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Bomb threat sop

Bomb threat sop

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    Bomb threat sop Bomb threat sop Document Transcript

    • Shopping Centre Security Initiative Bomb Threat SOP 1 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • Bomb Threats in Shopping Centres Contents 1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 3 2. Motives Behind Bomb Threats........................................................................................................ 4 3. Device Placement............................................................................................................................ 4 4. Proactive measures ......................................................................................................................... 5 5. Telephonic Bomb Threats ............................................................................................................... 6 6. Threat Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 6 7. Emergency Information and procedures ........................................................................................ 9 8. Bomb Threat Search and Evacuation Guidelines .......................................................................... 10 8.1 The Role of the SAPS ................................................................................................................... 10 8.2 Contacts ..................................................................................................................................... 10 8.3 Prior to a bomb threat being received........................................................................................ 10 8.4 When a bomb threat is received: ............................................................................................... 11 8.5 Search guidelines: ....................................................................................................................... 11 8.6 Security Control Room Actions ................................................................................................... 12 8.7 Management actions .................................................................................................................. 12 8.8 Occupant search team actions.................................................................................................... 13 8.9 Evacuation ................................................................................................................................... 13 8.8.1 Evacuation Process .................................................................................................................. 14 8.9 Additional actions during written bomb threat .......................................................................... 16 8.10 Bomb Explosion......................................................................................................................... 16 9. BOMB THREAT FORM ................................................................................................................... 17 Annexure A – Flow chart ....................................................................................................................... 18 2 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • 1. Introduction Potential bombing incidents constitute a serious threat to employees, customers, assets, operations and facilities whether the motive is found in extortion, assault or an act of terror. This threat area has taken on relevance and is increasingly prevalent today for a number of reasons including:  Tremendous advances of technology in the area of explosives and devices with the development and mass production of advanced electronics, plastics, and explosive materials.  Materials necessary to construct a very powerful device are readily available from a wide variety of common sources.  Within our right to the freedom of speech can be found all the information that is required to take this technology, and materials, and build an operational explosive device.  Increased availability of information via "underground" publications and the Internet.  With the exposure and media promotion of bombing events also lead to the need for potentially unstable individuals to express themselves in a "copycat" fashion. It is now possible for just about anyone to construct a sophisticated explosive or incendiary device, which is extremely powerful, difficult to detect and disarm, and small enough to be easily carried and concealed. Following an event, the investigation and successful prosecution of bombers is very difficult as the modern weapon literally destroys most of the physical evidence that was often left by the older and more primitive devices. Without the assurance of a quick and effective investigation and prosecution, much of the deterrent value of the criminal justice system is lost. The bomb threat of today has credibility and should not be taken lightly as no one is immune to these kinds of acts. 3 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • 2. Motives Behind Bomb Threats The two main reasons for a bomb threat could be: A) A person knows about the bomb and wants to minimise injury, thus a warning is issued. B) To create confusion and panic because they are:  A disgruntled employee or someone that has recently been dismissed.  Employees that are trying to get out of work early.  Someone with a personal vendetta against someone that works at a centre.  Wanting to create confusion or distraction in order to commit another crime.  Wanting to force people depositing large sums of money at a bank out of the bank with their cash in hand in order to rob them.  As an act of industrial sabotage to divert customers elsewhere or cause loss of income to competitors. 3. Device Placement The options available to a thoughtful attacker for effective placement of a device are numerous. With the wide range of explosives available, a bomb can be placed anywhere and look like any everyday item. Generally placement can be accomplished in any of a number of ways including:  on the person, e.g. an employee, visitor, vendor or maintenance person,  within a box, purse, briefcase, lunch box,  placed inside boxes on shelves,  under counters,  in drawers,  Via a commercial carrier, private delivery service, or the postal services. 4 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • 4. Proactive measures The level of confidence with which any bomb threat can accurately be evaluated lies in direct proportion to the degree of security and access control that is exerted regarding a given facility. With an atmosphere of lax protection comes the opportunity the attacker seeks and likewise the inability to control the situation and to evaluate a bomb threat accurately. However, having an adequate security presence offers a high proactive value, and the ability to better define such an emergency situation when time is short and the pressure is on. There are a number of steps that businesses and centres can take prior to receiving a bomb threat that will help protect staff, customers and property. These include:  Have an emergency evacuation plan in place for the facility, with copies posted in key locations.  Regularly review the plan and ensure the plan is kept up to date.  Response policies and procedures should be developed.  A crisis management team should be designated.  At a minimum and in any size organization, employee involvement is the key to prevention. Employees should receive awareness training on the topic of bomb threats and extortion.  Consider having a voice recorder attached to all main telephone lines to record calls.  Have telephones with caller identification displays for all main telephone numbers.  Keep a “Telephone Bomb Threat Checklist” at all main telephones (Bomb Threat Form)  Higher risk areas, such a data processing facilities, utility and storage rooms, loading docks, parking structures, etcetera should be reasonably secured using adequate lock and key, access control, alarm, lighting and surveillance systems, and guard applications.  Consult with local law enforcement and fire officials.  Practice good “housekeeping”, including: o Designated central location for all incoming deliveries. o Implementing an “expected packages” list for all incoming deliveries. 5 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • o Collapsing all boxes once a delivery has been received and unpacked. o Do not leave boxes or packing material in hallways or outside of doors. o If something must be left in a hallway (such as for pickup by someone else), include the supplier’s name, the department’s name and the pickup person’s name on the package, as well as a telephone number that can be called should the item be reported as suspicious. o Limit access to individual offices and keep doors closed and locked when the office is not occupied. o Encourage all users of common spaces to keep these areas clean and tidy and to report any suspicious items immediately. 5. Telephonic Bomb Threats Bomb threats are usually received by telephone, the call is short in duration, and the caller usually refuses to answer questions. Should there really be a bomb, the general rule is that the caller will attempt to prove it to very quickly. In a "real situation" supporting information will be presented which would add to the caller’s credibility. Vague descriptions without specific and verifiable information indicates that there is probably no actual device. The caller will rely upon the inability of the recipient to determine the veracity of the threat statement. The caller will secondly rely upon the inability to conduct an effective search of the facility in a very short period. If the caller can accomplish both of these objectives, he will place the organisation in a state of confusion and panic which is most likely what the intent is. Being prepared will contribute to responding in calm manner, requesting specific information about the bomb and sensitivity for identifying characteristics of the caller. 6. Threat Analysis Is it a real threat situation, or not? To conduct a search or not? To evacuate or not? Each of these decisions obviously carries a very serious question of safety and potential significant impact on business. The validity of the threat has to be determined with limited information and time on hand and the response to the situation will be totally dependent upon the evaluation results. 6 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • Proper preplanning and training are critical to this risk management process as the threat has to be analysed quickly, estimate the need for accurate response, decide upon the most logical direction to take, and then execute the plan. Response will involve the following three continuous and related, but also distinct steps: First: Analysis of the threat, and estimate of the need for response. Second: Decision of the logical response to follow. Third: Implementing the response decisions within the allowed time frame. Each of these steps will require different skills and information, and will involve different people, working both together and independently. Based upon the available information, answers to the following questions are pertinent in the assessment, even if the answer involves an assumption. 1) How credible is the threat? Is there a history of actual bomb explosions previously at the centre or is there a history of many bomb threats and no actual bombs? Has tangible information and evidence been provided that strongly indicates that an actual device is involved, or does an anonymous caller simply state that "There is a bomb in your facility." and quickly hang up? 2) What is the proper response?  Ignore the threat or warning and simply keep it in mind for future reference?  Have several employees conduct a low profile and limited search of a specific area?  Conduct an in-house search of the entire facility?  Notify the public authorities and involve them in your efforts?  Order a general evacuation of the facility? 7 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • A subjective judgement must be made regarding the degree of credibility or dependability that can be placed upon the information that has been received. A good rule to follow is: What would an ordinarily prudent person do under the circumstances, and in a position of responsibility if confronted with this problem? The decision on how to respond will a) have to be made and b) can only be a judgement call influenced by the amount of information that is available at that time. Is the nature of the threat as such that is it apparent that there is no immediate danger, or conversely, is it possible that there could be an actual danger? 8 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • 7. Emergency Information and procedures 1. Contacts In the event of an emergency it is important that all tenants know who and which numbers to call i.e. the Public safety control room, Security control room and/ or Security Office. 2. Security Function The public security force, employed by the centre, should be available to assist the tenants and public at all times. They must be adequately trained in emergency first aid and fire fighting and familiar with evacuation procedures of the centre. 3. Emergency Procedures It is important that all tenants and their staff are aware of the procedures to be followed in the event of a bomb threat to ensure the safety of staff and customers. In any emergency situation the tenants should have the necessary numbers available of centre security offices and contact them immediately clearly stating their shop name, number and emergency. The Centre security should in turn contact the emergency services immediately. 4. Emergency Exits All centres should have adequate emergency exits which are kept clear of rubbish and boxes. All tenants need to be aware of the closest exit to their shop. Emergency evacuation practices should be held regularly. Confirm each store is aware of the holding areas assigned to them. Each store should have a complete list of employees which should be forwarded to public safety with the shop name and number so all staff may be accounted for in an emergency. 9 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • 8. Bomb Threat Search and Evacuation Guidelines The following is a guide of best practices which will help to record the details of bomb threat received by telephone and deal with the situation accordingly. 8.1 The Role of the SAPS It is important to keep the lines of communication between the centre and the local police station open so that when there is an emergency the correct person may be contacted. If the police feel they need the specialist bomb squad they will contact them directly. The SAPS will search the centre but will only advise whether it is safe to commence trading. The SAPS will not decide whether to evacuate or return to the centre. That decision remains centre managements decision. 8.2 Contacts (Ensure you have contact information for the following): Line Manager / Supervisor: _________________________________________________ Alternate: __________________________________________________ Centre security control room:___________________________________ In the event of a bomb threat or bomb explosion contact the centre security control room immediately. 8.3 Prior to a bomb threat being received  Ensure there is a checklist near all phones.  Ensure Emergency numbers are near all phones.  Access and egress controls are enforced to all restricted areas at all times.  All areas must ensure a high level of overall housekeeping. 10 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • 8.4 When a bomb threat is received:  Listen carefully and write everything down.  Remain calm and courteous.  Do not interrupt the caller.  Obtain as much information as possible as per attached Bomb Threat Form.  Initiate call trace action (if available) while the call is ongoing.  Record the conversation if possible.  Take note of which line the call came in on in order to access phone records to obtain the number of the perpetrator.  Using a pre-arranged signal, notify a supervisor while the call is still ongoing. The supervisor should contact the public safety control room.  Complete the Bomb Threat Form attached and give it to the supervisor.  If specific location of possible bomb is given, it is recommended that the area be cordoned off.  Contact public safety control room immediately.  Open doors and windows.  Look out for suspect objects, parcels etc. in the immediate work place.  Should any be found, do not touch and inform security.  Vacate if necessary and wait for professional assistance. 8.5 Search guidelines: When it appears appropriate and it is evident that there is sufficient time, a preliminary search of the facility and grounds could be made prior to making final decisions regarding evacuation. However, searches should only be conducted if this can be accomplished in a safe manner. If it can be accomplished with a high margin of safety, employees, due to their familiarity with the building, may be able to conduct a search much more quickly than the public authorities unless a specially trained bomb search dog is available. 11 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • The objective of such a search is to quickly seek out items or objects, which are foreign to the environment. When the authorities arrive and/or there is more time, a more thorough search can then be accomplished. Remember, a bomb need not look like a bomb. If an unusual or foreign object is in fact encountered, under no circumstances should it be touched, tampered with or moved. In this event, immediately evacuate the area and notify the authorities of the finding, and then follow their instructions exactly as they will now take authority given the danger to the public that may exist. Check list when conducting a search:  Notify supervisor immediately if there is anything suspicious.  Do not assume that there is the only one bomb.  Search immediate area.  Do not touch anything - report any suspicious objects.  Unlock drawers, cabinets, etc. for the search crew and identify any strange or unfamiliar objects. 8.6 Security Control Room Actions  Open and maintain a diary of events.  Inform management  Alert the first aid personnel  On receipt of a bomb threat the police must be informed of all instances immediately.  Information of similar threats and the outcome must be supplied.  Record all decisions especially evacuation or not and communicate to all persons on duty. 8.7 Management actions  See flow diagram ( Annexure A) that will assist in the decision making.  In all bomb threats an occupant search (See below) is recommended as a minimum.  The police in conjunction with management must decide whether to evacuate (either partial or complete) based on results from occupant or team search. 12 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • 8.8 Occupant search team actions  This involves a rapid search carried out by supervisors and/or Health and Safety Representatives. It must be persons who are familiar with the area and who would be able to readily identify suspicious objects.  Each search team must be allotted a clearly specified area to ensure full coverage. Areas allocated to Health and safety representatives can be used as a basis.  It is advantageous to work in pairs when searching.  If there are reasonable grounds for believing that the bomb threat is genuine, delay in evacuation must not be occasioned by searching.  Any suspicious article found must not be touched or disturbed in any way.  Mark the position of the suspicious article and report to the security control centre immediately.  Before evacuation open all doors and windows.  Search teams must search evacuation routes first before evacuation is ordered. 8.9 Evacuation When the decision is made to evacuate either several floors of a larger building, or an entire facility due to a bomb threat, extreme care must be taken to not cause panic among employees and customers. If panic begins, and takes over, the potential for serious personal injury and property damage increases dramatically. It is imperative that personnel maintain their discipline, evacuate the facility in a calm manner, and proceed to an area where they will not be at risk. Do not allow anyone to run, or rush in the stairwells. Crowd panic can turn a minor emergency into a deadly situation. If within the minds of the people present in the facility, an emergency does exist, the authority to act should be vested in the highest titled person present, e.g. manager. This chain of authority should begin at the official levels and continue down via the managers and supervisors. When using pre-recorded messages ensure this message will not cause panic amongst customers. Phrases such as “the centre is experiencing an emergency, kindly evacuate the building immediately” is advised. 13 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • THE FINAL DECISION TO EVACUATE OR NOT IS A MANAGEMENT DECSISION  The decision to evacuate must be based upon an objective evaluation of the threat at hand and the merits of remaining within the building, verses leaving it with safety as the prime objective.  Admit only authorised persons to premises.  If area was evacuated ensure area is searched by police dog unit (explosive detection).  Direct re-entry only when cleared by police or other authority. 8.8.1 Evacuation Process The total nature of the emergency should determine how the situation will be executed. Available time and resources will determine who makes what decisions, and in what order. Once an evacuation is deemed to be appropriate, there will be a variety of tasks to perform including:  Contact the public safety control room before evacuating.  Do not attempt to evacuate on your own as this may lead to chaos and confusion.  Wait for professional assistance.  Remain calm and stick to a plan.  Do not run, walk swiftly.  Follow the instructions of supervisor.  Take personal property such as briefcase, purse and lunch container with you.  Communicating in a quick and accurate fashion the nature of the situation to the occupants of the facility.  Maintaining order, giving directions, and assuring safety as people begin leaving the facility.  Securing valuables and assets in a quick and efficient manner.  Ensuring that everyone leaves the building and is then accounted for at a pre-designated assembly location.  Maintaining communications between management and the employees to advise on the nature of the situation, and progress.  Coordinating the effort with the public authorities. 14 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    •  Coordinating information sharing with the various news media personnel who may also arrive.  Do not use the elevators. If there is a problem, the riders can become trapped in them. Secondly, the elevators must be available for the emergency workers to use.  Floors should be equipped with regulation EXIT doors, signs, emergency lighting systems, and posted floor evacuation plans.  Floor managers should be designated and trained as a part of the planning efforts. Employees should also be trained also regarding the location of their primary and secondary EXIT routes.  When announcing an evacuation, use "soft" words. For instance, it would be much better to say that, "We have a possible problem in the building and would like to ask you to leave your work area for a few minutes while the situation is further evaluated", than it would be to announce that, "There is a bomb in the building, so please evacuate quickly."  The behaviour of management will set the tone. Notify employees and customers in a manner that will not incite panic, and be certain to check out of the way places such as rest and storage rooms, basement and parking areas, etcetera.  Evacuated employees should assemble away from the facility, and a head count conducted to account for all personnel. To accomplish this will also require pre-planning.  When leaving the building, employees should be alerted regarding emergency equipment that may be arriving at the location.  Leave the doors to the building unlocked but assure that people do not approach or enter the building until the situation has been resolved.  Wait for assistance from the public authorities, and re-enter the building only upon their direction. During an emergency, time is limited. Pre-planning for emergency conditions is critical to the effectiveness of any self-protection program. 15 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • 8.9 Additional actions during written bomb threat  Record time of receipt and method immediately.  If hand delivered record description of messenger (If possible)  Handle envelope and letter as little as possible.  Immediately place item in a clean clear plastic bag.  Notify security control room and management as above 8.10 Bomb Explosion  Do not move around the area of explosion.  Wait for professional assistance.  Help customers, children, injured and disabled. 16 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • 9. BOMB THREAT FORM LISTEN CAREFULLY – BE COURTEOUS – DO NOT INTERRUPT – DO NOT TRANSFER KEEP THE CALLER TALKING – ASK QUESTIONS 1. What time will the bomb go off? ________________________________________ 2. What kind of bomb is it? ______________________________________________ 3. What does the bomb look like? _________________________________________ 4. Where is the bomb? __________________________________________________ 5. Why did you place the bomb? ___________________________________________ 6. Where are you calling from? ____________________________________________ 7. What is your name? ___________________________________________________ MARK THE FOLLOWING WHERE APPLICABLE: IDENTITY ORIGIN OF CALL LANGUAGE ACCENT Male Local English English Female Long distance Afrikaans Afrikaans Adult Phone Booth Other Foreign Juvenile/Child Internal BACKGROUND MANNER SPEECH VOICE Machines Calm Fast Loud Faxes/Office Angry Slow Soft Siren Laughing Clear High Music Self Righteous Distorted Raspy Voices Rational Stutter Aircraft Irrational Nasal Other Trains Lisp Traffic Intoxicated Party Noise Did the caller appear to be familiar with complex? __________________________________ COMMENTS: ________________________________________________________________ NAME: ___________________________SIGNATURE:________________________________ TIME: ____________________________ DATE: ____________________________________ DURATION OF CALL: _______________________WHICH LINE DID THE CALL COME IN ON: ________________ 17 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes
    • Annexure A – Flow chart SUSPICIOUS PACKAGE BOMB THREATS BOMB THREAT ASSESSMENT NOTIFY SAPS SEARCH EVACUATION ROUTE TIME LIMIT Yes No Yes EVACUATE SEARCH WITHOUT EVACUATION SEARCH/ INVESTIGATE EVACUATE IMMEDIATE AREA SAPS INVESTIGATES SUSPICIOUS PACKAGE No CLEAR No Yes RETURN TO STORE 18 The content contained in this document is restricted and not for distribution purposes