Introduction to TQM

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Introduction to TQM

  1. 1. Total Quality Management (TQM) Presented By Dr.Mazen Abdel Aziz Maswady PhD Business Administration NAFEES INTERNATIONAL CONSULTING AND TRAINING Email:mazenmaswadey@gmail.com Amman-Jordan 05/30/10
  2. 2. WELCOME TO TQM PROGRAM 05/30/10
  3. 3. Total Quality Management (TQM) <ul><li>Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Define and discussing Management Process and its Applications on Quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Concepts & Evolution of TQM. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Quality Management Philosophies, Elements & Models. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Total Quality Management (TQM) Implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing selected Quality Approaches and Tools. </li></ul>05/30/10
  4. 4. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) PROGRAM <ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Management Process and its Applications on Quality. </li></ul><ul><li>TQM Concepts & Evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Quality Management Philosophies. Elements & Models. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Quality Management (TQM) Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Approaches and Tools </li></ul>05/30/10
  5. 5. Total Quality Management <ul><li>“ Human Civilization Requires Political Leadership for its Organization ” </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn Khaldoun “ The Muqaddimah ” , </li></ul><ul><li>13 th Century </li></ul>05/30/10
  6. 6. 05/30/10 Quality is a Long Journey, not a Destination
  7. 7. Total Quality Management <ul><li>CHAPTER I </li></ul><ul><li>Management Process and its Applications on Quality. </li></ul>05/30/10
  8. 8. WE WANT TO BE PIONEERS IN OFFERING QUALITY PRODUCT OR SERVICE AS PRODUCT OR SERVICE MAKERS 05/30/10 Total Quality Management
  9. 9. Management as Phenomenon <ul><li>Management phenomenon is considered as a unique distinguished phenomenon, and perceived as independent field from other fields of knowledge and humanities disciplines, that is absolutely a contemporary phenomenon. It is emergence have been recognized since more than a century. It is distinguished social phenomenon different from other phenomena. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality NEW APPROACH
  10. 10. Challenges in Management <ul><li>Globali zation </li></ul><ul><li>New A ge – Information; Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of services and products </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  11. 11. <ul><li>Drill #1: PRETEST </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the following management functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Directing </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  12. 12. Management Process and its Applications on Quality <ul><li>First Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Management is a phenomenon and is not just merely a process or tool or method or activity or task or system, it is a social phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Social phenomenon is a form of behavioral patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Idea: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management is a rational humanistic phenomenon; it should represent its existence and dynamic movement in a rational image. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wherever there is more demand and need for management, the result will be increment in its importance and more conceptualizations are needed and deep rational thinking and scientific preparation is required for projects to be undertaken and executed. </li></ul></ul>05/30/10
  13. 13. Management Process and its Applications on Quality <ul><li>Third Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Management function is different from executive function; work (Implementation of Work), management function is not execution of works. Management function or behavior is preparing for implementation of executive work; management function is a prerequisite to executive work. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Management is proceeding to and preparing to executive work and management function is not an execution function. </li></ul>05/30/10
  14. 14. Levels of Management <ul><li>Top level </li></ul><ul><li>( Strategic level ) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle level </li></ul><ul><li>( Tactical level ) </li></ul><ul><li>First level </li></ul><ul><li>( Operations level ) </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  15. 15. <ul><li>Fourth Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Management or management behavior in represented in main functions and related functions, forming management functions. Most important functions are planning, organizing, direction, coordinating, staffing, control finance. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a big difference between management functions and organization function. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  16. 16. 05/30/10 (Matrix of Management Functions and Organization Functions) Management Process and its Applications on Quality Organization Functions Management Functions Quality Function Human Resource Function MIS Function Marketing Function Production Function Financing Staffing Coordinating Directing Organizing Planning Management Functions = = = = Planning Organizing Directing Coordinating Staffing Controlling
  17. 17. <ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Any function of organization functions including management functions are subject to management function: i.e. planning function is subject to planning, organizing function is subject to planning, control is subject to planning, or organizing etc. and all organization functions such as production, marketing etc are subjected to management functions. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Production planning, quality planning, organizing quality activities, staffing for quality activities, coordinate quality activities, and quality control. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  18. 18. <ul><li>Fifth Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>The supreme objective of management or its crucial purpose is achieving management effectiveness i.e. management science is the science of effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of management? </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of management is to accomplish clear and defined knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we achieve effectiveness? </li></ul><ul><li>We can achieve effectiveness by realizing the following: </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  19. 19. <ul><li>First: Achieve Sufficiency: </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving defined or required objectives; goals; within defined or required conditions as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Timely / right time. </li></ul><ul><li>Right place </li></ul><ul><li>Right quality of inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Right quantity of inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Right specifications of inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Right standards of inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Right cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Right person for the task, i.e. task matching staff competencies and skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Right Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Right quality and quantity of machines, tools, and materials. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  20. 20. <ul><li>Sufficiency: Accomplishing defined or required objectives, according to the required or defined conditions, conforming with the right time, place, quantity, quality and costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Second: Achieving Efficiency : </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency means achieving defined or required objectives in any kind or form of improvement or modification of any conditions or developments, in one or in all required conditions such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency : reducing defined time for achievement, as will it's not affecting other conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency : increasing quantity of the achieved output, as will it's not affecting other conditions; such as quantity of inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency : improving quality of the achieved product, as will as it's not affecting other conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Increasing employee productivity by improving his/her skills, decreasing waiting time for the customers. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  21. 21. <ul><li>Efficiency : Decreasing costs, as will as it's not affecting other conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Standardize our materials without affecting its quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency A term denoting to the relationship between outputs and inputs. It requires generating higher outputs as related to inputs. It means enhancing productivity, i.e. less rework, less errors and optimal use of resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality enhance productivity (Efficiency) cost containment Increase in profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stay in business. </li></ul></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  22. 22. <ul><li>Third: Achieving Effectiveness : </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving objectives, by accomplishing sufficiency and efficiency and considering other requirements or conditions as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Linking and synchronizing organization's objectives or management objectives with objectives of subordinates, staff, supervised by the manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Notion: Successful leader; manager is so keen to link his subordinates objectives, with his objectives and his/her organization objectives i.e. unifying all objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Linking and synchronizing organization objectives, departments objectives and community to be served objectives . </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  23. 23. <ul><li>Realizing community to be served objectives, organization objectives, and enhancing unification of objectives of all partners is the stepping stone for existence, sustainability and continuous improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Perpetuating creation, innovation is guaranteeing excellence and going steady to a promising future. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: Management or management process or management behavior is governed by a high value, i.e. achieving sufficiency, efficiency, and ultimately effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: Bridging the gap between the society's purposes and the organizational and human resources objectives in the organization & perpetuating innovation ;creation and maintaining continuous improvement in the organization. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  24. 24. <ul><li>Sixth Idea: Management or management functions are concerned with individuals, groups, things, living things, thoughts, self, time organizations, units, functions, and is not merely related with one element. </li></ul><ul><li>Management could be applied on time, self, knowledge, things, functions, or services. Therefore, management is called time management, marketing management, production management etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Could we apply management on quality? </li></ul><ul><li>Management is not knowledge only? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a skill of implementing knowledge@ </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  25. 25. <ul><li>Applying Management on Quality </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality Organization Objectives Functions of the Organization (Production, Marketing etc) Management Functions: Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing, Controlling Things | People | Knowledge| Self | Time | Quality
  26. 26. <ul><li>Drill: #2 </li></ul><ul><li>Write down management functions and apply function son quality in your department. </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback will be from the trainer. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  27. 27. <ul><li>Seventh Idea: What is the outcome of management concept? </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Conclusion: By abstracting all previous thoughts, concepts we can conceptualize management concept as follow </li></ul><ul><li>Management: It is a rational social phenomenon based on planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, staffing, and control principles. Aiming to facilitate individuals and people to establish their organizations and projects for accomplishing their objectives and the organization's purposes efficiently and effectively, it could be a process or a system or a behavior. It can be applied to people, things, ideas, and on any activity or function such as quality. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  28. 28. <ul><li>MANAGEMENT is a humanistic rational phenomenon based on planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, staffing, and controlling functions aiming to facilitate people to establish and manage their organizations, departments, and projects, in an efficient and effective manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing Management in a different perspective: </li></ul><ul><li>When we want to understand this concept in a discrete way, we are viewing management in different views:: </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing management as behavior: </li></ul><ul><li>Directing: Leading – Influencing </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating – Shared connected thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating – Retaining people & enhancing their quality of work. Or organization behavior </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  29. 29. <ul><li>Viewing management as a system: </li></ul><ul><li>If we look at management as a system, we can conclude that organization system is based upon planning, organizing, staffing, controlling etc. for accomplishing and realizing effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing management as a process: </li></ul><ul><li>We can conclude that management process is a process which results from interaction and interlocking of management system different elements in any organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover integration of management system, with technical system in such an organization is based on management functions, planning, organizing, staffing, etc, aiming to empower and facilitate organization performce and its overall functions (production, marketing, material management, information system, knowledge, for accomplishing its objectives and outcomes efficiency and effectively. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  30. 30. 05/30/10 Quality and Organization Functions Management Process and its Applications on Quality Materials Management MIS Knowledge Finance HR Production Marketing Quality Management
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Elements of Management Process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management process is an explanation of interaction of management system components, which leads to practicing management functions, substantially, the interaction of management system that leads to finalize planning function, we can characterize this function as a planning process and if it leads to accomplishing organizing function, we can characterize this function as organizing process, etc. </li></ul></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  32. 32. General External Environment 05/30/10 Management and Organization Direct Environment Indirect Environment Management Process and its Applications on Quality Task External Environment
  33. 33. An Open System and its Subsystems 05/30/10 Input Transformation Process Output Products and Services Environment People Raw materials Information Financial resources Boundary spanning Boundary spanning Production , maintenance, adoption, management Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  34. 34. 05/30/10 <ul><li>Management System Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Management system components that contribute to building system of the organization and its interacting components are various and abundant, such components are related to two main resources: </li></ul><ul><li>External environment: Two Environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macroenvironment (General Environment) is having an indirect effect on organization it represents: economic, cultural, ecologic, technological, legal, and spiritual etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microenvironment; direct environment (Task Environment): </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This environment is affecting organizations directly. It includes competitors, technology, new entrants, competitive products, regulatory bodies, government, regulations, etc. </li></ul>Management Process and its Applications on Quality
  35. 35. <ul><ul><li>2. Internal Environment: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization's internal environment is including the following components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Structure: infrastructure, materials, buildings, money etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Human components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management staff. and Technical staff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Integrate, synchronize, connect and harmonize all elements in a unified system . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Quality + Right Structure + Quality Technology + Right Task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate Right Competent Person with Right Task with Right Structure with Right Quality Technology leads to: Quality in Overall Performance </li></ul></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and it Applications on Quality
  36. 36. <ul><li>D. Sociocultural component of an organization: Philosophy, organization culture, mission, vision, values, beliefs, traditions, attitudes, and spiritual elements all these elements are connecting all elements in the organization in a unified system. </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and it Applications on Quality
  37. 37. <ul><li>Quality management as a problem solving process: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality management is a systematic problem solving process? </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul>05/30/10 Management Process and it Applications on Quality
  38. 38. Management Process and its Applications on Quality <ul><li>The Rational Model P.S of Decision Making </li></ul>05/30/10 Consists of a structured four-step sequence * identifying the problem * generating alternative solutions * selecting a solution * implementing and evaluating the solution
  39. 39. Problem Solving - Roadmap 05/30/10 Problem Identification Analysis & Solution Design Solution Implementation DIAGNOSTIC Activity REMEDIAL Activity
  40. 40. How are decisions made in organizations? <ul><li>Steps in systematic decision making. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the problem or opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define or identify the problem or opportunity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and analyze alternative courses of action, and estimate their effects on the problem or opportunity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a preferred course of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement the preferred course of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the results and follow up as necessary. </li></ul></ul>05/30/10
  41. 41. QUALITY MANAGEMENT AS A DECISION MAKING PROCESS (DMP): 05/30/10 PROPLEM SOLVING PROCESS (PS) INVOLVING (DMP)
  42. 42. QUALITY MANAGEMENT AS A DECISION MAKING PROCESS (DMP): <ul><li>DMP and Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making Process (DMP) As related to quality function </li></ul>05/30/10 Staffing Quality Activities Coordinating Quality Activities Directing Quality Activities Controlling Quality Activities Planning Quality Activities Organizing Quality Activities DMP
  43. 43. QUALITY MANAGEMENT AS A DECISION MAKING PROCESS (DMP): 05/30/10 Quality of our DMP & Effectiveness Planning DMP Orgainzing Staffing Dircting Coordinating Controlling Effctiveness of Overall Performance Dynamic Orgnizational Equilibrium DMP Decision Making Process DMP External Environment External Environment
  44. 44. QUALITY MANAGEMENT AS A DECISION MAKING PROCESS (DMP): <ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of our decision making process (DMP) affect quality of our management functions and quality of our performance in realizing dynamic balance in any organization and achieving overall effectiveness. </li></ul>05/30/10

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