerciseWhat Happens To The Heart During Exercise?
Task• Think of as many different responses your body has during exercise!• 5 minutes and list them NEATLY!• Write the heading Responses to Exercise
The Heart and Cardiovascular System• The Heart is a 4 chamber organ. Two Atria and Two Ventricles.• HEART RATE – The number of times your heart beats in a minute.• STROKE VOLUME – The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one beat.• CARDIAC OUTPUT – The amount of blood that leaves the left Ventricle in one minute.• To Calculate : Cardiac Output = Stroke Vol x Heart Rate
Blood Vessels There are 3 main types of blood vessels that carry blood around the body• Arteries (Oxygenated blood)• Capillaries• Veins (Deoxygenated blood) Arteries are the largest blood vessel in the body, then Veins and the smallest are capillaries
Diagrams of Blood Vessels
The Movement of Blood Around the Body To work effectively the Heart and Lungs need to work together smoothlyBlood with a poor Oxygen isoxygen supply is transferred into thepumped to the blood at the lungslungs and travels to the heartOnce the oxygen The heart pumpshas been delivered blood around theto the body and body deliveringwaste products oxygen to thehave been working musclescollected the bloodreturns to the heart
Remember!Oxygen-Loaded blood goesinto the Left side of the heart.Oxygen-pooR blood goes intothe Right side of the heart.
Recap From Last Lesson• What is-• Heart Rate• Stroke Volume• Cardiac Output• The Heart• What are the 3 main blood vessels. List them according to size (largest first)• Describe the movement of blood around the body
How can we measure Heat Rate? Take your Pulse at…..• The Carotid Artery (Where is this?)• The Radial Artery (Where is this?)As the Heart beats the Artery walls expand, then contract and this is called a PULSE.• Why do we never feel for a pulse using a thumb?• What is your Resting Heart Rate now?• Average HR is around 72bpm (60-80bpm). Top athletes?• What factors may effect Heart Rate?
How Blood is Pumped Around the Body1. The arterioles branch into tiny tubes called capillaries. The thin walls allow food and oxygen to pass out to body cells, and carbon dioxide and other waste to pass in. (This happens in the muscle)2. The artery walls are made of muscle and elastic tissue. They stretch when blood is pumped in, then contract, squirting it along.3. From the venules it flows into a vein, which carries it back to the heart.4. The heart pumps blood at high pressure into the arteries.5. The artery branches into smaller tubes called arterioles.6. Next the blood flows into larger tubes called venules. It has given up its oxygen. It is deoxygenated.
How Blood is Pumped Around the Body4) The heart pumps blood at high pressure into the arteries.2) The artery walls are made of muscle and elastic tissue. They stretch when blood is pumped in, then contract, squirting it along.5) The artery branches into smaller tubes called arterioles.1) The arterioles branch into tiny tubes called capillaries. The thin walls allow food and oxygen to pass out to body cells, and carbon dioxide and other waste to pass in. (This happens in the muscle)6) Next the blood flows into larger tubes called venules. It has given up its oxygen. It is deoxygenated.3) From the venules it flows into a vein, which carries it back to the heart.
What Changes Occur In The Body During Exercise?• There is more Carbon Dioxide in the blood due to increased cellular respiration.• The lungs work harder to remove it and replace it with Oxygen.• The Brain tells the Heart to beat faster so HR increases.• Cardiac Output rises as more blood is pumped to the muscles. These are all short term effects of exercise/activity
Other Changes you will experience….• Blood is shunted to where it is needed. (Vascular Shunt). Blood is diverted to the working muscle as a priority and is limited to other areas of the body like the stomach.• Exercise generates Heat so the blood heats up. The body moves more blood near to the skin to cool it down. As a result your skin reddens.• You sweat which helps to cool you down by evaporation.• Again these are short term effects
The Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Circulatory system• The Heart is a Cardiac Muscle, when we regularly exercise or train muscles they grow and become stronger. This means:1. The amount of blood pumped from the heart in one beat will increase (Stroke volume)2. The total amount of blood pumped in one minute will increase (Cardiac output)3. Resting heart rate will lower as the heart will pump the blood as required in fewer beats.• The more blood that can be pumped the more oxygen it can carry to the muscles that require it. Larger stronger Heart Small Heart Regular exercise
CARDIAC (HEART) CIRCULATORY RESPONSE IMPROVEMENTS LONG TERM EFFECTS OF RESPIRATORYRECOVERY TRAINING RESPONSERESPONSE EFFECT ON TENDONS, LIGAMENTS AND BONES
Long Term Effects cont’d• The number of red blood cells increase to cope with the demands of carrying extra oxygen. (Altitude training).• The capillary networks in muscles start to grow more and more branches and are therefore able to transport more blood. (Capilliarisation)
AFTER AEROBIC TRAINING CIRCULATORY IMPROVEMENTS INCREASED BLOOD VOLUME (RBC) – increased levelsof haemoglobin. Increased oxygen carrying capacity of theblood Improved REDISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD to activemuscles. INCREASED CAPILLARY NETWORK surrounding themuscles, therefore more blood is transported to the muscles. ARTERIAL WALLS become MORE ELASTIC – allowedgreater flow of blood to the working muscles.
THE CARDIAC (HEART) RESPONSE HEART becomes and . in resting heart rate. Increased thickness and strength of theVENTRICULAR WALL causes an increase in the STROKEVOLUME and a lowering of the resting pulse rate. Larger stroke volume also means that there is an increase inmaximal OUTPUT. After exercise, the Heart Rate returns back to its normalresting levels faster than it did before training (IMPROVED
THE CARDIAC (HEART) RESPONSE HEART becomes LARGER and STRONGER. DECREASE in resting heart rate. Increased thickness and strength of the LEFTVENTRICULAR WALL causes an increase in the STROKEVOLUME and a lowering of the resting pulse rate. Larger stroke volume also means that there is an increase inmaximal CARDIAC OUTPUT. After exercise, the Heart Rate returns back to its normalresting levels faster than it did before training (IMPROVEDRECOVERY).
RESPIRATORY RESPONSE More ALVEOLI in the lungs can be utilised – greatersurface area for gaseous exchange. Greater CAPILLARISATION of the alveoli – oxygentransfer further enhanced.THE EFFECT ON TENDONS / LIGAMENTS / CARTILAGE The TENDONS, BONES and LIGAMENTS get stronger tocope with the increased load. CARTILAGE may increase to cope with the increasedimpact.
RECOVERY RESPONSE This is a combination of the improvements witnessed in theHEART and LUNGS. The effect of this improvement is to allow more OXYGENto become available for RECOVERY more rapidly at the endof exercise. Coupled with the improved transportation of oxygen is theimproved transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the workingmuscles to the lungs. Therefore improving the process of LACTATEREMOVAL.