Industrial Uses of FunFermentationIntroductionIf you were to ask someone what role fungi played in industry, it is likelyt...
hydrolises sugar, commonly sucrose, to pyruvic acid via the Embden-Myerhof-Parnas pathway, and then via acetaldehyde to et...
around 18%. The product is filtered, pasteurised and stored beforeconsumption.Bread MakingLoaf of bread.Bread consists of ...
biologically active. In addition, the final compounds are often released intothe environment. Manipulation of the genome, ...
As with penicillin, the cephalosporin antibiotics have a number ofdisadvantages. Industrial modification of the active ing...
calcineurin is necessary for recovery from cell cycle arrest, growth inhypertonic solutions and regulation of the calcium ...
StatinsAspergillus terreus, a soil-borne fungus, produces a secondary metabolitecalled lovastatin and Phoma sp produces sq...
Soy sauce (shoyu) is a dark brown, salty liquid, high in amino acids and witha meat-like flavour. It was first produced in...
be added to a variety of foods. Concern with the potentially toxic or allergiccharacteristics of some artificial colours h...
*Although fleshy mushrooms can be used, you are more likely to havesuccess with the tough, corky polypores and other fibro...
and the applicable fungi include koji (Aspergillus); miso, soy bean paste(Aspergillus); sufu, Chinese cheese (Rhizopus), n...
Aspergillus sp.Fungi are very useful organisms in biotechnology. They are importantexperimental organisms easily cultured,...
another group of antibiotics originally produced by the fungusCephalosporium (synonym of Acremonium). First discovered as ...
attack. These alkaloids are now produced industrially in culture using strainsof Claviceps.A number of industrial applicat...
in energy consumption, a 50% reduction in chemical product usage and agreater resistance to tearing.Enzymes are also used ...
Industrial uses for fungiFoodThe usage of fungi for food, preservation or other purposes by humans arewide-ranging and has...
Yeasts – Saccharomyces cerevisae, e.g. wine and vodkaCheese
Other human usesFungi are also used widely to produce industrial chemicals like lactic acid,antibiotics and even to make s...
Fungi in MedicineAntibiotics – e.g. Penicillin, Griseofulvin, Cephalosporin
Food ProcessingIntroductionFungi may be the food, or may make the food edible following processing.Processing may make it ...
Soy Sauce.Soy sauce (shoyu) is a dark brown, salty liquid, high in amino acids and witha meat-like flavour. It was first p...
in ripening in two different ways: they may assist ripening from the outsideof the cheese, and they can impart flavours fr...
production of red wine. The pigments are polyketides that are insoluble inacid conditions. Beta carotene is produced by a ...
below.1) Agaricus compestris2) Volvariella (paddy straw mushroom)3) Morchella (Temperate zone mushroom)4) Pleurotus sp. (o...
H) Fungi as "Microbial weed killer "(Bioherbicides) Fungi are known for itsquite specific& effective action and have low r...
M) Biodegradation of pesticides/ Toxic chemicals and petroleumWhite Rot fungi have the potential role in degradation of to...
have been purified from fungal cultures and characterized in terms of theirbiochemical and catalytic properties. It posses...
Building MaterialsEcovativedesign Corporation, located in Green Island, New York, makesbiodegradable packaging. A unique a...
contains all of the essential amino acids. Fungal mycelia can be made intosubstitute hamburgers, peppered steaks and lamb....
Mushroom: A potential new sector in BangladeshAlthough mushroom is a popular and nutritious food in many countries ofthe w...
Chapainawabganj and Rangpur for motivating people to cultivatemushroom.Sheikh Ruhul Amin, director of the Mushroom Develop...
A buyer can buy mushroom in three forms -- fresh, dry and powder.Mushroom generally stays fresh for a day. If refrigerated...
Experts in a health-related website said edible mushrooms have multi-dimensional effects that help prevent different disea...
amount of money earned by exporting mushroom is very low at thismoment.There is a need for extensive publication in raisin...
IntroductionA huge range of edible fungi are cultured. Agaricius bisporus is cultivatedwidely in western countries. In add...
The identity of the fungi grown as commercial or button mushrooms inwestern countries is not altogether clear. The general...
Shii-take is a highly prized mushroom in Japan. The range of variation inflavours and odours make this a valuable ingredie...
Auricularia and Pleurotis are also grown on timber logs. In Australia,Auricularia grows naturally on plum, fig and kurrajo...
INTRODUCTIONMashroom is rich in protein, some essential amino acids, fiber, potassium,and vitamins and have low cholestero...
sawdust, Kadom sawdust, Mahogony sawdust, Shiris sawdustand Coconutsawdust collected from Rajghat, Abhoynager, Jessore. Wh...
Preparation of substratesSpawn packets of seven different substrates using sawdust of Mango(Mangifera indica), Jackfruit (...
all kinds. After completion of mycelium running spawn packets wereopened. Two ends opposite to each other of the upper pos...
REFERENCESAhmed, S. 1998. Performance of different substrates on the growth and yieldof Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus sajorcaj...
References:1. Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims, M. Blackwell. 1996. IntroductoryMycology. John Wiley & Sons, USA.2. Beg, Q.K.,...
3. Gow N. & Gadd G.M. (Eds)(1995) The Growing Fungus. Chapman Hall,London.References1) S.D. Aust, Degradation of environme...
Pitt J.I. & Hocking A.D. (2009) Fungi and Food Spoilage (3rd edit).Springer.Wainwright M. (1992) An Introduction to Fungal...
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Industrial uses of fungi (2)

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If you were to ask someone what role fungi played in industry, it is likely that they would indicate use of yeasts in brewing, wine making and bread making. This response is probably related to their level of awareness of yeasts in brewing and baking, rather than their understanding of the importance of fungi in industry. Brewing and baking rely upon a simple principle. The basis of current industries has been around for many centuries. Fermentation commonly results in the release of alcohol, but lactate, glycerol and other organic molecules can also be released. The principles are simple and well understood.

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  1. 1. Industrial Uses of FunFermentationIntroductionIf you were to ask someone what role fungi played in industry, it is likelythat they would indicate use of yeasts in brewing, wine making and breadmaking. This response is probably related to their level of awareness ofyeasts in brewing and baking, rather than their understanding of theimportance of fungi in industry. Brewing and baking rely upon a simpleprinciple. The basis of current industries has been around for manycenturies. Fermentation commonly results in the release of alcohol, butlactate, glycerol and other organic molecules can also be released. Theprinciples are simple and well understood.Production of AlcoholIn the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae presence of excess glucose repressesrespiration. In principle, materials rich in sugars (or starches) are thenfermented resulting in the production of alcohol.Wine.Alcohol is produced almost invariably by use of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeor its close relatives. Ales and wine use S. cerevisiae, lager uses S.carlsbergensis, cider uses S. uvarum, and saki uses S. sake. The yeast
  2. 2. hydrolises sugar, commonly sucrose, to pyruvic acid via the Embden-Myerhof-Parnas pathway, and then via acetaldehyde to ethanol. The reactionis exothermic, and unless the heat is dispersed, the reaction is slowed.Further, though up to 50% of sugar can yield alcohol, by weight, the solutionrarely goes beyond 15% ethanol, because the fungus is sensitive to highconcentrations of ethanol.Nearly half the wine of the world is produced in Italy, France and Spain.Australia and USA are rapidly increasing production of high quality wines.The main grape used is Vitus vinifera. As the grape berry ripens, theconcentration of sugar in the juice increases and acidity (especially malicacid) decreases. After harvest, the grapes are crushed and the juice (must) iseither fermented in contact with skins (red wine from dark berries) orwithout (white wine).Fresh berries are covered by various microbes, including yeasts. Thecontaminating microbes are suppressed by addition to the must of sulphurdioxide, or a compound that releases sulphur. Alternatively, the must mightbe sterilised by other means. The starter culture of specifically selectedyeasts is then added. The temperature is carefully controlled, and varioustreatments are used to influence the flavours that develop. After a period, theyeasts sink and the development of complexity allowed by aging andmaturation.Beer.Ales and lager use cereal grains, commonly barley, as the basis offermentation. Grain is dried, then germinated synchronously. Thegermination process involves release of amylases within the grain. Theseenzymes are then used to digest the starch of a batch of ground cerealsmixed into a mash, resulting in the release of hexoses. The resulting wort isdrained off. After various treatments, including addition of hops, the liquidis inoculated with specific yeasts and the mixture fermented for a shortperiod.SakeSake is a Japanese beverage made from rice. Steamed rice is inoculated withAspergillus oryzae to produce koji. Further rice mash is lactic acidfermented using bacteria and yeasts. The mash and koji are mixed andfermented for around 20 days, when the alcohol concentration has reached
  3. 3. around 18%. The product is filtered, pasteurised and stored beforeconsumption.Bread MakingLoaf of bread.Bread consists of a mixture of flour (usually from cereals especially wheat),with water, salt and sugar, leavened by yeast. Flour is mixed with theremaining ingredients and incubated at about 25 C. The yeast ferments thesugar forming carbon dioxide and alcohol. The released gas causes bubblesto form by elastic extension of gluten (a protein) in the flour. On baking, thealcohol evaporates. The length of leavening, the quantity of gluten in theflour, the constituents of the grain, and the temperature determine the textureand flavour of the bread.Flour from wheat can be mixed with starch from a variety of sources. Forinstance, potato and pumpkin have been used successfully mixed with wheatflour to make a different style and flavoured bread.ConclusionA variety of foods are fermented before consumption. By far, the largestindustries in the west are based around production of alcohol and bread.Fermentation to produce soy sauce and similar products are more likely tobe local industries in South East AsiaDrugs From FungiIntroductionAt the beginning of the 21st century, Fungi were involved in the industrialprocessing of more than 10 of the 20 most profitable products used inmedicine. Two anti-cholesterol statins, the antibiotic penicillin and theimmunosuppressant cyclosporin A are among the top 10. Each of these has aturn over in excess of $1 billion annually.Fungi are extremely useful organisms in biotechnology. Fungi constructunique complex molecules using established metabolic pathways. Differenttaxa produce sets of related molecules, each with slightly different finalproducts. Metabolites formed along the metabolic pathway may also be
  4. 4. biologically active. In addition, the final compounds are often released intothe environment. Manipulation of the genome, and environmental conditionsduring formation of compounds, enable the optimisation of productformation.On the negative side, single isolates of fungi in manufacture may lose theircapacity to form or release the target molecules. Indeed, the targetcompound may only be expressed under specific conditions, or at a specificpoint in the life cycle of the fungus. It is amazing that so many biologicallyactive compounds have been discovered and taken to point where they aremedically important.The role of fungi was established early in history. Yeasts have been used inthe making of bread and alcohol since the beginning of civilisation. LINK Inmodern times, the discovery of penicillin marked the beginning of a newapproach to human health and established the importance of fungiAntibiotics From FungiIn 1941, penicillin from the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum was first usedsuccessfully to treat an infection caused by a bacterium. Use of penicilinrevolutionised the treatment of pathogenic disease. Many formally fataldiseases caused by bacteria became treatable, and new forms of medicalintervention were possible.When penicillin was first produced, the concentration of active ingredientwas approximately 1 microgram per ml of broth solution. Today, improvedstrains and highly developed fermentation technologies produce more than700 micrograms per ml of active ingredient.In the early broths, several closely related molecules were present. Thesemolecules are beta lactam rings fused to five-membered thiazolidine rings,with a side chain. The side chain can be chemically modified to provideslightly different properties to the compound.The natural penicillins have a number of disadvantages. They are destroyedin the acid stomach, and so cannot be used orally. They are sensitive to betalactamases, which are produced by resistant bacteria, thus reducing theireffectiveness. They also only act on gram positive bacteria.Modifications to manufacturing conditions have resulted in the developmentof oral forms. However, antibiotic resistance among bacteria is becoming anextremely important aspect determining the long-term use of antibiotics.Cephalosporins also contain the beta lactam ring. The original fungusfound to produce the compounds was a Cephalosporium, hence the name.
  5. 5. As with penicillin, the cephalosporin antibiotics have a number ofdisadvantages. Industrial modification of the active ingredients has reducedthese problems.The only broadly useful antifungal agent from fungi is griseofulvin. Theoriginal source was Penicillium griseofulvin. Griseofulvin is fungistatic,rather than fungicidal. It is used for the treatment of dermatophytes, as itaccumulates in the hair and skin following topical application.More recently, several new groups have ben developed. Strobilurins targetthe ubihydroquinone oxidation centre, and in mammals, the compound fromfungi is immediately excreted. Basidiomycetes, especially from tropicalregions, produce an enormous diversity of these compounds.Sordarins are structurally complex molecules that show a remarkably narrowrange of action against yeasts and yeast-like fungi. The compounds inhibitprotein biosynthesis and so may become important agents against a numberof fungal pathogens of humans.Echinocandins are cyclic peptides with a long fatty acid side chain. Theytarget cell wall formation. Semi-synthetic members of the group ofcompounds include pneumocandins which are in use in humans.Immune SuppressantsCyclosporin A is a primary metabolite of several fungi, includingTrichoderma polysporum and Cylindrocarpon lucidum. Cyclosporin A hasproven to be a powerful immunosuppressant in mammals, being widely usedduring and after bone marrow and organ transplants in humans. CyclosporinA is a cyclic peptide consisting of 11 mainly hydrophobic amino acids. Itsinhibition of lymphocytes was first discovered during the 1970s.Subsequently, the mode of action was elucidated.Cyclosporin A binds to a cytosolic protein called cyclophilin. Cyclophilin isfound amongst many different organisms and its form appears highlyconserved. Cyclophilin is involved with folding the protein ribonuclease.However, the Cyclosporin A/cyclophilin complex also binds to calcineurin.Calcineurin dephosphorylates a transcription factor, thereby triggeringtranscription of numerous genes associated with T cell proliferation. Whenthe complex binds to calcineurin, T cell proliferation is suppressed. Theinhibition of T cells proliferation results in the suppression of the activationprocess associated with invasion by foreign bodies. As a consequence,transplant tissues, which are foreign bodies, are not rejected.Calcineurin is also highly conserved amongst phylogenetically diverseorganisms. In fungi such as the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans,
  6. 6. calcineurin is necessary for recovery from cell cycle arrest, growth inhypertonic solutions and regulation of the calcium pump. Thus theinteraction of the Cyclosporin A/cyclophilin complex with calcineurin inCryptococcus will result in death of the pathogen. However, in humans,cyclosporin also suppresses the immune system. The side effect is anunacceptable risk, and Cyclosporin A is not used as a fungicide in humans atpresent.Gliotoxins also have immunological and antibiotic activity. Produced bymany fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus, gliotoxins belong to a class ofcompounds called epipolythiodioxopiperazines. The antibiotic activity iswidely recognised and considered uninteresting. However, its effect on theimmune system, especially macrophages, is being re-examined.A wide range of other compounds with antibiotic activity are also known.They have been rejected for use in medicine because of unwanted sideeffects, or instability of the active compound.Ergot AlkaloidsClaviceps purpurea is the causal agent of St Anthonies fire, a scourge of themiddle ages when ergots contaminated flour. LINK The ergots contain manyalkaloids. Their effects are quite variable. They act on the sympatheticnervous system resulting in the inhibition of noradrenaline and sclerotin,causing dilation of blood vessels. They also act directly on the smoothmuscles of the uterus causing contractions, thus their early use to induceabortion. Their strongest effect is intoxication, caused by lysergic acidamides, one of which is the recreational (and illegal) drug, LSD.Ergot alkaloids have a number of medicinal uses. Perhaps the mostwidespread use is in the treatment of migraines. The vasodilator activityreduces tension during an attack. The drugs also reduce blood pressure,though with untoward side effects. Alkaloids are now produced in culture bystrains of C. fusiformis and C. paspalii.
  7. 7. StatinsAspergillus terreus, a soil-borne fungus, produces a secondary metabolitecalled lovastatin and Phoma sp produces squalestatin has been used toreduce or remove low density lipoproteins from blood vessels in humans. Infact, the compounds all act via an enzyme in the liver that makes cholesterol,lovastatin inhibits HMG CoA reductase and squalestatin inhibits squalenesynthase. By blocking the enzyme, the body removes cholesterol complexesfrom the inside of blood vessels. This has the effect of reducing or removingblockages in arteries, and thereby reducing the chance of a heart attack,strokes and diabetes.In addition, statins have been implicated in attracting stem cells to damagedtissues. The stem cells then appear to regenerate the tissue.Some statins induce problems. One form of the drug has been associatedwith muscle wastage. Others appear to lack side effects and have beenrecommended for wide spread use to control heart disease.Food ProcessingIntroductionFungi may be the food, or may make the food edible following processing.Processing may make it possible to consume the foodstuff by adding,modifying or removing components, including flavours, nutritional elementssuch as vitamins or colours to enhance the appeal of the food.Fungi are a common contributor to the processing of foods. Their use datesback to the start of the civilisation, when breads and wines were first madedeliberately. These days, the selection and use of fungi is a highly organisedfield of research and development in industry.Soy SauceWe tend to take a variety of foods and food additives for granted, withoutbeing aware of the processes which get them to the table. One such food isSoy Sauce and its partner bean curd.Soy Sauce.
  8. 8. Soy sauce (shoyu) is a dark brown, salty liquid, high in amino acids and witha meat-like flavour. It was first produced in Japan (a similar product is madein other east Asian countries), where some microbial cultures were used toferment the unpalatable soy beans. The current industrial process is highlycontrolled, used around the world and is based on this original process.Fermentation is in two stages. Initially, soy beans are soaked, cooked toremove contaminants, and then mixed with roasted wheat. The fungusAspergillus oryzae is added to the mix, and the amended mix keptaerobically for 20 to 40 hours at 25 C. The fungus produces invertases,amylases and cellulases, which degrade the soy paste. The paste is thenmixed and taken into the second phase of fermentation.In deep vats, brine is added to the paste and the yeast Saccharomyces rouxiiand lactobacilli are added. Anaerobic conditions develop quickly, preventingfurther growth of A. oryzae. After about a month, a sour liquid is apparent.The liquid contains large concentrations of amino acids, simple sugars and arange of vitamins. After separation and further storage, the liquid issterilised, bottled and sold as Soy Sauce. Similar products are called Koji,Idli, Patu, Laochao or Ogi.Blue CheeseVarious cheeses are sold that have been stab-inoculated with a strain ofPenicillium roquefortii. The result is a blue streak or vein through thecheese. The fungus imparts a strong, pungent flavour due to the aerobicproduction of methyl ketones. Famous blue cheeses include: Roquefort,Gorgonzola, Stilton, and Danish Blue.Other FlavoursWhile many flavours are produced by bacteria, fungi are responsible for arange of flavours including terpenes, menthol and lactones. Fungi alsoproduce compounds that deodorise offensive and neutralise bitter flavours.At present, flavour enhancement is an unimportant area of the industrial useof fungi.ColoursFungi produce a range of compounds that alter the colour of food. Forinstance, Monoascus purpureus has been traditionally used for theproduction of red wine. The pigments are polyketides that are insoluble inacid conditions. Beta carotene is produced by a range of Mucorales. This can
  9. 9. be added to a variety of foods. Concern with the potentially toxic or allergiccharacteristics of some artificial colours has led to a closer examination ofcolours from natural sources.Paper MakingArt Papers From Fungi By Allein StanleyThe basic process of making paper is straightforward and no different formushrooms than for other fibers. The one significant difference is that youare using a chitin base rather than a cellulose base for the paper. There areseveral variations on the theme. The following are very flexible guidelines,and should be adapted to your specific situation.Fruiting bodiesMaterials• Mushrooms*• Blender• Bucket• Large tray or tub several inches deep• Screen wire, other porous materials or deckle and mould• Newspapers, rags, towels, old sheeting, old blanket, heavybrown paper or paper towelling• Water - lots!• Sponge Optional: Iron, duct tape, binders, decorative strings,papers, plants.
  10. 10. *Although fleshy mushrooms can be used, you are more likely to havesuccess with the tough, corky polypores and other fibrous fungi. Oncecollected, they should be soaked at least overnight and can be soaked forweeks if the water is changed every two or three days. You may also wish toadd recycled papers, coloured strips or threads, scraps and such for binders,colour and texture. If you use newspaper, you will always get greyovertones, which you may not wish. Most of the fungi will give you varyingshades of tan, from pale, almost white, to deep ecru, even to brown. Fungalpapers also have a very attractive aroma.Many fungi are useful to humans and have been exploited both industriallyand commercially. Societies have utilized fungi for centuries in a widevariety of ways by capitalizing on the metabolism and metabolites(chemicals made from metabolism) produced. The oldest and best knownexample is the use of yeasts performing fermentation in brewing, winemaking and bread making. Yeasts and other fungi play a critical role in drugproduction, food processing, bio-control agents, enzyme biotechnology, aswell as research and development.The use of yeast (e.g. Saccharomyces cerevisae) to make alcohol and carbondioxide uses the fermentation process to break down sugars. Up to 50% ofthe sugar can be converted to alcohol, but rarely surpasses 15% because thefungi are sensitive to high concentrations of alcohol. In the beer makingindustry, cereal grains are fermented to make the final product. Wine iscomposed of fermented grapes while hard cider is essentially fermentedapples. Sake is produced by rice fermentation, using Aspergillus oryzae andthen an additional fermentation step utilizing bacteria and yeasts. With breadmaking, fermentation utilizes sugar to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol.The carbon dioxide produces the bubbles and causes bread to rise, while thealcohol produced evaporates off while baking. A variety of foods and drinksare fermented before consumption. Some of the largest industries in the westare based around production of alcohol and bread. In the east, the productionof soy sauce and other fermented soybean products are likely among thelargest industries. The peoples of Asia have developed a wide variety ofinteresting fermented foods, sauces and drinks, using fungi. Other examples
  11. 11. and the applicable fungi include koji (Aspergillus); miso, soy bean paste(Aspergillus); sufu, Chinese cheese (Rhizopus), nyufu or fuyu, bean cake orbean cheese (Rhizopus); shoyu or soy sauce (Aspergillus, Saccharomyces)and tempeh (Rhizopus).Another way in which fungi are used industrially in the food industry is incheese production. Various cheeses are inoculated with Penicilliumroquefortii to impart a strong and pungent flavor in the resultant cheeses.Examples are Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Stilton Blue and Danish Blue. Thewhite crust on the outside of the cheeses known as Brie and Camembert isthe mycelium of Penicillium camembertii. These strong flavors are a resultof the fungus producing methyl ketones.Aspergillus is utilized industrially in a number of ways. Most sodas and softdrinks contain citric acid as a main ingredient. Citric acid is also used inother drinks, many candies, canned goods, baked goods, etc. It is tooexpensive to isolate the citric acid from citrus fruits so it is produced inlarge-scale fermentation vats utilizing Aspergillus niger. Authentic soysauce is fermented in a three-step process with the fungi Aspergillus oryzaeand Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, as well as the bacterium Pediococcushalophilus (Comm. Dr. S. N. Rajagopal, Biological and AgriculturalEngineering, Univ. AR).
  12. 12. Aspergillus sp.Fungi are very useful organisms in biotechnology. They are importantexperimental organisms easily cultured, occupy little space, multiply rapidlyand have a short life cycle. Many fungi are used as model organisms forgenetics, cell biology and molecular biology. The now famous "one geneone enzyme" hypothesis in the ascomycete fungus Neurospora won Beadleand Tatum the Nobel Prize. Currently there are about 1,600 antibioticscommercially produced and a number of medical drugs are manufacturedusing various fungi. These multi-billion dollar industries include examplessuch as anti-cholesterol statins, the antibiotic penicillin, theimmunosuppressant cyclosporins and steroids. Statins have been used toreduce cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease. The group of statinsderived via fermentation include: lovastatin (first isolated from Aspergillusterreus and the first statin approved by the FDA in 1987), pravastatin(isolated from Nocardia autotrophica), and mevastatin (from the fungiHypomyces, Paecilomyces, and Trichoderma, and a fermentation product ofPenicillium citrinum). Since its discovery in 1941, the antibiotic penicillinfrom the fungus Penicillium notatum (often called P. chrysogenum) hasrevolutionized human health and disease treatment. Cephalosporins are
  13. 13. another group of antibiotics originally produced by the fungusCephalosporium (synonym of Acremonium). First discovered as a powerfulimmunosuppressant in the 1970s, cyclosporins are a primary metabolite ofseveral fungi, including Trichoderma, Tolypocladium and Cylindrocarpon.Cyclosporins have proven to be useful in mammals, being widely usedduring and after bone marrow and organ transplants in humans. The steroidin "the pill" is produced industrially by the fungus Rhizopus nigricans.Steroids, such as cortisone (used in arthritis treatment) and prednisone, aremanufactured with the help of molds.The only useful antifungal agent from fungi is griseofulvin. The originalsource was Penicillium griseofulvin. Griseofulvin is fungistatic (inhibitsfungal growth), rather than fungicidal (destroys fungi). It is used for thetreatment of dermatophytes, as it accumulates in the hair and skin followingtopical application. These antifungal agents are readily and cheaplyproduced industrially.Penicillium sp.Ergot alkaloids have a number of medicinal uses, the most widespread beingmigraine treatment. The vasodilator activity reduces tension during an
  14. 14. attack. These alkaloids are now produced industrially in culture using strainsof Claviceps.A number of industrial applications use the biological activity of fungiinvolved in the alteration of plant cell walls. Fungi are able to break downplant cell walls by the production of a wide variety of enzymes. Enzymes areused to treat and modify fibers, particularly during textile processing and incaring for textiles afterwards. For example, enzymes called catalases areused to treat cotton fibers and prepare them for the dyeing processes. Bydegrading surface fibers, many enzymes, including some cellulases andxylanases, are used to finish fabrics, help in the tanning of leathers or givejeans a stonewashed effect. Stonewashed jeans are placed in a large vatcontaining the fungus Trichoderma, which produces enzymes (cellulases)that partially digest the cotton fibers of the jeans to add softness and producethe stonewashed look. The natural enzyme supplement Beano™, containsthe enzyme (α-galacatosidase) from Aspergillus terreus, used for digestivediscomfort. The pulp and paper industry benefits from the enzymeproduction capabilities of certain fungi to soften wood fibers and providealternatives to chemical bleaching. For example, the basidiomycetesTrametes and Phanerochaete are used for lignin biodegradation andBjerkandera is used for hardwood cellulose bio-bleaching by producing theenzymes peroxidase and xylanase. Certain fungi are the primary source forxylanases, which are used industrially to breakdown xylan, the second mostabundant polysaccharide in nature.Enzymes are a sustainable alternative to the use of harsh chemicals inindustry. Because enzymes work under moderate conditions, such as warmtemperatures and neutral pH, they reduce energy consumption byeliminating the need to maintain extreme environments, as required by manychemically catalyzed reactions. Reducing energy consumption leads todecreased greenhouse gas emissions. Enzymes also reduce waterconsumption and chemical waste production during manufacturingprocesses. Because enzymes react to specific situations and minimize theproduction of by-products, they offer minimal risk to humans, wildlife, andthe environment. Enzymes are both economically and environmentallybeneficial because they are safely inactivated and create little or no waste;rather than being discarded, end-product enzymatic material may be treatedand used as fertilizer. Enzyme research using fungi has been very active andpromising in recent years. For example the enzyme laccase produced fromdifferent fungi was used to make paper. This process led to a 30% reduction
  15. 15. in energy consumption, a 50% reduction in chemical product usage and agreater resistance to tearing.Enzymes are also used to make food more edible or desirable by removing,adding or modifying components such as vitamins, nutritional elements,colors and flavors. Fungi are a common contributor to the processing offoods. Certain fungi produce a range of compounds that alter the color offood. For instance, Monoascus purpureus has been traditionally used for theproduction of red wine. The pigments are polyketides that are insoluble inacid conditions. A range of zygomycete fungi in the Mucorales producesbeta-carotene, commonly added to a variety of foods. A recent concern withthe potentially toxic or allergic reactions of some artificial coloring agentshas led to a closer examination of colors from these natural sources. Used inanimal nutrition and food enrichment, the biocatalytic production of vitaminB2 (riboflavin) replaced chemical synthesis in the early 1990s. It is nowcommonly produced by fermentation of the ascomycete fungus Ashbyagossypii. Since large quantities of enzymes are often needed for industrialusage, fermentation vats fulfill this need.Fungal food items are also produced on an industrial scale. For instance,edible mushrooms are grown on large-scale farms. These delicious andnutritious natural products have seen a large increase during the past fewdecades. Many contain a protein profile that rivals that of beans and mostcontain large amounts of B vitamins and minerals. Another food productexample is Quorn™, the brand name of an all-natural, meat-free frozenfood. Quorn™ brand has been sold in the UK since 1985. In 2002 it waslaunched in the U.S. and has since become the best-selling frozen meat-freebrand in natural food stores. It can be found in various meat-like forms suchas patties, (veggie) dogs, roasts, and tenders (similar to chicken nuggets).This efficient and nutritious protein source consists of a mycoprotein fromthe fungus Fusarium venenatum.In the various fields of agriculture, medicine, environmental biology,biotechnology, research and development; fungi provide novel andimportant products and applications. Their extraordinary usefulness hasprovided us with numerous advantageous products and will undoubtedlyafford us with additional medicines, foodstuffs, enzymes, amenities andother valuable items in the future.
  16. 16. Industrial uses for fungiFoodThe usage of fungi for food, preservation or other purposes by humans arewide-ranging and has a rich history. For example, yeasts are used to fermentbeer, wine and bread; while some other species, for example, the Aspergillusoryzae, are used in the production of soy sauce and tempeh, a food productmade from soya beans, with different nutritional characteristicsa and texturalqualities. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (also known as baker’s yeast), a singlecell fungus, is used in the baking of bread and other wheat-based productssuch as pizza and dumplings. It is also used for the production of alcoholicbeverages through fermentation. Several species, such as the Agaricusbisporus and the Portobello are sold as button mushrooms for consumption.There are many more mushroom species that are harvested from the wild forpersonal consumption or commercial sale. Milk mushrooms, morels,chanterelles, truffles, black trumpets, and porcini mushrooms all demand ahigh price on the market and are often used in gourmet dishes.For certain types of cheeses, it is also a common practice to inoculate milkcurds with fungal spores to forment the growth of a specific species ofmould that impart a unique flavour and textures to the cheese, this accountsfor the blue colour in cheeses such as Stilton of Roquefort. The moulds usedin cheese production are usually non-toxic and are thus safe for humancomsumption; however, mycotoxins may accumulate due to fungal spoilageduring cheese rippening or storage.Soya sauce – Aspergillus oryzae, Pediococcus soyae, Saccharomyces rouxii
  17. 17. Yeasts – Saccharomyces cerevisae, e.g. wine and vodkaCheese
  18. 18. Other human usesFungi are also used widely to produce industrial chemicals like lactic acid,antibiotics and even to make stone-washed jeans.Fungi in the biological control of pestsIn agriculture, fungi that competes for nutrients and space with, andeventually prevail over, pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria orother fungi, via the competitive exclusion principle, or are parasites ofpathogens, may be beneficial agents for human use. Some fungi may be usedto suppress growth or eliminate harmful plant pathogens, such as insects,mites, weeds, nematodes and other fungi that cause diseases of importantcrop plants.Entomopathogenic fungi can be used as biopesticides, for they actively killinsects. Examples of fungi that have been used widely as biopesticides areBeauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomycesspp and Verticillum lecanii.
  19. 19. Fungi in MedicineAntibiotics – e.g. Penicillin, Griseofulvin, Cephalosporin
  20. 20. Food ProcessingIntroductionFungi may be the food, or may make the food edible following processing.Processing may make it possible to consume the foodstuff by adding,modifying or removing components, including flavours, nutritional elementssuch as vitamins or colours to enhance the appeal of the food.Fungi are a common contributor to the processing of foods. Their use datesback to the start of the civilisation, when breads and wines were first madedeliberately. These days, the selection and use of fungi is a highly organisedfield of research and development in industry.Soy SauceWe tend to take a variety of foods and food additives for granted, withoutbeing aware of the processes which get them to the table. One such food isSoy Sauce and its partner bean curd.
  21. 21. Soy Sauce.Soy sauce (shoyu) is a dark brown, salty liquid, high in amino acids and witha meat-like flavour. It was first produced in Japan (a similar product is madein other east Asian countries), where some microbial cultures were used toferment the unpalatable soy beans. The current industrial process is highlycontrolled, used around the world and is based on this original process.Fermentation is in two stages. Initially, soy beans are soaked, cooked toremove contaminants, and then mixed with roasted wheat. The fungusAspergillus oryzae is added to the mix, and the amended mix keptaerobically for 20 to 40 hours at 25 C. The fungus produces invertases,amylases and cellulases, which degrade the soy paste. The paste is thenmixed and taken into the second phase of fermentation.In deep vats, brine is added to the paste and the yeast Saccharomyces rouxiiand lactobacilli are added. Anaerobic conditions develop quickly, preventingfurther growth of A. oryzae. After about a month, a sour liquid is apparent.The liquid contains large concentrations of amino acids, simple sugars and arange of vitamins. After separation and further storage, the liquid issterilised, bottled and sold as Soy Sauce. Similar products are called Koji,Idli, Patu, Laochao or Ogi.CheeseBlue cheese.Production of cheese relies on diverse microbes. The cheese environment isdynamic and the specific biological interactions complex. Fungi play a role
  22. 22. in ripening in two different ways: they may assist ripening from the outsideof the cheese, and they can impart flavours from inside the cheese.Various yeast and filamentous fungi colonise the surface of cheeses. Themay be surface contaminants or deliberately inoculated. Their impact willrely on the temperature, water content, pH, salinity and redox of thesubstrate.Soft-ripened cheeses are ripened from the outside in. Penicilliumcamemberti (=P candidum) is inoculated onto the surface of cheeses,typically Brie, Camembert and Neufchatel, where growth over 7 to 70 daysimparts a flexible powdery white crust and contributes to the runny textureand intense flavours of the contents.Various cheeses are sold that have been stab-inoculated with a strain ofPenicillium roquefortii. The result is a blue streak or vein through thecheese. The fungus imparts a strong, pungent flavour due to the aerobicproduction of methyl ketones. Famous blue cheeses include: Roquefort,Gorgonzola, Stilton, and Danish Blue. The fungus is a widespread spoilageorganism found in cool conditions. It can grow at low oxygen availabilityand tolerates acidic conditions. Thus the presence of blue cheeses in yourfridge may lead to widespread contamination of products like bread that useacids as preservatives.Cheese is susceptible to the growth of fungi. While a huge diversity areassociated with unwanted contamination, some such as Geotrichumcandidum have been expoited because they are thought to impart desirableflavours and assist with the ripening process.Other FlavoursWhile many flavours are produced by bacteria, fungi are responsible for arange of flavours including terpenes, menthol and lactones. Fungi alsoproduce compounds that deodorise offensive and neutralise bitter flavours.At present, flavour enhancement is an unimportant area of the industrial useof fungi.ColoursFungi produce a range of compounds that alter the colour of food. Forinstance, Monoascus purpureus has been traditionally used for the
  23. 23. production of red wine. The pigments are polyketides that are insoluble inacid conditions. Beta carotene is produced by a range of Mucorales. This canbe added to a variety of foods. Concern with the potentially toxic or allergiccharacteristics of some artificial colours has led to a closer examination ofcolours from natural sources.Fungi are prominent sources of pharmaceuticals and are used in manyindustrial fermentative processes, such as the production of enzymes,vitamins, pigments, lipids, glycolipids, polysaccharides and polyhydricalcohols.During the past 50 years, several major advancements in medicine camefrom lower organisms such as molds, yeasts and the other divers fungi.Fungi are extremely useful in making high value products like mycoproteinsand acts as plant growth promoters and disease suppressor. Fungalsecondary metabolites are important to our health and nutrition and havetremendous economic impact. In addition to this, fungi are extremely usefulin carrying out biotransformation processes. Recombinant DNA technology,which includes yeasts and other fungi as hosts, has markedly increasedmarket for microbial enzymes.Today, fungal biotechnology is a major participant in the global industry dueto its mind blowing potential.A) Designing of vectorsYeast vectors are used in genetic engineering. E.g., shuttle vectors are usedfor expression of desirable gene in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.YAC, YRP, YIP, YEP are some other yeast vectors.B) Fungi as a foodFungi are used as high cost food because of its high protein and low calorificvalue. Europe, America, Australia and Japan are very playing industries inmushroom cultivation. Some of the edible fungi (Mushrooms)are given as
  24. 24. below.1) Agaricus compestris2) Volvariella (paddy straw mushroom)3) Morchella (Temperate zone mushroom)4) Pleurotus sp. (oyster mushroom)5) Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom)C) Fungi as a rich source of SCPFungi are used as the rich sources of Single Cell Proteins. Some of the fungifor SCP are given as1) Yeast (S. cerevisae)2) Aspergillus niger3) Penicillium chrysogenum4) Fusarium avenacum5) Neurospora sitoplilaD) Isolation of fungal metabolites of pharmaceutical importanceAspergillus nidulans and other fungi are used for isolation of secondarymetabolites. The secondary metabolites are used as drug. Ergot alkaloids(Ergometrin and Ergotoin) and Lovastatin, a popular cholesterol-loweringdrug are the secondary metabolites. Fungal metabolites have antitumour,antiviral, antibacterial and immunosuppressants activities.E) Fungal pathogens as nibblersFungal pathogens are use as root nibblers to produce many root fibers thatincrease the maximum uptake of nutrients and water for moreyield.Trichoderma viridae and fusarium has shown increased number of rootfibres in Tomato & Maize plants.F) Fungi in improving the quality of produceIt is evidence that some fungal diseases can enhance the nutritional qualityof food & feed. E.g. smutted corn and rust infected wheat grains have morecarbohydrate and phosphorus contents as compare to healthy plants.G) Fungi as biofertilizesVesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae are the mutualistic symbiosis between theroots of higher plants and certain fungi. The mycorrhizae help in thephosphate nutrition of plants and protect the roots by forming the mantle.
  25. 25. H) Fungi as "Microbial weed killer "(Bioherbicides) Fungi are known for itsquite specific& effective action and have low residual effects in comparisonwith synthetic pesticides. Here are given some fungi as bioherbicides.Fungi are used as bioherbicides,some examples with their targets are givenin brackets.These are Septagloeum gillis (Mistletoes)Wallrothiella arecuthobii (Mistletoes)Colletotrichum gloeosporiordes(Mistletoes)Phyllosticta (Glycosmis)Leptosphaerulina trifolia(Passiflora)Puccinia chondrillina(Rush weed)Cercospora ageratinae(Pamakani weed)I) Cellulose degradation by fungiHeap of agricultural residues, forest residues deposited ample of cellulosesin the soil. Only fungal cellulases are involved in degradation of depositedcellulose. Fusarium, Trichoderma, Penicillium derived cellulases areinvolved in degradation of celluloses. Degradation of these leads maximumbioenergy production. Some of the other fungal enzymes are ? gluconaseand ? glucosidase (cellobiase).J) Bioconversion of ligninWhite Rot fungi such as Coriolus versicolor, Polyporus ance and Brown Rotfungi like Poria monticola, Lenzitis trabea are used in depolymerization anddegradation of lignin to low molecular weight Petroleum products. Thesefungi are also used in softening of wood in paper making industries.K) Entamopathogenic fungiThis group of fungi secretes the toxin, which possesses theentemocidalproperties. The role of entamopathogenic fungi, its products andeffects are given as below.L) Industrial Applications of fungiFungi are widely used in fermentative industries for the production ofethanol, organic acids, antibiotics and enzymes like fungal cellulases, ?gluconase and ? glycosidase. Certain fungi like P.notatum, P.crysogenumand Cenococcum Sp.are used in antibiotics production where as S.cerevisaeand Monilia Sp. are used in ethanol production. Fungi are also useful inripening of cheese and processing of other products.
  26. 26. M) Biodegradation of pesticides/ Toxic chemicals and petroleumWhite Rot fungi have the potential role in degradation of toxic pesticideslike DDT, PCB and Lindane. In addition to this, it can degrade certain toxicchemicals like dioxin, benzopyrene, cyanides, azides, CCl4 andPentachlorophenol (PCP). Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces andFusarium has found to be involved in petroleum degradation at 30 0C incontaminated soil.N) Biodegradation of Azo dye and HydrocarbonsPeroxidase enzyme of Penicillium crysosporium & Streptomyces sps. havepotential biodegradable activities that degrade Amaranth dye, Orange G,heterocyclic dyes like, Azure B and Lip dye. The filamentous fungi are alsohaving role in degradation of toxic hydrocarbons.O) Fungi in Hazardous waste remediationFungi help in remediation of explosive contaminated soil by its lignindegrading Enzymes TNT, RDX, HMX are some of the potential explosivesthat contaminates soil and water. Other degradable nitro explosives byPleurotus ostreatus are as follows:Nitrobenzene4-Nitrophenol4-Nitroaniline1-Methoxy 4 nitrobenzene2-Methoxy 4-nitro phenol1, 2, di Methoxy 4 nitrobenzeneP) Biomineralization of Heavy MetalsThe fungi have eminent role in the removal & recovery of heavy metalsfrom wastewater and industrial effluents. Hg, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd are extracted atpH 2-5 by myceliar beads of Penicillium.ConclusionFungi are the organisms that have potential role in degradation ofexplosives. It is observed by repeated laboratory studies involving purecultures of white rot fungi. It also helps in degradation of hydrocarbons inthe environment. Fungi attract considerable attention due to their possibleinvolvement in the diverse applications. So far, large numbers of enzymes
  27. 27. have been purified from fungal cultures and characterized in terms of theirbiochemical and catalytic properties. It possesses antimicrobial activities andis used in biomineralization, as a food for its high protein contents and as abiofertilizers.Uses of FungusFungi are simple plant forms, and include mushrooms, molds, yeasts andmildews. Unlike other plants, however, fungi do not have chlorophyll andare not capable of photosynthesis. According to the Cornell UniversityMushroom Blog, fungi have important culinary, medical, agricultural andindustrial uses. Fungi can be used to create dyes, medications and eco-friendly building materials.
  28. 28. Building MaterialsEcovativedesign Corporation, located in Green Island, New York, makesbiodegradable packaging. A unique aspect of their product is that it isgrown, not manufactured. Ecovativedesign has a patented process that usesfungal mycelia to bind together the agricultural products they shape intopackaging. Their product is called Ecocradle.MedicinesAncient Egyptian physicians used moldy bread on battle wounds. Thousandsof years later, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, and there are manyother medicines that have since been synthesized from fungi. Mevinolin, acompound derived from the fungus Aspergillus terreus, is the basis for thestatin medications Pravastatin, Simvastatin and Lovastatin, that are used totreat high cholesterol. Alcohol and citric acid are the most abundantlyproduced fungal metabolites. The fungal metabolite cyclosporin is used tosuppress the immune system in organ transplant recipients, according toWorld-of-Fungi.org.Agriculture and IndustryThe fungus Rhizopus microsporus has been found to markedly increase theefficiency of ethanol production, according to the website Science Daily.Ethanol is one of the most widely produced fungal metabolites. As of 2010,Iowa State University is researching ways to reduce the amount of waste inethanol production. In standard ethanol production methods, the enzyme richliquid by-product called “thin stillage” is largely unused. The fungusRhizopus microsporus grows well in thin stillage, and is able to break downthe majority of the solids in it. The remaining water and enzymes are thenrecycled back into the ethanol production process. The fungus itself can beharvested and made into livestock feed. Researchers at the University ofIowa estimate that this process will reduce the ethanol industry’s waterconsumption by 10 billion gallons per year. The monetary savings caused byincreased efficiency of production would save the ethanol industry $800million annually in energy costs, according to Science Daily.FoodFungi are low in fat, contain almost no cholesterol and are rich in Bvitamins. By dry weight, mushrooms are 20 to 30 percent protein that
  29. 29. contains all of the essential amino acids. Fungal mycelia can be made intosubstitute hamburgers, peppered steaks and lamb. Mushrooms are a stapleingredient in many cultures cuisines.DyesLichens have a long and illustrious history of being used to create thecoveted purple and red dyes worn by wealthy men and women of ancientTyre. The first mention of lichen dyeing is found in the Bible, Ezekiel 27:7.Lichen dyes yield rich colors that are quickly absorbed by fabrics, accordingto the Cornell Mushroom Blog.
  30. 30. Mushroom: A potential new sector in BangladeshAlthough mushroom is a popular and nutritious food in many countries ofthe world, many in Bangladesh had long been ignoring this stuff consideringit a fungus. But today this mushroom has become bread and butter of manypeople.Actually, mushroom is a very nutritious, delicious and fully halal vegetablehaving medicinal qualities. Though its acceptance once was limited to ahandful of people, now there has been a gradual change in the impression.Mushroom cultivation in Bangladesh began in 1979 with assistance fromJapanese organisation JOCDV. Later, Japan International CooperationAgency (JAICA) came up in 1987 with its assistance. Mushroom cultivationslowed down in 1990 following withdrawal of JAICAs support.In 2003, the government introduced a Mushroom Development Projectunder Agriculture Extension Department for making mushroom popularamong the people.Different research works are being conducted under the project in addition toproviding, training on mushroom cultivation.Apart from Savar, this project has activities in Dinajpur, Jessore, Barisal,Chittagong, Sylhet, Comilla, Khulna, Mymensingh, Bandarban, Rangamati,
  31. 31. Chapainawabganj and Rangpur for motivating people to cultivatemushroom.Sheikh Ruhul Amin, director of the Mushroom Development Project, sayscurrently 13 species of mushroom are cultivated in Bangladesh of whichWester Mushroom is produced commercially to a large extent. Mushroomfanning is in fact a very easy job. There is an opportunity to make goodprofit by investing a little amount of capital and labour. One can earn Tk 4-5thousand a month by investing only Tk 10- 15 thousand.Mushroom seed or spawn is produced through tissue culture, which isbought by farmers at a cost of Tk 6-10. To get the harvest from the seed, ithas to be kept in a wet place and needs to be sprayed with water three timesa day. Mushroom can be collected for over two months from each span,which will weigh about 200 grams. The farmers begin to harvest within next8-10 days from the day of cultivation.There are such advantages in mushroom cultivation that cannot be found infarming of other crops. Mushroom is a fungus-type colourless plant. As theyare colourless, they do not need sunlight to survive or grow. Besides,mushroom cultivation does not require soil. Mushroom seed can be sowedusing industrial waste like wooden dust and husk of wheat and rice. Afterproduction, these elements become fertiliser. There is no need of anyinsecticide or chemical fertiliser for mushroom farming. Given a suitableenvironment and proper nursing its cultivation is possible throughout theyear. Electricity is not needed for mushroom cultivation.
  32. 32. A buyer can buy mushroom in three forms -- fresh, dry and powder.Mushroom generally stays fresh for a day. If refrigerated, it stays fresh fortwo three days. A kilogram of fresh mushroom sells at Tk 80-200, dry one atTk 1000-1200 while the powder sells at Tk 1200-1500.Mushroom food is prepared in different ways in different countries. Themushroom soup, fry and vegetable available in Chinese restaurants of ourcountry are very delicious. Mushroom can be used with fish, meat andvegetables.Mushroom is a highly nutritious vegetable. ST Chang, a professor emeritusof Biology at Chinese University of Hong Kong, and PG Miles, a USscientist, co-authored a book named, Edible Mushroom and theirCultivation. To them, the amount of protein in mushroom is double thanother vegetables. So, it is called vegetable protein.A recent article by mushroom researcher Prof SM Alam and Rizwan Manjurpublished in Pakistans Dawn newspaper shows mushroom is identified as agood source of iron, copper, calcium, potassium, vitamin D and folic acid.Mushroom has also been used for a long time as a medicinal plant. It worksin preventing different diseases. After making antibiotic from fungus,fungus-type plants (mushroom) have been contributing wonderfully for thelast 50 years in making medicine. Medicines like Penicillin, tetracycline,oriomycin etc., that are made from fungus have been used effectively againstinfection and infectious diseases.
  33. 33. Experts in a health-related website said edible mushrooms have multi-dimensional effects that help prevent different diseases. Special elements ofsome species of mushroom particularly work in preventing diseases likecancer, kidney problems, hepatitis, AIDS, asthma, diabetes, insomnia andtumor. Medicinal mushroom also plays a role in reducing cholesterol andridding of mental exhaustions. It is learnt from an alternative medicine-related website that a mushroom called Reishi is being used in AIDStreatment.On inventing medicine from mushroom in the 21st century, ST Chang saysit can be said based on the research in the last two decades mushroom willbe able to play a successful role in the future in those fields where modemmedicine system will fail.There is a huge prospect of mushroom cultivation in Bangladesh. It can playan important role in eradicating malnutrition, one of the main problems ofthe people, and preventing diseases. By mushroom cultivation, it is possibleto alleviate poverty and providing employment for educated unemployed,youths, adolescents and women.The amount of agricultural land is decreasing day by day. But the populationis going up. So is the demand for food. As mushroom does not require soiland its food value is very high, the countrys food deficit can be reduced to agreat extent by extensive fanning of mushroom.Mushroom has already been an important crop in developed countries. It ispossible to earn foreign currency after meeting the domestic demand. The
  34. 34. amount of money earned by exporting mushroom is very low at thismoment.There is a need for extensive publication in raising the acceptability of thisvegetable. But, it is important to make mushroom acceptable so that peopleare not provided any exaggerated information about it. Mushroom, forinstance, helps prevent diseases but the use of mushroom, as a preventive isnot desirable because the issue of using mushroom as drug is still underresearch. So, a person having diseases against which mushroom createsresistance must undertake treatment for his diseases.Like booming dairy and poultry industries, it is very much possible totransform mushroom into an industry. For that, eliminating adverseperception, mushroom will have to be made acceptable to the people.Besides, effective steps need to be taken for its marketing.
  35. 35. IntroductionA huge range of edible fungi are cultured. Agaricius bisporus is cultivatedwidely in western countries. In addition, Shii-take (Lentinus edodes), Strawmushroom (Flammulina velutipes) , Oyster mushroom (Pleurotusostreatus), and Chinese Black mushroom (Auricularia polytricha) arecultured in various Asian countries, and increasingly in western countries.The truffle industry is economically important in southern Europe andproduction is expanding in the southern hemisphere. Finally, ediblemushrooms are picked from the wild, especially in Europe. Many of thefungi are eaten fresh, but there is also a market for dried mushrooms andcanned truffles.Common or Button Mushroom
  36. 36. The identity of the fungi grown as commercial or button mushrooms inwestern countries is not altogether clear. The generally accepted name isAgaricus bisporus. However, breeding over the years appears to haveresulted in the infusion of some genetic material from various sources.Common mushrooms.The commercial mushroom is grown in a process that varies only slightlyaround the world. Essentially, straw is mixed with stable and poultry litter,mixed with appropriate minerals and then composted. Spawn is added afterthe compost has cooled after the second phase. The compost is then laid out,usually in purpose built sheds in which the temperature is held at around 24degrees. A layer of inert, alkaline material is added as a casing over thesurface. Once mycelia reach the surface of the beds, the temperature of theshed is reduced to induce fruiting. Fruiting then proceeds over the next fewweeks.Commercial mushroom production is a highly intensive industry.Understandably, pests and diseases are a major problem. The principles ofcontrol do not differ from other intensive production systems.Shii-take and Log Culture
  37. 37. Shii-take is a highly prized mushroom in Japan. The range of variation inflavours and odours make this a valuable ingredient in the usually delicatelyflavoured Japanese recipes. The range comes from the genotype of thespawn, selection of logs used to grow the fungi, and conditions under whichthe logs are then incubated. Shii-take is commonly grown on logs ofdeciduous trees. The logs are inoculated with spore suspension placed overthe logs or by overgrowth from pre-inoculated fragments of timber. The baselogs are not sterilised so the process has many potential hazards.Shii-take Mushrooms.After extensive period of colonisation of the logs (laying), the induction offruiting takes place when the logs are stood upright and the temperaturedrops. After a period of maturation, the temperature increases. Fruiting thentakes place in spring, and continues for some years after.Cropping takes place in the open, and traditional approaches continue to beused in Japan. Most of the crop is sold fresh, though some is dried, packagedand then sold throughout the year. The dried crop is most commonlyexported from Japan. Artificial approaches to cropping have been developed.These use controlled temperatures, and selection of particular strains. InAustralia, cropping more commonly uses these artificial environments andselected strains.
  38. 38. Auricularia and Pleurotis are also grown on timber logs. In Australia,Auricularia grows naturally on plum, fig and kurrajong trees, indicating apotentially huge potential host range for culture. Fruit bodies appear afterperiods of continuously wet and humid weather in autumn. Most Auriculariaappears in shops in Australia in the dried form, often sourced out of China.Culture on Organic WasteStraw mushrooms.Straw mushrooms are traditionally grown on straw from the rice paddy. Thebundles of straw are drenched and then stood upright. The bundles areusually inoculated with spawn. Each bundle can produce fresh mushroomsfor several weeks.More recently, bundles of straw have been mixed with cotton or otherorganic waste, or cotton waste used exclusively. These alternatives oftenproduce more mushrooms, probably due to the improved N:C ratio.
  39. 39. INTRODUCTIONMashroom is rich in protein, some essential amino acids, fiber, potassium,and vitamins and have low cholesterol and fat levels (Rafique, 1996).Mushroom cultivation represents the only current economically viablebiotechnology process for the conversion of waste plant residues fromforests and agriculture (Wood and Smith, 1987). Sawdust and sugarcanebagasse were the best substrates for growing of Oyster Mushroom than otheragro-based substrates (Ahmed, 1998). Wide spread malnutrition with everincreasing protein gap in our country has necessitated the search foralternative source of protein because the production of pulses has not keptpace with our requirement due to high population growth. Animal protein isbeyond the reach of the most people in this country because most of thepeople (over 86%) live beyond poverty level (World Bank, 1992). Ediblemushrooms are recommended by the FAO as food, contributing to theprotein nutrition of developing countries dependent largely on cereals.Presently three Mushrooms namely Pleurotus species (Oyster Mushroom),Volvariella volvaceae (Straw Mushroom) and Auricularia spp (EarMushroom) are under commercial cultivation in Bangladesh. Compost oruncompost wheat and paddy straw, banana leaves, sugarcane bagasses andleaves, wheat barn, rich husk, sawdust etc can be used as substrate forgrowing mushroom (Gupta, 1986). Present work was undertaken to findsuitable sawdust as substrate for growing Mushroom.MATERIALS AND METHODSCollection of sawdustTo study the influence of different substrates on the growth and yield ofMushroom, substrates used were Mango sawdust, Jackfruits sawdust, Jam
  40. 40. sawdust, Kadom sawdust, Mahogony sawdust, Shiris sawdustand Coconutsawdust collected from Rajghat, Abhoynager, Jessore. Wheat barn wascollected from local market.Media and culturePotato dextrose agar (PDA) media was prepared by using dehydrated PDAmedium. To obtain pure culture a small piece of the fruiting body ofMushroom and placed on the sterilized PDA media under aseptic condition.It was then kept for 7 – 10 days in an incubator under 25°C for sufficientgrowth. This pure culture was used for the entire experiment.Preparation of mother cultureMother culture (MC) was prepared by using mango sawdust. The MCsubstance consisting 1.0 kg of sawdust, 500 gm fresh well dried wheat branand 15 gm CaCO3 for preparation of 30 bag of MC. The substrate wastightly packed and a hole was made (2/3 of its length) with sharp end stick atthe centre to have the space to put the inoculums for uniform running of themycelium. Then the bag was plugged with cotton and covered with brownpaper placing a rubber band to hold it in place. The bags were autoclavedand kept 24 hours at room temperature for cooling. Then, a piece of PDAblock from pure culture containing mycelia was placed through preparedhole of the bags. The bags plugged with cotton were kept in an incubator at25°C for running of the mycelia. After 15 days, the whole substrate becamewhitish in color due to fungal mycelia and then it was checked whether anycontamination occurred or not and then it was ready for spawning.
  41. 41. Preparation of substratesSpawn packets of seven different substrates using sawdust of Mango(Mangifera indica), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Coconut (Cocosnucifera), Kadom (Anthocephalus sinensis), Mahogony (Swietoniamacrophylla), Shiris (Albizzia spp), Jam (Syzygium spp) plants wereprepared separately. The spawn preparing substrate and wheat bran nutrientconsisting 2:1 V/V and 1.0% CaCO3 were taken in a plastic bowl and mixedthoroughly by hand and moisture was increased by adding water until itreached 65%. A local method was developed for determination of moisture.In this method moisture was determined by passing a handful mixture. Ifthere was no water run off and the material stayed in form indicates that themoisture content was around 65%.Preparation and culture of spawn packetThe spawn packets were prepared separately with each type substrate.Polyethylene bag 22.5 cm X 30 cm size was filled with prepared substrateand packed tightly. Then spawn packets were prepared as described in thepreparation of mother culture. Then two tea spoonfuls of prepared motherculture media containing mycelia was placed through the hole of eachpacket. The inoculated packets were again plugged and covered properly.The inoculated packets were kept on iron rack in an incubation room at roomtemperature (25°C - 30°C) and relative humidity 65 – 70%. Myceliumrunning rate of each type of substrates was observed after 10 days ofinoculation. The data were recorded in every one day interval. Time spentfrom 17 to 38 days to complete mycelium running all over the substrate of
  42. 42. all kinds. After completion of mycelium running spawn packets wereopened. Two ends opposite to each other of the upper position of the plasticbag were opened with a blade by removing plastic sheet in ‘D’ shape afterwhich the opened surface substrate was scraped slightly with a tea spoon forremoving the thin whitish mycelial layer. Then the spawn packets weresoaked in water for 15 minutes and invested to remove excess water foranother 15 minutes. The packets were placed separately side by side on thefloor of the culture house.Harvesting of mushroomThe first primordia appear 2-4 days after scratching depending upon types ofsubstrate, which were recorded. The harvesting date also varied dependingupon types of substrate. Matured mushroom identified by curl margin of thecap was harvested by twisting to uproot from the base. Mushroom maturedgenerally 48 hours after appearing the primordia. Data were recordedperiodically during culture.CONCLUSIONConsidering the yield and cost benefit ratio, Mango sawdust and Shirissawdust based substrates were found to be suitable for growing mushroomP. flabellatus commercially. Further research program using combination oftwo or more type of substrates for growing Mushroom, the P. flabellatus isin progress.
  43. 43. REFERENCESAhmed, S. 1998. Performance of different substrates on the growth and yieldof Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus sajorcaju(Fr.) Sing. M.S. thesis, Department of Horticulture. Institute of postgraduatestudies in Agriculture, Salna,Gazipur, Bangladesh.Bhatti, M.A. 1987. Effect of different bedding materials on relative yield ofOyster Mushroom in the successiveflushes. Pakistan J. of Agriculture Res. 8(3): 256-259Gupta, R.S. 1986. Mushroom Cultivation, Indian Horticulture. 31 (1): 1Rafique, A. N. 1996. Studies on the Cultivation of Mushroom Pleurotusspecies in Gujarat. Ph. D. Thesis,Department of Microbiology. M.G. Science Institute, Navrangpura,Ahmedabad, India.Wood, D.A. and J.F. Smith. 1987. The Cultivation of Mushroom. In essaysin agricultural and food microbiologyeditor by Norris J.R. and Pettipher G.L. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. pp 310-343World Bank. 1992. World development report. Oxford University Press, Inc.New York.
  44. 44. References:1. Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims, M. Blackwell. 1996. IntroductoryMycology. John Wiley & Sons, USA.2. Beg, Q.K., M. Kapoor, L. Mahajan, G.S. Hoondal. 2004. Microbialxylanases and their industrial applications: a review. Appl. Microbiol. andBiotech. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg.
  45. 45. 3. Gow N. & Gadd G.M. (Eds)(1995) The Growing Fungus. Chapman Hall,London.References1) S.D. Aust, Degradation of environmental pollutants by phanerochaete-chrysosporium. Microbial Ecol 20:197-204. (1990)2) J.A.Bumpus, S.D.Aust, Biodegradation of environmental pollutants bythe white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium: involvement of thelignin degrading system. BioEssays 6:166-170 (1987)3) R.L. Crawford Lignin biodegradation and transformation. New York:John Wiley, (1981)4) N.Capalash, and P. Sharma, Biodegradation of textile azo dyes byPhanerochaete chrysosporium. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 8: 309-312.(1992)5) M. Freitag, and J. J. Morell, Decolorization of the polymeric dye Poly R-478 by wood-inhabiting fungi. Can. J. Microbiol. 38: 811-822. (1992)6) E. Gogna, R. Vohra, and P. Sharma, Biodegradation of Rose Bengal byPhanerochaete chrysosporium. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 14: 58-60. (1992)7) Paszczynski, V.B. Huynh, and R.L. Crawford, Comparison of ligninase-1and peroxidase M-2 from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaetechrysosporium. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 244: 750-765. (1986)8) T.L.Highley, Appl Environ Microbiol, 40:1145-1147. (1980)9) W. Zhou and W. Zimmermann, Decolorization of industrial effluentscontaining reactive dyes by actinomycetes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 107: 157-162. (1993)10) J.G.Leahy, R.R.Colwell, Microbiol Rev, 54:305-15. (1990)ReferencesGow N. & Gadd G.M. (Eds)(1995) The Growing Fungus. Chapman Hall,London.
  46. 46. Pitt J.I. & Hocking A.D. (2009) Fungi and Food Spoilage (3rd edit).Springer.Wainwright M. (1992) An Introduction to Fungal Biotechnology. Wiley,Chichester.

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